Ithink biogeography is a branch of geography concerned with thedistribution of plants and animals in a particular location and time. is usually regarded to be part of physical geographywhich examines the physical environment and how it affects species aswell as shaping their distribution across space (Gailis and Stefans,10). comprises two fields including historical andecological biogeography. Historical biogeography deals with theorigin and the evolutionary history over an extended period of time.Historical biogeography uses fossil records to determine the pastinteractions and movement of species across space through the movingcontinental plates. Historical biogeography also makes use of an areacladogram. A cladogram is made by taking a taxonomic tree and thensubstituting the species name with the geographic location whereorganisms are found. The tree enables the scientists to define howenvironmental differences have affected the evolutionary history ofdifferent organisms of the same origin.

Ecologicalbiogeography deals with the extensive study of ways in whichorganisms develop and interacts with each other and the environmentson a shorter time scale. Ecological biogeography is mainly concernedwith the number of different species that an area supports by using aspecies richness equilibrium model to get the figures (Gailis andStefans, 52).The standard fields of research in ecologicalbiogeography are primary productivity, climate equability, andhabitat heterogeneity. Climate equability deals with daily and annualtemperature variations. There are few species at high latitudes areasbecause of unfavorable conditions for survival. Primary productivitydeals with the rates of evapotranspiration of plants.

Anarea with a higher rate of evapotranspiration would allow plantgrowth particularly in tropics where is warm and moist. Highlatitudes areas are too cold for the atmosphere to hold enough watervapor to produce a high rate of evapotranspiration and therefore fewplants are found there (Gailis and Stefans, 71). Habitatheterogeneity leads because a greater number of species are foundthere. In conclusion, biogeography is essential as it expounds muchabout natural habitats of species globally. It is useful inunderstanding why the organisms are at their habitual environmentsand raise the concern of protecting the world’s natural habitats.


Gailis,Mihails, and Stefans Kalnin. .Hauppauge, N.Y: Nova Science Publishers, Inc, 2010. Print.