Annotated Bibliography

ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY 7

AnnotatedBibliography

AnnotatedBibliography

Ascherio,A., Munger, K. L., &amp Simon, K. C. (2010). Vitamin D and multiplesclerosis. TheLancet Neurology, 9(6),599-612.

Theauthors of this journal discuss the relationship that exists betweennutrition and multiple sclerosis. The relationship had previouslybeen perceived as hypothetical. The study had formerly provided anexplanation about the geographical spread of multiple sclerosis. Thefindings of the study indicated that vitamin D had an impact onmultiple sclerosis by exerting protection on its progression.However, the research did not show the reasons behind the protectiveexertion process by vitamin D and its genetic modification. Thefindings were founded on the responses of the participants. The studyconsidered social factors as well as healthcare, lifestyle, andindependence. These factors played a key role in healthy aging. Theresearch did not cover all the factors. This article will form abasis for identifying and outlining the various factors thatinfluence the progression of multiple sclerosis.

Evans,C., Beland, S. G., Kulaga, S., Wolfson, C., Kingwell, E., Marriott,J., … &amp Dykeman, J. (2013). Incidence and prevalence ofmultiple sclerosis in the Americas: a systematic review.Neuroepidemiology,40(3), 195-210.

Thearticle examines the cases of multiple sclerosis in the UnitedStates. The study was limited to the south, north, and central partsof the United States. The popularity of the MS (multiple sclerosis)cases in the stated regions was also considered. The results did notshow homogeneity in the studies besides the stratification of thecountry. About half of the research was standardized, and thesituation made it impossible to make comparisons. More emphasis wasplaced on the northern part of America as opposed to the rest. It isevident from the study that the published information about theepidemiology of MS (multiple sclerosis) in the U.S. is inadequate.Therefore, epidemiology of multiple sclerosis forms an exciting areaof research since more information is needed. The missing gaps in thecomparisons of the study create the need to develop methods ofcontrast. The study will be integral in providing statisticsregarding multiple sclerosis to justify the need for further researchon the subject.

Finlayson,M. L., &amp Cho, C. C. (2011). A profile of support group uses andneed among middle-aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis.Journalof Gerontological Social Work, 54 (5),475-493.

Thisarticle analyzes the need for the group assistance to people withmultiple sclerosis. The MS (multiple sclerosis) people were groupedinto two major categories, which included individuals of the middleages and older adults. The authors compared the two categories ofpeople based on how they used group assistance. The factors thatrelated to their needs were also identified and examined. The studyfound that the most affected patients and the lonely women neededgroup assistance. The least affected people and those who stayed inthe urban areas seem not to appreciate group support since they neverparticipated in any. Therefore, in developing the various groups thatassist the MS (multiple sclerosis) people, a lot of care needs to betaken especially amongst the ones living in towns. The children andpossibly the youth were totally assumed in this study making theresults less accurate. This article offers evidence on the variousways of managing multiple sclerosis. It will also be integral indeveloping the literature review section.

Jennum,P., Wanscher, B., Frederiksen, J., &amp Kjellberg, J. (2012). Thesocioeconomic consequences of multiple sclerosis: A controllednational study. EuropeanNeuropsychopharmacology, 22(1), 36-43.

Thisarticle examines the possible socioeconomic effects of multiplesclerosis. The impacts of the MS are mostly negative and affect thepatients as well as the nation at large. The authors analyzed thecosts of healthcare as well as those indirectly related to thedisease. The findings revealed that the multiple sclerosis patientswho had most frequent visits to the hospitals were also unemployed.The consequences of multiple sclerosis affected the patients andsociety. The research was not conclusive since it only considered thesocial and the economic factors. The study did not consider theenvironmental factors creating room for further investigations. Otherscholars using a different methodological approach can also do thestudy. This article will help in identifying the factors that lead tothe development of multiple sclerosis as well as the consequences. Itwill help justify the need for further research.

Kayes,N. M., McPherson, K. M., Schluter, P., Taylor, D., Leete, M., &ampKolt, G. S. (2011). Exploring the facilitators and barriers toengagement in physical activity for people with multiple sclerosis.Disabilityand rehabilitation, 33(12), 1043-1053.

Theauthors discuss the relationship that exists between the variousvariables such as the cognitive conduct and the physical practicesdone by the individuals with multiple sclerosis. They usedquestionnaires to gather information about the possible obstacles tothe practices that promote health among the disabled people, multiplesclerosis patients, and self-capabilities for other long-termdiseases. The self-capabilities, potential hindrances to physicalpractice and the mental tiredness contributed significantly to thechanges in the physical activity. The changes were more compared tothe one caused by disease-related variables. The studied variableswere subjected to modifications and thus permit an avenue for furtherresearch. With the advancement in technology, the variables can bemodified to make various designs that can improve physical exercise.There is a gap between the beliefs of the physical activities done bythe people with multiple sclerosis. This article will be integral inidentifying the gaps for further research about multiple sclerosis.

Ploughman,M., Austin, M. W., Murdoch, M., Kearney, A., Fisk, J. D., Godwin, M.,&amp Stefanelli, M. (2012). Factors influencing healthy aging withmultiple sclerosis: A qualitative study. Disabilityand Rehabilitation, 34(1), 26-33.

Thisarticle identifies and analyzes the various factors that affect thehealthy aging individuals. The study by Ploughman et al. (2012) dealswith the older people with multiple sclerosis. The aim of analyzingthese factors is to develop a syllabus for the improvement of theindividual management programs on multiple sclerosis. The studyincluded people aged above 55. In their qualitative research, theauthors did not consider the people aged 55 and below. This articlewill be integral in building the literature review of the researchand lay the foundation for identifying research gaps.

References

Ascherio,A., Munger, K. L., &amp Simon, K. C. (2010). Vitamin D and multiplesclerosis.The Lancet Neurology, 9(6),599-612.

Evans,C., Beland, S. G., Kulaga, S., Wolfson, C., Kingwell, E., Marriott,J., &amp Dykeman, J. (2013). Incidence and prevalence of multiplesclerosis in the Americas: A systematic review. Neuroepidemiology,40(3),195-210.

Finlayson,M. L., &amp Cho, C. C. (2011). A profile of support group uses andneed among middle-aged and older adults with multiple sclerosis.Journalof Gerontological Social Work,54(5),475-493.

Kayes,N. M., McPherson, K. M., Schluter, P., Taylor, D., Leete, M., &ampKolt, G. S. (2011). Exploring the facilitators and barriers toengagement in physical activity for people with multiple sclerosis.Disabilityand Rehabilitation, 33(12),1043-1053.

Jennum,P., Wanscher, B., Frederiksen, J., &amp Kjellberg, J. (2012). Thesocioeconomic consequences of multiple sclerosis: A controllednational study. EuropeanNeuropsychopharmacology, 22(1),36-43.

Ploughman,M., Austin, M. W., Murdoch, M., Kearney, A., Fisk, J. D., Godwin, M.,&amp Stefanelli, M. (2012). Factors influencing healthy aging withmultiple sclerosis: a qualitative study. Disabilityand Rehabilitation, 34(1),26-33.

Annotated bibliography

Annotatedbibliography

Coryton,T. (2016). Sexual harassment and sexual violence in schools.EducationJournal,20-22.

Rahimi,R., &amp Liston, D. (2011). Race, class, and emerging sexuality:teacher perceptions and sexual harassment in schools. Genderand Education,799-810.

Coryton(2016) and Rahimi &amp Liston (2011) have both recognized sexualharassment as one of the trending issues in learning institutions.Coryton argues that the HCWEC (House of Commons Women and EqualitiesCommittee) has acknowledged that sexual harassment and violence asone of the trending issues in learning institutions. According tothe author, the committee has discovered that the increased access topornographic materials and technological innovations has exacerbatedcases of sexual violence in schools. The author reported that thecommittee urged the learning institutions and the government to takethe issue of sexual harassment serious and put in place measures tomitigate it. According to the author, the Committee has stressed thatbesides amending the current guidance, new legislation made to ensurethat tackling issues related to sexual harassment are made apriority. Similarly, Rahimi &amp Liston argue that sexual violenceis a profoundly disturbing phenomenon that affects young women intheir daily life. The authors also believe that the way this issueis addressed in various institutions is mainly based class and racialstereotypes.

Itis clear that the authors of the two articles believe that sexualharassment and violence is one of the major issues that affectstudents in learning institutions. I strongly agree with Rahimi &ampListon that despite the fact that sexual harassment is a matteraffecting students in schools, it is addressed by class and racialstereotypes. In my opinion, ethnic typecast about matters relatingto the sexuality of women have played an integral role in some sexualviolence cases. Apparently, many victims are targeted based on theirracial characteristics.

Moreover,Parker-Pope has written an article in the New York Times arguing thatmore than a third of high school and college students haveexperienced sexual harassment in the course of their studies.Nonetheless, the author argues that boys and girls receive an equallevel of victimization.

Annotated Bibliography

AnnotatedBibliography

Biography.com(n.d). Langston Hughes. Available athttp://www.biography.com/people/langston-hughes-9346313. Accessed 1November 2016

Thisarticle gives a span over Langston Hughes’ life. It informs thereader of his life since birth to his death, highlighting majorevents that took place during his life. The article is very simple tofollow through and understand. It is relevant to the research projectsince it provides background information on the early life of Hughes.It highlights how he began his writing career and people who shapedit, such as his grandmother. It also shows his participation in theHarlem movement and interaction with influential people such asVachel Lindsay, a colleague who promoted his writing. Thebibliography gives a systematic approach in listing the works he didthrough the years.

Hughes,Langston. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. Alfred A. KnopfInc., 1994.

Thebook gives a compilation of the all the work of Langster David. Itoffers an informative introduction and crucial textual notes inchronological order. This arrangement allows the reader to go throughthe course of the writer’s career and political involvement. It isthe best source to get the original works of the author with theirexact dates provided. The collection gives an accurate presentation,omitting errors that exist in other bibliographies of Hughes.

Rampersad,Arnold. (2007). Langston Hughes. Available athttp://www.chem.unt.edu/~./jrodriguez/Site_13/Hughes_BG_Essay.html.Accessed 1 November 2016

Thisarticle is very crucial to the research. Arnold writes about theearly life and growth of Hughes and his entire career life. Thearticle informs on the inspirations of Langston and gives achronological analysis of Hughes’ works. Arnold describes thewriter’s pursuit of black identity. Hughes focuses on writings thatare relevant to the Black populace. The article describes hisjourneys across the world, including one where he went to Africa tocelebrate the First World Festival of Negro Arts in Senegal. It alsodescribes other journeys across the world and their influences on hiswork.

Ramsey,Joseph G. (2015). “Let America Be America Again” — Again?Thoughts on Langston Hughes Poem in the Wake of Bernie SandersBumping heads with #BLM. Available athttp://www.counterpunch.org/2015/08/12/let-america-be-america-again-again-thoughts-on-langston-hughes-poem-in-the-wake-of-bernie-sanders-bumping-heads-with-blm/.Accessed 1 November 2016.

Thisarticle describes Hughes’ political aspirations and concerns.Ramsey mainly analyses the Langston’s poem, “Let America BeAmerica Again.” It contributes to the research as it highlightspolitical aspirations of Black people and their suffering. It alsoshows the political reality I that was present in America during thetime. Immigrants and African-Americans were going throughmistreatment, despite their efforts in building the nation. Heappeals to those in power to let Americans realize their Americandream, despite their ethnic background. The article notes Hughes’optimism and sense of hope for a better America as he speaks for theoppressed segment of the American society.

Smethurst,James. (2016). Langston Hughes in the 1930s. Available athttp://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/hughes/1930s.htm.Accessed 1 November 2016

Inthis article, Smethurst focuses on the works of Hughes in the 1930’s.He argues that many authors have despised this period of Hughes’career, comparing it unfavorably with other active years especiallythe 1920s and the 1940s. The article is very relevant to the researchsince it goes further into exploring the writer’s contribution tothe Harlem Ressainance. James is keen to inform the reader of Hughes’political ideology. He begins by noting Hughes’ dedication to theCommunist movement in the United States. The period marked a greatrevolution in his works, as he started venturing into serious themesthat were relevant to the community, especially theAfrican-Americans. The article also shows how the Great Depressionperiod influenced his work.