Bipolar disorder





Bipolardisorder is a mental condition that is characterized by periods ofelevated mood and depression. It was called manic depression in thepast. The illness is also referred to either as mania or hypomaniadepending on the extent of the mood. During the mania stage, a personbehaves peculiarly irritable, happy, or energetic. Besides, the sickindividuals often make poor decisions with little consideration ofthe consequences (Balyakina et al., 2014).Moreover, during manicphases, there is little urge of the need for sleep. On the otherhand, during the depression, individuals may be having a negativeoutlook on life such as crying and avoidance of direct eye contactwith others. During this phase, the risk for suicide and self-harm isnormally very high. is commonly associated withmental cases such as substance use and anxiety illnesses (Balyakinaet al., 2014).

Theactual causes of this mental disorder are not yet known, but bothgenetic and environmental factors play a role. Background featuressuch as a history of childhood abuse play an important part in thedevelopment of this problem. This disorder can be divided intobipolar I, and II disorders. Bipolar I involve at least one manicepisode while bipolar II leads to at least one hypomanic episode, aswell as one major depressive incident (Evans-Lacko et al., 2011).However, if either drugs or health issues cause it, it is classifieddifferently. Other situations that may appear in a similar wayinclude personality, substance use, hyperactivity and attentiondeficit disorders. To separate these conditions, blood tests andmedical imaging can be done to disqualify some of them (Medard etal., 2010).

Thetreatment of bipolar disorder, commonly, includes medications such asmood stabilizers, antipsychotics and, most importantly,psychotherapy. Mood stabilizers that are usually used includeanticonvulsants and lithium. When it comes to the cure, individualssuffering from these maladies can be treated in hospitals without theconsent of the patient because they can be of risk to others andthemselves. The compulsory treatment can also be implemented whenthey refuse to seek medical assistance voluntarily. Stern behavioralproblems can be regulated with short-term benzodiazepines andantidepressants. However, in times of mania, physicians recommendthat the patients should refrain from taking antidepressants.Additionally, when an individual is suffering from depression,antidepressants should be used together with the mood stabilizers. Inthe advanced treatment of this disorder, electroconvulsive therapy(ECT) is helpful when all other methods fail. All said, be there aneed to stop treatment, it is recommended that the withdrawal is madeslowly (Balyakina et al., 2014).

Controllingthis mental condition is tough. This can largely be attributed tothe fact that the exact causes are not well known. For instance,scientists have been conducting research on whether environmentalfactors and genes play a vital role in the development of the bipolarcondition. Nevertheless, the disease should not be allowed a chanceto develop in people so that it can be treated later, but, instead,it should be prevented from occurring. Since most of the causes areenvironmental factors, it is very difficult to monitor all the peopleand shield them from the factors that lead to the development of thedisorder. However, attempts at the prevention of this disease havefocused on stress caused to children by highly conflictual familiesand childhood adversary although they are not diagnostically specificcauses of bipolar disorder. Also, it has proven very hard to end theuse of drugs such as cannabis, which are highly connected to themalady (Zirke et al., 2013).

Inconclusion, bipolar disorder is a major problem in the society. Itsprecise causes are not known, thus, making it challenging to becontrolled and prevented. Substance use and abusive environments aremostly associated with the condition. The treatment and monitoringprocedures should include rehabilitation of the affected individuals.Researchers should, therefore, put more effort to narrow down on theactual predisposing factors that lead to this complication.


Balyakina,E., Mann, C., Ellison, M., Sivernell, R., Fulda, K. G., Sarai, S. K.,&amp Cardarelli, R. (2014). Risk of future offense amongprobationers with co-occurring substance use and mental healthdisorders. Community Mental Health Journal, 50(3), 288-95.doi:

Evans-Lacko,S., Reis, S., Kastelic, E., &amp Riley, A.W. (2011). Mental healthservice use before and after diagnosis of early-onset bipolardisorder. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services &ampResearch, 38(3), 398-413. Retrieved from

Medard,E., Dubertret, C., Peretti, C. S., Ades, J., &amp D`escatha, A.(2010). Descriptive study of the occupational outcome of bipolarpatients. Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation, 20(3),293-8. doi:

Zirke,N., Seydel, C., Arsoy, D., Klapp, B. F., Haupt, H., Szczepek, A. J.,Mazurek, B. (2013). Analysis of mental disorders in tinnitus patientsperformed with composite international diagnostic interview.Quality of Life Research, 22(8), 2095-104.doi: