Benefits and Harm of Microbial Life Forms

Benefitsand Harm of Microbial Life Forms

Benefitsand Harm of Microbial Life Forms

Archaea

HarmfulArchaea species such as Methanosphaerastadmanaefound in the human colon, are associated with induction ofmonocyte-derived dendritic cell maturation and strongpro-inflammatory that leads to inflammatory bowel disease inpatients. According to Horz &amp Conrads (2012), MethanogenicArchaea such as Methanobrevibactersmithii, Mathanosphaera,and Methanoscarcina,foundin the human mouth, have been associated with subgingival dentalplaque.

UsefulArchaea such as Extremophile Archaea are a source of enzymes thathave a diverse range of uses. Thermostable DNA polymerases, made fromPyrococcusfuriosus, isused as a simple and rapid technique for DNA cloning. Extremophilesare found in regions of extreme acidity and alkalinity.

Bacteria

Pathogenicbacteria such as Staphylococcusaureusfound on the human skin causes skin infections, pneumonia, andinfections of the heart valves. Neisseriagonorrhea, foundin the urethra of the reproductive system,is also a harmful fungus that causes gonorrhea.

Somebacteria however, plays a positive role. Non-pathogenic bacteria suchas Staphylococcusepidermidisfound on the human skin, in the nose, mouth, and throat, plays a partof normal skin flora. Lactobacillusacidophilus,found in the small and large intestine plays a role in healthyintestinal flora.

Protists

Someprotists are harmful. Plasmodiumprotist,commonly known as malaria parasites that use mosquitoes asintermittent host infects human with malaria. African sickness isalso associated with Trypanosomaprotistspread by tsetse fly causes sleeping sickness. Eating foodcontaminated by fecal material causes giardiasis associated withGiardiaprotist.

Otherprotists have a significant role in human life. Slime mold, a groupof protists, found on algae, are used in technology. Physarumpolycephalumhas tubes are used in computing technology to process information andtesting and diagnosis of medical samples.

Fungi

Harmfulfungi such as potato’s late blight (Phytophthorainfestans),wheat black stem rust (Puccinia graminis), rice brown spot(Helmintosporium oryzae), causes diseases to important food crops. Aninfestation of Aspergillus,Cercospora,and Cryptococcusmycosisinduces animal and human diseases.

Fungihave an important role in human life. Saccharomycescerevisiae,commonly referred to as yeast, is used in production of foodproducts, beverages. Saccharomycescerevisiae,an enzyme derived from the mould (Neurosporacrassa),is used in genome sequence.

References

HorzHP, Seyfarth I, Conrads G (2012) McrA and 16S rRNA gene analysissuggests a novel lineage of Archaea phylogenetically affiliated withThermoplasmatales in human subgingival plaque. Anaerobe18: 373–377.