Thereare different reasons as to why Black Americans migrated to the Northcaused by various push and pulled factors. The push factors werelinked to South where there was a prevalent practice of slavery dueto large plantations which needed heavy labor, and the White-Americancould buy slaves to provide free labor. However, President AbrahamLincoln intervened and urged them to end slavery, but they were notwilling to stop. The slavery was a racial issue whereWhites-Americans exploited the Black -Americans because they sawblacks as inferior people. Thus, Black- Americans were moving toNorth secretly to free themselves from slavery and racialdiscrimination.
Duringthe civil war, Lincoln had recruited several black men to join thearmy, but these black soldiers were highly discriminated despitetheir contribution to the military union. After the Civil War andemancipation of the Black -Americans, some black people did not wantto stay at the same places where they were slaves, so they moved.However, those that remained experienced deprived economic conditionsdue to the failure of sharecropping as a result of imperfect marketsand pests invasion. As well, they continued to experience extendedracial oppression despite their freedom. Also, the South was ruralarea associated with poverty and poor wages as compared to the Northwhich was an urban area and therefore they migrated to freethemselves from the above challenges.
Onthe other hand, the pull factors were related to the North due to itsminimal practice of slavery, the good news of great earnings andliving settings published in the newspaper of African-American. Therewas increased demand for cheap labor due to increased factories andeffects of World War I. The Northern industrialists offered freetransport to Southern Black- Americas as well as low-cost housing toencourage them to migrate. They also paid higher wages than in South.So they migrated because the place promised many good thingsincluding improved working and lifestyles which made them view northas the Promised Land.
Theworking and living conditions of Black- Americans in North at thistime of migration was not that good as they were promised. Due tohigh movement, the conditions of life deteriorated because ofcongestions of people. They were segregated in ghettos, and 5 to 9people could live in a single room. The White-American in Northrefused to sell or rent their house to Black- Americans and thereforeblacks they ended up in ghettos. Due to these congestions Blackssuffered from various diseases which they could not afford to pay fortheir medical expenses and therefore some deaths could emerge fromthese conditions. The working conditions were also bad, difficult andrisky because they worked for long hours in foundries, factories, andslaughterhouses. The Black-Americans also received little pay(because they offered unskilled labor) compared to the amount of workthey did and the number of hours they spent working per day even ifthe pay in the North was more than in the South. However, AbrahamLincoln recognized the importance of black people in the country andrecruited some of them to the army which showed that some blacks wereinvolved in formal employment.
MarcusGarvey was a leader of an association of the Universal Negrodevelopment. He was born in Jamaica in 1887 and lived up to 1940. Hetried to unite all the black people in the world, but he gained mostpopularity in the US where he entered New York in 1916. At thisparticular time, he remarked that the northern expanding African-American community could gather wealthy and unite together to enddiscrimination in America and imperialism in Africa. Using ideas ofPan-Africanist and Booker’s economic nationalist and combining withurban styles and political possibilities of those blacks living outof colonialism and southern plantations, Garvey mobilized blacks’power to change the existing power structures. He also established acorporation for Negro factories to encourage trade between Africa andAmerica. However, due to his collisions with other organizations, hewas not able to fulfill his ambitions and was convicted, imprisonedand deported to Jamaica in 1927 and failed to continue with thecorporation.
BlackAmericans experienced the hardest times during the great depressioneven if they were used to hard times during the slavery period.Between 1920s-1930s the unemployment rate (more than 50%) was veryhigh for blacks. The economic hardships started in the south due toprice fall in all the crops. In the north, almost three-quarter ofblacks lost their jobs and those who retained received reduced pays.The whites Americans took most of the jobs (cooks, housekeepers,street cleaners, farm laborers among other dirty jobs belonging toblacks and other minorities) previously held by black Americans andthe whites could say that no jobs for blacks before all whitesobtained a job. Additionally, racial hostility against blacks becamewidespread particularly in the south where Lynching for the blackswas common.
TheUnited States went to war to respond to the consequences of theattack to the Hawaiians and the mainlanders. Similarly, themainlanders and the Hawaiians were benefited regarding security.Despite various treatments, both Hawaii and mainland were treated aspart of United States. As well, Roosevelt’s speech and successivefollow-ups were directed toward ensuring that Hawaiians andmainlanders they were close enough so that they could support the wardeclaration. The attack on Pearl Harbor especially the sinking of USSArizona had distinct consequences to the Hawaiians. There wereconsequences because the attack on USS Arizona was viewed as a directattack on the American people. Immediately after the attack, theFederal Government employed racism on Hawaiians which was not thecase with the mainlanders. Before the assault, the mainland wasviewed by Hawaiians as the different country. However, the connectionbetween the mainlanders and the Hawaiians increased. In Hawaii, manyrestrictions contrasted those of the mainlander. They includeImposition of martial law, restriction of press freedom, denial ofbasic democratic rights as well as restriction on primary commoditieslike gas and alcohol.
PresidentRoosevelt was responding to political and military pressures issuedorder 9066 that allowed the military to relocate Japanese-Americansto various centers. The relocated Japanese were referred to asinterns. Many of these internees were legal citizens of the UnitedStates. They were required to sell their properties including farms,businesses and while homes within a very short time. The Japaneselost freedom and most of their properties. As well, the propertiesthat managed to get buyers were bought at the offered prizes. Therewere harsh and disparaging conditions within internment camps.However, parents tried whatever they could to provide the proper lifeto their children. Schools were established, and gardens were plantedwhile other internees became laborers on the neighboring farms. Therewere demonstrations as the Japanese demanded fair treatment. Theindividuals who refused to work were made prisoners and sent tosegregation camps.
Ethnicgroups included Black Americans, Japanese, Hispanic, ChineseAmericans, Native American and Filipinos among others. Manyindividuals in the ethnic groups joined the military. These peoplewere accepted into the army and thus got a chance to free devastatingrural poverty. For instance, the black Americans were drafted toserve in the military in separate black regiments. Many JapaneseAmericans also fought in Europe against the Nazi. Others worked inindustries that produced military equipment while others worked inmilitary bases among other areas. However, there were the soldiersand other workers were still suffering prejudice and discrimination.There was no clear political will to counter such discriminatorytreatment. On return, they found that the United States governmenthad not granted them complete rights. Conversely, the war helpedexpand civil rights, decelerated prejudice, and discrimination. It isalso during the war period President Roosevelt issued order 8802 thatinitialized civil liberties. Although Roosevelt’s initiative wasnot successful in ending segregation in the military, it did enddiscrimination in defense industries.