Article Review






&quotASolution-Focused Approach to Frotteurism&quot is a journal articlethat proposes a clinical model or approach to frotteurism. Accordingto Guterman, Martin and Rudes (2011), frotteurismisan atypical disorder characterized by recurrent and intense sexualbehavior, a strong urge or fantasy that results to unwelcometouching, groping or rubbing against an unwilling client that resultsin distress and interpersonal difficulty for the individual. It ispredominantly common in males, especially after adolescence. Peoplesuffering from this condition usually pick out unsuspecting targets,mostly females in crowded areas and rub their body parts againstthem. In many jurisdictions, this act is considered a sexual offenseand crime. It is neither reported, prosecuted nor treated, due tolack of research on the topic. Frotteurism has been found to becomorbid with other mental conditions such as paraphilia and anxiety.The behavior is especially widespread in Japan, and as a result,women-only transport vehicles have been introduced. Various theoriesand treatments have come up and been developed for this condition.The most common treatment approaches are psychoanalytic andcognitive- behavioral. The psychoanalytic approach aims at assistingclients to recall how experiences and other factors affected theirsexual behaviors. The cognitive-behavioral approach focuses oncontrolling dysfunctional feelings and behaviors. In solution-focusedtherapy, every problem is understood to have an exception. A solutionis arrived to at by identifying these exceptions and applying them tothe problem. The case study of David illustrates the five stages ofdealing with frotteurism. The first stage is reconstructing theproblem and negotiating an attainable goal. The therapist togetherwith the client define the problem and an appropriate goal that fitsinto the client`s perspective. The second stage involves theidentification and amplification of the exceptions. Throughpresuppositional questions, the therapist helps the client toidentify exceptions. This step is significant in helping to createexpectancy for change. Amplifying the exceptions helps the client inthe identification of the differences between the times they had theproblem and when they did not. Assigning of tasks is the third stage.This is aimed at expounding and developing the problem, the goal, andthe exceptions that have been identified in the preceding stages.Researchers have identified a decision tree that is useful to aclient by delivering on tasks that are solution focused and are basedon the limit to which a client can detect and amplify theirexceptions, define the problem and set goals. The fourth stage ischaracterized by the evaluation of the effectiveness and reliabilityof the assigned tasks. During this stage, the therapist ensures thatthe clients are capable of identifying and amplifying the exceptionsthat have been derived from the previously assigned tasks. Finally,the last stage is the re-evaluation stage. This is the stage wheretreatment is either continued or terminated. The concluding remarkssuggest that this solution-focused therapy provides an efficientapproach to dealing with people suffering from frotteurism.

Thisarticle on frotteurism is related to the subject of human sexualitycovered in the text in that it addresses the issues that affect andshape human sexuality, especially among male adolescents. Guterman,Martin, &amp Rudes (2011) state that frotteurism is mostlycharacteristic of the male sex and it first develops duringadolescence. Human sexuality in most cases is usually characterizedby males engaging in various sex offenses against women as is thecase with frotteurism. Most victims of this condition areunsuspecting females in crowded areas such as transport vehicles,shopping malls, subways and elevators (Guterman, Martin, &amp Rudes,2011). In most jurisdictions, human sexuality is defined according tothe generally accepted aspects and those that are regarded asoffenses. In most jurisdictions, this aspect of frotteurism as anaspect of human sexuality is considered to be a crime liable toprosecution if found guilty (Guterman, Martin, &amp Rudes, 2011).Just like human sexuality in general, Guterman, Martin, &amp Rudes(2011) acknowledge that frotteurism is a least understood concept dueto lack of research, prosecution or treatment for this conditionproving there is a research gap. Most victims fail to report anyincidences while those suffering from this condition do not seektreatment. There is a lack of research on solution-focusedapplications to the human sexuality aspect of sexual disorders likefrotteurism (Guterman, Martin, &amp Rudes, 2011).

Afterreviewing this article, my reaction was to agree with much of thefindings of this research. I support the fact that frotteurism isrampant in the contemporary world and yet, it is a relatively lessunderstood concept. There is a need to conduct more research on thistopic to either confirm or disapprove the various theories that havebeen discussed in this article ranging from definition to thetreatment approaches. I realized that those who suffer from thiscondition should be given special treatment because just as thisarticle states, they are suffering from other mental andpsychological conditions that are comorbid with frotteurism.

David`s,case study, however, showed me that this condition is manageable andpatients can receive treatment from professional therapists andimprove their mental conditions. Improved mental conditions willgreatly assist the patients to deal with their problem in acontrolled and self-aware manner. The stages of the solution-focusedtherapy, through further research, can be fine-tuned to improve theoutcome of this therapy based treatment procedures for frotteurism.


Guterman,J.T., Martin, C.V., Rudes, J. (2011). ASolution-Focused Approach to Frotteurism

Article Review


Thepurpose of this paper is to critique the article “ComparingWearer DNA Sample Collection Methods for the Recovery of SingleSource Profile”by Harris, Cardenas, Lee, and Barloewen, published in 2013. The focusof the study was the recovery of DNA of the last wearer from clothingand use of Gel-Pak &quot0&quot in casework. Swabbing and scabbingare widely used collection methods in collecting DNA. According toHarris et al (2013), previous studies comparing Gel-Pak “0” withother adhesives have shown that the former is able to “recover thetop layer of loose particulate,” (82). Though swabbing and scrapingare often used, they lead to mixture profiles. While the abstract islong, it has overviewed the purpose and rationale of this study. Thepurpose of this study was to compare swabbing and scraping collectionmethods with Gel-Pak “0”.

Thestudy is effectively overviewed in a long but detailed abstract. Theintroduction is informative in which Harris et al (2013) provide adetailed background of the study. Swabbing, tape lifting, andscraping have their limitations. According to these researchers,scraping is destructive owing to its invasive nature, tape liftingtends to gather more particulate sample than desired and withswabbing, it `s hard to tell the number of collected cells byobserving. In addition to that, all the three methods lead tocomplicated mixtures that render interpretation difficult to make.Therefore, these methods are not reliable for providing informationfor the forensic investigation. The article states that Gel-Pak “0”is capable of collecting fewer cells owing to the fact that it isless tacky compared to most other adhesives. Furthermore, the methodis PCR friendly and less invasive.

Theaim of this study and rationale justifying the need to conduct thisstudy are clearly stated near the end of the introduction. Thehypotheses are also stated in the introduction. Harris et alhypothesized that Gel-Pak “0” “would best recover the loosestlayer of particulate on clothing, resulting in a single sourceprofile of the last wearer,” (85). Another stated hypothesis isthat Gel-Pak ‘0’ would recover the least quantity of DNA incomparison to the other methods,” (85). These hypotheses arederived from the literature review. However, the authors would havedone better by citing more sources.

Theauthors successfully reviewed the literature on collection methodsemployed for wearer DNA. The literature used is the most current andrelevant. Most of the articles used have been published in the lastfive years.


Themethodology part defines sample collection and sample selection,materials and instruments. The researchers sampled 20 clothing itemsworn by different individuals at different times in sets of fourusing Gel-Pak ‘0’, swabbing and scraping. There are alsodescriptions of sample collection, DNA extraction, DNAquantification, amplification, and capillary electrophoresis.


Theresults of analysis for the three collection methods are clearlypresented in tabular form. The first hypothesis failed. Gel-Pak “0was found not to be selective as earlier thought. Despite the factthat literature describes Gel-Pak “0 as less tacky with the abilityto collect loose epithelial cells not embedded within the clothingmaterial, the method also collected DNA from the habitual wearer.This does not mean that the hypothesis is wrong and thus must berejected. There is a possibility there were errors somewhere. Theauthors have provided reasons why the results did not match up withthis hypothesis. The explanation is that when a person wears aclothing item besides the habitual wearer, “their DNA is notdeposited on top of the habitual wearer’s DNA” (96).Consequently, the loosest top layer of particulate end up comprisingof DNA sample from the recent wearer and habitual wearer, lead to amixture profile. The authors mention the “type of clothingmaterial, the amount of time since the item had last been washed, theway in which wearers wore the clothing, what the wearers were doingin the clothing, and the amount of DNA that the wearers deposit,”(92).

However,the second hypothesis was met. Gel-Pak “0” recovered the leastamount of total DNA. Swabbing and Gel-Pak &quot0 were found to getthe back most sample from the last wearer from over ten clothingitems compared to scraping`s five items. This supports the hypothesisthat of the three, Gel-Pak “0” is the least invasive method. Ofthe three collection methods, scrabbling revealed vital informationcrucial for forensic investigation.


Theauthors provide a reflective conclusion that follows a cleardiscussion of the results. The authors summed the results andsuggested how the findings may be used in casework.

Thoughone of the hypotheses was not met, the results of this study shedimportant insights about these collection methods to be consideredfor casework. The authors found swabbing to be fairing well thanGel-Pak “0. Swabbing is not only the most reliable but alsoconvenient, cost effective and time saving. The method also has thetendency to recover a greater quantity of total DNA.

Theresults also reveal that wearer DNA is unpredictable. Thisunpredictability is caused by many factors that cannot be controlled.For example, it is difficult to control how people wear clothingitems, the level of physical activities of wearers and the extent towhich people deposit their DNA.

Inrespect to the forensic investigation, the study reveals the bestmethod to collect wearer DNA successfully. The forensic analystsshould consider swabbing in the investigation involving wearer DNA.It is more convenient and effective of the three. The method is themost effective for identifying the most recent wearer of clothingitem in casework. The authors consider Gel-Pak &quot0&quot lesseffective collection method to be used in casework as it is costly,time-consuming and cannot be applied to all surfaces. Scrapping iseffective for determining habitual wearer.

Theneed for further research is stated in conclusion. The study doessuggest further research that involves more data and large sampling.The authors are categorical that their findings are not final andhence the need for further studies.


Harris,C.J. Cardenas, A.J. Lee, S.B. &amp Barloewen, B. (2013). ComparingWearer DNA Sample Collection Methods for the Recovery of SingleSource Profiles.Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science,1(1):81-99

Article Review



1. Which articledid you choose to write about? Include the year, author’s name, andarticle title.

The article isentitled Competition in the Medical Profession: An Application ofthe Economic Theory of Regulation and was written by Chris W.Paul in 1982. It was featured in the Southern Economic Journal.

2. Conciselydescribe the viewpoint that the author is responding to with thisarticle.

The authordescribes the customary opinion that medical practitioners earn abovenormal returns by restricting entry into the profession. In thisregard, some researchers have tried to examine the existence andextent of superlative returns in medicine (Paul, 1982). Such effortshave been spearheaded through comparisons with other occupations.

3. Summarize thereasoning and/or evidence that has been offered to support thisviewpoint.

A study conductedby Friedman and Kuznets used income data generated for variousprofessions in the 1930s. The researchers showed that physiciansenjoyed a considerable premium over dentists in connection with therate of return to their educational expenses (Paul, 1982).Furthermore, Kartel has bemoaned the medical profession’s tendencyto operate as a cartel. Nevertheless, other researchers have offeredcontrary opinions.

4. According tothe author, what is the most important problem with this viewpoint?

The authorcriticizes the views of previous researchers since no test has beenperformed to examine the actual impact of licensing limitations onthe salaries of medical practitioners. Consequently, the rate ofreturn to investment in educational activities cannot be ascertained.

5. What viewpointdoes the author argue for instead?

The author arguesthat the licensure restrictions are applied to limit entry into themedical profession (Paul, 1982). Subsequently, wealth is transferredfrom health service consumers to the producers of such services.Besides, the author shows that economic regulation was used as avehicle for wealth redistribution (Paul, 1982). In particular, theregulator is treated as a fully-fledged member of the profession. Inmany instances, the former could obtain a significant portion of thewealth transfer. On the other hand, the regulator would acquire alesser share if he maximized his political majority by redistributingwealth between groups.

6. What reasoningor evidence does the author provide to support his or her ownviewpoint?

The author citesthe extensive analysis conducted by Peltzman as the basis for hisconclusions. Notably, states where the licensing board was selectedby the governor had lower physician salaries than those where theboard was chosen by the profession (Paul, 1982). In this respect,self-regulators would enjoy higher price-profit levels thanthird-party regulators without a direct share in the profits. Inaddition, the author provides substantive proof in the form ofempirical tests aimed to estimate a reduced form supply and demandequation (Paul, 1982). The results obtained from conducting suchtests support the researcher’s conclusions. In fact, the theoryshows that physicians’ incomes are substantially higher wherelicensing boards are controlled by the medical profession (Paul,1982). Such outcomes were reasonable since the governor could notshare in the income gains as did health practitioners.

7. What furtherevidence, if discovered, might strengthen the author’s argument?

Further evidenceto show the differences between licensing boards controlled byprofessionals and those controlled by governors could strengthen theauthor’s argument. In particular, it could be discovered that morerestrictions are adopted by medical personnel in comparison to otherregulators. Other research could be also discovered to show thatprofit-sharing regulators were primarily concerned with maximizingtheir personal wealth. Moreover, studies could reveal that marginalpolitical costs were equated with corresponding benefits beforereinforcing the merits of a regulatory action. Additionally, theauthor’s argument would be strengthened if research was discoveredto prove that self-regulators set higher price-profit levels thanthird-party regulators. Similar effects would occur if it was proventhat physician salaries were higher in states where the licensingboard was selected by the profession than in those where governorsprovided oversight.

8. What furtherevidence, if discovered, might weaken the author’s argument?

Evidence to provethat physicians earned similar salaries in all states would weakenthe author’s argument. In this regard, it would be shown that therewere no differences between licensing boards managed by eithergovernors or medical professionals. The author’s argument wouldalso be weakened if it was discovered that there were no barriers toentry in medicine. Furthermore, it could also be shown that regulatoraction was determined by multiple factors. In particular, it may beproven that self-regulators and third-party regulators enjoyed equalprice-profit levels. Consequently, the author’s argument would berendered impractical.


Paul, C. W. (1982). Competition in the Medical Profession: AnApplication of the Economic Theory of Regulation. SouthernEconomic Journal, 48(3), 559-69.