Article Critique




Thefirst article is a qualitative exploration of the impact of livingwith pulmonary hypertension (PH). This is a rare condition thatcauses patients to suffer symptoms like breathlessness, fatigue,light-headedness and decreased capacity to exercise. However, therehave been treatment options that have worked over the years. Thepaper explores the experiences of patients with PH to get anunderstanding of their psychological and physical needs. The secondarticle is a quantitative feasibility randomized control testfocusing on a multifactorial intervention to improve blood pressurecontrol in co-existing diabetes and kidney disease. It was meant totest the impact of an intervention that consisted self-monitoring ofblood pressure among the patients. It also included medicine reviewand interviewing patients of kidney disease and diabetes to help themimprove their blood pressure control and to adhere to theirprescribed medication. A sample was selected, tests conducted andfindings arrived upon.



Inferentialstatistics was applied. Since it is almost impossible to study thewhole population of people living with pulmonary hypertension, only asample was used to represent the population. Participants includingmen and women of different ages and geographical locations werechosen through the Pulmonary Hypertension Association (PHA). Theratio of men to women was 18:12, mean age was 38 years with the rangebeing between 26-80 years. The sample, N= 30 (Williamset al., 2012).This is to ensure there is variation. For the patients with diabetesand kidney disease, random sampling was applied in the trial.Thesample was recruited from clinics in Australia treating nephrologyand diabetes (outpatients) between 2008 and 2009 (Williamset al., 2012).However, the results would have been more reliable if the tests weredone also conducted in a different continent, for example, to providea basis for comparison. Supplementary analysis was not used in theinterpretation of their findings

Inthe quantitative test, a greater sample ought to have been selectedto increase variability thus making the study more feasible. Therandomized sample, n=39 and n=41 0ver 3, 6 and months is quite small(Williamset al., 2012).Out of the 75 participants that took part in the test, there was nostatistically significant difference between the randomized groups atfirst. However, after a 9 months intervention, the systolic bloodpressure reduction in the n=36 group was 6Æ9 mmHg 95% CI (13Æ8,0Æ02) (Williamset al., 2012).


Thequalitative analysis considered patients of both genders anddifferent ages, the test on kidney and diabetes patients only studiedpatients above eighteen years (Yorke,Armstrong &amp Bundock, 2014).There could be symptoms that are prevalent among children only, butthat cannot be determined in this test. Therefore, it is not entirelyfeasible.

Regardingthe interpretation of the findings in both articles, most of thesignificant results have been discussed, but limitations and threatsto the study have not been reviewed in the qualitative section.Weaknesses of the study have not been brought to light. It would beimportant to know these factors and how they may have affected theoutcome of the tests. They would also be used to gauge what would beexpected if they were to be eliminated. The researcher did not usesupplementary analysis in the interpretation of their findings. Theysolely dwelled on the particular tests. Analyzing other scenarios andexamples would assist the readers to understand better theimplications of the findings. It would also help them relate theresults to other situations. The researchers did not discuss thegeneralization of the findings neither did they draw unwarranted andunrelated conclusions about the tests.

Bothtests are concerned with clinical problems. The study of each of theconditions provides statistical information of people living withpulmonary hypertension, kidney diseases, and diabetes. It alsooutlines their treatment burden, how they feel and how they can livewith it. However, there is no distinction between this statisticalsignificance and the clinical importance of the findings. Clinicalrecommendations based on these findings should have been made tobetter the conditions of those affected by the conditions.


.Williams,A., Manias, E., Walker, R., &amp Gorelik, A. (2012). Amultifactorial intervention to improve blood pressure control incoexisting diabetes and kidney disease: a feasibility randomizedcontrolled trial. Journal of advanced nursing, 68(11), 2515-2525.

Yorke,J., Armstrong, I., &amp Bundock, S. (2014). Impact of living withpulmonary hypertension: A qualitative exploration. Nursing &ampHealth Sciences, 16(4), 454-460. doi:10.1111/nhs.12138

Article Critique



Outcomesand Evidence-Based Interventions for Girls in the US Juvenile JusticeSystem by Leve, L., Chamberlain, P., and Kim, H.

Articlecritique: Risks, Outcomes, and Evidence-Based Interventions for Girlsin the US Juvenile Justice System by Leve, L., Chamberlain, P., andKim, H.

TheThesis of the Article

Inthe article “Risks, Outcomes, and Evidence-Based Interventions forGirls in the US Juvenile Justice System,” authors note that girl’sdelinquency in the American Justice System has increased by almost 50percent within the last decade. Leve D. Leslie, Patricia Chamberlain,and Hyoun K. Kim establish that despite this increase, there lackssignificant evaluation and implementation of evidence-based models toreduce or prevent the delinquency.In the development of this article, they gather information andevidence to support their claim that the application of existingevidence-based approaches appears effective in reduction andprevention of girl’s delinquency in the US Juvenile Judicial System

TheMethodology Used

Thearticle had an objective to investigate the potential of using theevidence-based models in addressing the female’s delinquency inJudicial System. In this quest, the article reviewed differentresearch materials according to several themes of investigation.First, the authors analyzed several empirical works to investigatethe predictors and risk factors that explain the juvenile justiceinvolvement for young females. These factors were tin severalcategories including family, contextual and individual behaviors. Inaddition, the article established that these factors are important inthe prevention of criminal behaviors among girls. Concerning thesefactors, the study then investigated the applicability andeffectiveness of evidence-based models by reviewing several materialsdocumenting practices and contexts where the models were used.

Importantinputs from these materials were the findings that the studysummarized according to its defined themes related to the article’sobjectives. The analysis of the findings from wide literature baseproduced several empirical evidence as per the risk and predictorfactors mentioned above. In essence, this evidence lead to theconfirmation of the author’s thesis statement. Also, thequalitative literature analysis steered the study towards developmentof comprehensible discussion resulting from its own findings (Barrettetal.,2015). Moreover, the method enabled determination of consistency ofthe article’s findings with those established by the reports whiteevidence approaches were tested on girls.

However,with the article’s focus only on the existing literature andexperiments on application of these approaches, it lackedoriginality. Such aspect of originality in the academic field isimportant and achievable through uniquely identified context,methods, findings and discussion (Mohr, 2013). Unknowingly, author’sreliance only on literature review without the use of customizedquestionnaires, interviews and other methods of data collection canbring errors and misconceptions without clear ideas of limitations inthe original study.

Althoughthe article used only the acknowledged sources, it failed to considerother important methods and tools that would have provided othersignificant findings. For instance, the study used only theintervention models that were evaluated using randomized controlledtrials (Leve, Chamberlain, &amp Kim, 2015). Other approaches eventhose in development that can yield accurate information for thestudy were disregarded.

Nonetheless,the authors’ selection of the materials they adopted in their studywas excellent. While they used only the peer-reviewed sources, someof these materials used qualitative approach while other usedquantitative. Consequently, the article “Risks, Outcomes, andEvidence-Based Interventions for Girls in the US Juvenile JusticeSystem” had a strong base by borrowing from such materials. Theinformation was well organized and appropriately used, giving thearticle a genuine flow, supported arguments, and convincing findings.

Althoughno direct error was spotted in the article, the borrowing from othermaterials increases the likelihood of errors and inaccuracies (Mohr,2013). Finally, the study had an assumption that “girls arespecial, thereby requiring special interventions” to address theirdelinquency (Leve, Chamberlain, &amp Kim, 2015). However, thearticle failed to establish how the girls’ delinquency is differentfrom boys’ about the investigated factors, the findings, anddiscussion.

Authors’Evidence In Support Of the Thesis.

Ina general case, authors Leve D. Leslie, Patricia Chamberlain, andHyoun K. Kim provided strong evidence to support their argumentsthroughout the discussion. Points used to develop all themes are wellphrased, and consistency checked using findings from other researchstudies for comparison. Evidently, there are citations for everyborrowed idea throughout the article. More importantly, authorspresented evidence from the parent materials to prove their argumentsin this article. Such proofs include tables of selectedevidence-based models, the sample population and their results, andsome statistical description from secondary materials. In this case,findings of the article comprise ideas from the parent materials andthose synthesized from the analysis of information from thesematerials.

Inthe determination of the strengths the arguments and the warrantsprovided, the nature and context of the previous studies adopted inthe article are important. In particular, the context of the studycan help understand the reliability of the information while natureand methods used offers assurance on the accuracy and appropriatenessinformation in the study (Baumann &amp Friehe, 2014). Based on thematerials this study utilized, the evidence authors of the articleprovided was strong. Besides, some of the materials covered thetrends juvenile system in the recent years.

However,it is important to understand that limitations that influenced thestudies in the adopted materials also can affect the findings of thearticle (Bell etal.,2013). Simply put, any effect of a biased assumption in the previousstudies applies to the article since the findings in those studieswere adopted (Cohn, 2012). Nonetheless, the evidence provided in thearticle “Risks, Outcomes, and Evidence-Based Interventions forGirls in the US Juvenile Justice System,” was strong. Moreover, itwas comprehensible leading to a quality base of the stated thesis inall the stages.

TheContribution to the Literature

Sincethe article reviewed different studies to develop its discussion insupport of its thesis, its ideas and evidence were diverse.Consequently, the relationship between different factors of girls’involvement in crime and the effectiveness of the potentialevidence-based models identified and discussed. However, utilizationof additional materials could fill some knowledge gaps left in thearticle. Some of them are briefly reviewed below.

Inthe article “Regulating harmless activity to fight crime,”Baumann and Friehe (2014) poses that regulation of harmlessactivities and behaviors among the young children can be an effectivetool in law instrument that can help reduce delinquency because theydisrupt the behaviors of lawless and law abiding individual. In thiscase, the regulations can be beneficial when they influencebehavioral change. Bauman recommends the use of tools that caneffectively deter the criminal behaviors while at the same timeenhancing detection of delinquency. Similarly, Leve, Chamberlain, andKim (2015) recommend the application of models to influence reductionin criminal behavior among girls.

Inthe article “The Relationship of Alcohol Use and Physical Activityfrom an Ecologic Perspective,” Bigelow Villarruel, and Ronis (2014)assert that there is a significant relationship between alcohol useand physically aggressive behaviors. In addition, the study pointsout that the effect varies across groups when monitored usingecological models. In line with the thesis in “Risks, Outcomes, andEvidence-Based Interventions for Girls in the US Juvenile JusticeSystem,” this article confirms that application of evidence-basedmodels can help monitor, reduce and even prevent juvenile delinquency(Bigelow, Villarruel, &amp Ronis, 2014). Authors recommended thenursing team to use such approaches to address predictors and riskfactors such as individual behaviors and school contexts.

Inthe article, “Is the Shape of the Age-Crime Curve Invariant by Sex?Evidence from a National Sample with Flexible NonparametricModeling,” Liu Siyu holds that both males and females have parallelage –crime curve. Also, the author establishes that the criminalbehaviors may be the same but have special age-crime when thefrequency of self-report arrest is determined. The study concludesthat there is early resistance against arrest among the femalesleading to the differential percentage of populations in criminaljustice (Liu, 2015). Therefore, this article can help describevarious aspects of gender in criminal justice.

GaryMohr’s article “Integrated Criminal Justice Systems: WorkingCollaboratively to Reduce Recidivism” integrated methods forcriminal justice are addressed, and their effectiveness acknowledged.The author states that such methods can have significant impacts incriminal justice particularly reduction of recidivism anddelinquency. As a result, evidence-based approaches that canintegrate different elements of behaviors and incarceration isrecommended.


Inboth the purpose and method, the article “Risks, Outcomes, andEvidence-Based Interventions for Girls in the US Juvenile JusticeSystem,” has supported its claims well through utilization ofsecondary information. Despite its failure to use quantitativetechniques such as questionnaires and survey in its development, ithas established and proved its arguments through analyticalliterature review. In addition, the discussion is not only detailedbut also comprehensible, thereby establishing its own base ofknowledge for academic and research purposes. In this case, differentindividuals and groups can refer to the article as a primary materialor a compliment to any proposed study in the juvenile criminalsystem.

Whilethis critique paper would recommend the use of the article in futurestudies, it is important to suggest changes that authors Leve,Chamberlain, and Kim can integrate into other editions of thearticle. For instance, a detailed qualitative procedure investigatingthe application and effects of evidence-based models to addressgirls’ delinquency in America can provide a unique sense ofcontribution to the body of literature in juvenile justice system.


Barrett,D., Ju, S., Katsiyannis, A., &amp Zhang, D. (2015). Females in theJuvenile Justice System: Influences on Delinquency and Recidivism.Journalof Child &amp Family Studies,24(2), 427-433. Doi: 10.1007/s10826-013-9853-8

Baumann,F., &amp Friehe, T. (2014). Regulating harmless activity to fightcrime.Journal of Economics,113(1), 79-95. Doi: 10.1007/s00712-013-0359-z

Bell,M., Cattaneo, L., Goodman, L., &amp Dutton, M. (2013). Criminal CaseOutcomes, Incarceration, and Subsequent Intimate Partner Violence.Journal of Family Violence,28(5), 489-502. Doi: 10.1007/s10896-013-9515-z

Bigelow,A., Villarruel, A., &amp Ronis, D. L. (2014). The relationship ofalcohol use and physical activity from an ecologic perspective.Journalfor Specialists in Pediatric Nursing,19(1), 28-38. doi:10.1111/jspn.12044

Cohn,A. W. (2012). Juvenile Focus. FederalProbation,76(1), 49-55.

Leve,L., Chamberlain, P., &amp Kim, H. (2015). Risks, Outcomes, andEvidence-Based Interventions for Girls in the US Juvenile JusticeSystem. ClinicalChild &amp Family Psychology Review,18(3), 252-279. Doi: 10.1007/s10567-015-0186-6

Liu,Siyu. 2015. &quotIs the Shape of the Age-Crime Curve Invariant bySex? Evidence from a National Sample with Flexible Non-parametricModeling.&quot Journalof Quantitative Criminology31, no. 1: 93-123.

Mohr,G. (2013). Integrated Criminal Justice Systems: WorkingCollaboratively to Reduce Recidivism. Corrections Today, 75(4),28-31.

Article Critique


Statementof the Phenomenon of Interest

Thestatement of the phenomenon in the study is pain. The article adoptsquantitative research methodology because it allows them to attaindetailed responses which can be evaluated to make conclusions. Someof the underlying philosophical underpinnings of the qualitativemethodology are that it is very effective when it comes to studiesthat require concept exploration and a lot of explanations areneeded.


Rambod,Sharif, Molazem and Khair’s article seeks to investigate painexperience in Hemophilia patients. According to the author, therehave been numerous studies on the relationship between pain andchronic diseases such as cancer, osteoporosis and diabetes and a fewon Hemophilia. It is evident that by understanding pain experience inHemophilia patients, nurses can be able to develop effectivemechanisms for reducing and managing any discomfort that they mayexperience while undergoing treatment. Additionally, nurses can beable to know how to relate with hemophilic patients better.

Critiqueof Methodology

Invalidating its finding, the authors used qualitative researchmethodology. This is very appropriate and compatible with the purposeof the investigation because explanations will be needed and one ofthe most efficient ways of collecting information is through samplingand interviewing of the study participants as was the case in thestudy. The method is thus appropriate for the phenomena because paincannot be measured quantitatively. The researchers complete theirstudy successfully. In sampling the study participants,non-probability sampling method was used, and this was aimed atselecting patients who would give more robust information about pain.Data for the study were mainly collected through semi-structuredinterviews and purposeful sampling. The study participants werepatients who had been referred to the Shiraz University of MedicalSciences. The data analysis technique used was the van Manen’ssix-step methodological framework, and in analyzing the collecteddata, the researchers used MAX.QDA qualitative software package, 2010and based on the findings, it is evident that this was a reliable andvery effective technique because the data remained true.

Credibilityof the research

Thecredibility of this research finding is unquestionable. For a start,the article has been published in a very reliable journal database,and the authors have the necessary expertise to carry out the study.Additionally, the article has also used external sources and citedthem appropriately to support the credibility of their findings. Itis evident that the reader can follow the researcher’s thinkingbecause detail has been covered. Regarding the fittingness of thefindings, it is clear that these they can be applied in other areassuch as psychology and for personal development. The analysisstrategy is very compatible with the study purpose.


Theresults of the research indicated that pain is an alteration inphysical health and can be an impairment in social relationships inthe patients` lives. It thus recommends that to manage the pain,health care providers and family members should pay attention toproblems that hemophilic patients experience. It is evident thatthese findings are presented within context because the pain was thestudy phenomenon. The language used and organization of the articleallows the reader to apprehend the results. Although some of theinformation presented are already known, this article justifies theneed for proper handling of hemophilic patients.


Thearticle concluded by emphasizing the need for proper care andrecommends complementary therapy intervention as a method of reducingpain and improving life’s quality in hemophilic patients. From anindividual’s perspective, this research is important in nursingpractice because a lot of focus has always been given to medicinesand pharmaceuticals yet complementary therapy model can also helpwhen it comes to holistic treatments.


Rambod,M., Sharif, F., Molazem, Z., &amp Khair, K. (2016). Pain Experiencein Hemophilia Patients: A Hermeneutic PhenomenologicalStudy.&nbspInternationalJournal of Community Based Nursing and Midwifery,&nbsp4(4),309.

Article Critique



Articlecritique refers to a methodical process of examining a research workobjectively to ascertain its relevance and accuracy in datacollection, analysis, and presentation. This essay scrutinizes thearticle by Cicolini et al. 2014, with an aim to verify howeffectively the authors used descriptive statistics in their study.

ACritique of the Article

Didthe Report Include Descriptive Statistics? How Effectively?

Althoughthe report mostly exploited inferential statistics in the analysis ofdata (e.g. the use of t-test and chi-square), it also utilizeddescriptive statistics in several instances. First, the selection ofthe study sample and the explanation offered were purely descriptive.Hence, Cicolini et al. (2014) stated that the mean difference betweengroups subjected to systolic and diastolic blood pressure examinationwas to form the baseline of the outcome as well as the studyfollow-up. For example, an alpha error of 0.05 was used against anestimated participation dropout rate of 10%. Moreover, a minimum of94 individuals in every group was requested to attain a statisticalpower of 90%, with the researchers intending to recruit 100participants per group. Furthermore, frequency was used as adescriptive tool to inform the participants to consume less than twodrinks per day and exercise for 3 to 4 times per week. The use of therange scale was part and parcel of the study, e.g. exercise durationranged from 50-60 minutes while systolic blood pressure range wasshown as 5 ± 10 mmHg.

Wasthe Descriptive Statistics used Properly?

Theconsiderations above showed that Cicolini et al. (2014) useddescriptive statistics such as the mean, frequency, and class rangeeffectively. Besides, they utilized the same statistical method toexplain the outcome rates appropriately and accurately. That enabledthem to describe the sample statistics with precision, and in a waythat the reader can comprehend readily. For example, descriptivestatistics clearly relayed the characteristics of the sampleinthe results section where the study population size (n) that wasassessed is 357. In that sample, those who were excluded totaled 154,the randomized size (n) was 203, while those allocated to the usualcare and nurse-led intervention after randomization totaled 101 and102 respectively. For the usual care, the total number of subjectslost to follow-up or discontinued was 1 in each case, and theanalyzed group was 98 those excluded from the analysis equaled n=1.Conversely, the total subjects discontinued under nurse-led care was1, while to sum analyzed was 100 (Cicolini et al., 2014). Hence, thedescriptive statistics was effectively used by the researchers as abaseline for the study and for follow-up. The key variables in thestudy were age, body mass, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking,physical activity, salt consumption, and fruit in the diet. All thesewere evaluated as baseline and follow-up means.

Werethe Correct Descriptive Statistics Used?

Cicoliniet al. (2014) observed accuracy in the way they used descriptivestatistics. For example,toaccount for the number of incidences the subjects were to practice,the authors applied frequency and range to clarify that everyindividual was to use 50-60 minutes exercising. Similarly, theresearchers indicated that the physical activity was to be done 3 to4 times a week. Moreover, Cicolini used class size (n) to establishthe mean targets and expectations. For example, the authors focusedto recruit 100 individuals per group after awarding the participantsa 90% statistical power.

Wasthe Descriptive Information Presented in a Useful Manner?

Indeed,Cicolini et al. (2014) provided succinct information usingdescriptive statistics. The tables depicted baseline means againstthe follow-up averages for the variables scrutinized. Thepresentation was in an efficient manner, hence enabling thederivation of inferential statistics and labeling the dataconsistent. The information integrity was even boosted furtherbecause the authors used random information within the text and thetable alike. Above all, the tables were distinct, had clearly titles,and were easy to follow due to the correct utilization of descriptivestatistics concepts.

Wereany Risk Indexes Computed?

Cicoliniet al. (2014) did an excellent job with the descriptive statistics.However, the inclusion of risk indexes in the study could havecemented the findings of the research. That is because through theindex computation, it was possible to come up with a relative riskwhich shows the threat of hypertension in the treated group relativeto the untreated group. Consequently, the need to attend to those atrisk unfolds, and initiatives are implemented to contain thesituation.


Thearticle by Cicolini et al. successfully utilized descriptivestatistics as a baseline and follow-up study tool. They did so in away that the results supported the inferential statistics, thusgenerating valid data.


Cicolini,G., Simonetti, V., Comparcini, D., Celiberti, I., Di Nicola, M.,Capasso, L. M., … &amp Manzoli, L. (2014). Efficacy of a nurse-ledemail reminder program for cardiovascular prevention risk reductionin hypertensive patients: A randomized controlledtrial.&nbspInternationaljournal of nursing studies,&nbsp51(6),833-843.