Business Management



BartAldrin had served as the shipping manager for several decades. Whileworking at International Shipping, Bart developed the ability to plandaily tasks and assign jobs to workers based ontheir expertise. The manager would also provide comprehensiveinstructions to optimize the performance of duties. Employees wouldbe trained to ensure that they could fulfill their obligations in themost efficient manner. Bart used this management style to enhance thecompany’s methodology. Furthermore, he improved the organization’sshipping processes. Admittedly, some employees criticized hisapproach. An analysis of the case shows that all managers mustconsider the input of their workers while making important decisions.


GalaxyToys was established by George Jepson and his wife in 1956. Thecompany had a vision to create products that would inspire childrento consider space exploration. In particular, the firm developed bothcontemporary and classic toys for all ages. Galaxy could guaranteethe safety of its products since the company used sustainableprocesses. Since the early 1950s, the company had manufactured over2500 different toys. The entity attained its competitive advantagethrough innovation of cutting-edge strategies.

Part One

Thescientific management school of thought best describes Bart’s styleof leadership. In this regard, the employees’ jobs were broken downinto particular elements. The scientific management style alsoensures that workers are selected and trained to perform tasks in adesigned manner. Furthermore, managers cooperate with the employeesto fulfill organizational outcomes. Division of labor also ensuresthat staff members specialize in certain areas. Hence, the managerdesigns the tasks, sets up instructions, and supervises the work.Bart displayed a remarkable ability to plan for daily tasks at thefirm. He also provided detailed instructions to help workers optimizetheir productivity. Bart also implemented several processes to ensurethat employees could perform their specialized duties in the mostefficient manner. Besides, he encouraged workers to focus on theirindividual tasks. Consequently, the firm experienced significantimprovements in toy assembly and shipping processes.

FredrickWinslow Taylor is considered as the originator of scientificmanagement (Grachev &amp Rakitsky, 2013). He developed practices andprinciples that focused on systemization and efficiency. Taylorproposed a particular methodology that enabled a company to achieveits objectives. For example, the problem was defined before data wasgathered and analyzed (Grachev &amp Rakitsky, 2013). Subsequently,the best alternative would be selected from a list of probablechoices. Taylor’s contribution to management was crucial since itforced managers to establish standards at the workplace. Supervisorswere also required to study all facets of an organization beforeassigning tasks (Grachev &amp Rakitsky, 2013). Time-consumingprocesses would also be used to conduct scientific research. Taylor’scontribution was also vital since it benefited both the employer andthe employee through the creation of greater surplus.

Bartused the human relation school of thought after a major shiftoccurred in management. In this respect, the organization built theinterrelationships among staff members to ensure cooperation. Thecompany also responded to a greater desire for employees toparticipate in management. Consequently, Galaxy was willing to allowand consider the opinions and views of their workers. Bart changedhis management style to accommodate the shift in employee workplacevalues. The human relations approach is the best choice since itrecognizes the contributions made by staff members (Witzel &ampWarner, 2013). Psychological factors also have a considerable effecton the behaviors manifested by workers. In many cases, employees havematerial instincts that cause them to value job security. Workersalso strive for social and organizational acceptance while pursuingmonetary rewards (Witzel &amp Warner, 2013). Therefore, the humanrelations approach focuses on how the organization can uses itsresources to attain established goals and standards.

EltonMayo made extensive contributions to the human relations approach(Witzel &amp Warner, 2013). He believed that managers had to beresponsible for reducing the conflicts among employees. Althoughhuman aspects were largely overlooked, it was essential to focus onthe satisfaction of workers’ needs approach (Witzel &amp Warner,2013). Mayo also laid greater emphasis on the importance ofcommunication between employees and supervisors approach (Witzel &ampWarner, 2013). The human relations theory is explained by severalprinciples. Firstly, the approach focuses on the interpersonalrelationships and how a manager could utilize such interactions.Secondly, the approach examines the qualities that could help aleader to fulfill his duties approach (Witzel &amp Warner, 2013).Bart and his fellow managers were alarmed by the workers threat tounionize. Heightened competition was also accompanied by greateradvances in technology. Mayo’s proposal supports the facts in thecase study through the shift in employee workplace values. Besides,Bart and his fellow managers changed their approach to focus more onthe needs of their workers.

Thehuman relation and scientific management theories have severalsimilarities. For example, both methods focus on improving theefficiency of business operations. Furthermore, both theories examinehow an organization can enhance its competitive advantage. Managersplay supervisory roles in both approaches. Both theories manifestgreat regard for the individual skills of the workers. Therefore,efforts are made to ensure that all staff members are productive.Nevertheless, the human relation theory places undue emphasis on theemployees of an organization approach (Witzel &amp Warner, 2013). Onthe other hand, the scientific management theory considers theinteraction between various aspects of an organization (Grachev &ampRakitsky, 2013). The manager is responsible for creating a plan oftasks. Subsequently, employees are assigned various jobs that conformto their specific qualities (Northouse, 2015). The manager alsotrains the workers to fulfill their obligations in the most efficientmanner. Moreover, the scientific management theory does not involvestaff members in decision-making while the human relations approachconsiders the input from workers approach (Witzel &amp Warner,2013). The scientific management theory ensures division of laborwhile the human relations approach coordinates the efforts of allemployees (Grachev &amp Rakitsky, 2013). Also, the scientificmanagement approach magnifies the supervisor’s authority overworkers while the human relations theory reduces the power and statusdifferential between managers and subordinates.

Part Two

JoyceBarnhart will approach her job using concepts developed as a 21stcentury manager. For example, she will demonstrate an enhancedawareness for globalization. Barriers among nations have graduallyreduced due to interconnectedness (Hanna &amp Latchem, 2013). Hence,it is expected that Joyce will adopt practices and principles thatare usually applied in other countries. In many instances, industryleaders adopt competent strategies to increase their profitability(Hanna &amp Latchem, 2013). Other shipping companies could haveacquired new methods of production. Business links could also havedeveloped among countries in different regions. Consequently, Joycewould imitate successful local practices while exploringopportunities in other countries.

Thenew manager’s understanding will also be manifested through herutilization of new technology. Innovative methods can be used tooptimize how workers perform various tasks (Hanna &amp Latchem,2013). In this regard, Joyce may encourage the adoption of the latesttechnological creations. For instance, advanced machines couldallocate tasks based on expertise and qualifications. Joyce wouldalso train staff members on how to use new technological platforms.Hence, skilled workers would ensure that the organization managed tofulfill its goals. Many objectives were primarily concerned withsatisfying the needs of the clients (Hanna &amp Latchem, 2013). Theemphasis on organizational excellence creates a competitiveatmosphere. Therefore, Joyce would focus on how to motivate theworkers to supersede their potential using new technology.

Asa 21st century manager, Joyce would also manifest anincreased understanding of how to ensure sustainability in thecompany’s practices. Galaxy had a vision to create inspiring toysfor children all over the globe. Therefore, the creation of bothcontemporary and classic space-related objects would reflect thestipulated regulations. Joyce would adopt sustainable practices thatallow the company to fulfill its goals without compromising thewelfare of other entities. Furthermore, the new manager will alsoendeavor to establish corporate social responsibility programs. Suchinitiatives show the company’s awareness of environmental factorspertinent to its survival. CSR programs may include communityoutreach, scholarships, and trust funds (Hanna &amp Latchem, 2013).Consequently, Joyce will manifest an increased willingness toconsider the needs of the local community.

Thenew manager will also evaluate the psychology of her subordinates. Inmany cases, human resources are classified according to theirrelative qualifications. Hence, job assignments consider the level ofexpertise of individual workers. Division of labor and specializationalso ensures that all staff members are engaged in specific tasks(Hanna &amp Latchem, 2013). However, a 21st centurymanager considers other factors that influence a worker’s level ofproductivity. For example, the emotional wellbeing of employees playsa significant role in their attitudes. Workers who are motivatedcustomarily yield better and faster output (Hanna &amp Latchem,2013). In this respect, Joyce would arrange for teambuildingactivities to foster friendships among the employees. Additionally,she may hold several meetings designed to acquire suggestions on howto accomplish the company’s objectives. Employees would feel valuedif their input was considered while making important decisions(Northouse, 2015). Many workers would be motivated by the prospect ofpromotions or financial rewards. Therefore, Joyce will manifest anin-depth understanding of the psychology of her subordinates.

Inaddition, a 21st century manager must be conscientioustowards the impact of their personnel decisions. Joyce wouldunderstand the significance of maintaining a healthy relationshipwith her staff members (Hanna &amp Latchem, 2013). The manager wouldalso learn from her mistakes while delivering a creative approach.Moreover, Joyce would understand the value of studying trends intechnology. Hence, she can anticipate future changes in productionand shipping practices. The 21st century manager must alsopursue strategies that satisfy both employees and stakeholders (Hanna&amp Latchem, 2013). The owners of a particular organization reapthe profits resulting from business practices. High-levelshareholders need adequate resources before making crucial decisions(Hanna &amp Latchem, 2013). On the other hand, high employeeturnover would cause the company to incur more expenses whiletraining new staff members.

Notably,the new approach to the job is likely to change the production andshipping department in several ways. Firstly, the workers willprovide faster outputs due to the high level of motivation. Employeeswould also increase their level of efficiency. In fact, enhancedcooperation among staff members would manifest in high-quality work(Northouse, 2015). Production deadlines would be met while companyresources will be used in a responsible manner. Hence, Galaxy willexperience reduced levels of wastage during production.

Theproduction and shipping department would also change due to theadoption of digital and technological applications. Such improvementswould manifest through automation procedures. Hence, the organizationcould reduce the number of its employees. The production and shippingdepartment may also adopt the use of analytical skills to createinnovative solutions.


Grachev, M., &amp Rakitsky, B. (2013). Historic horizons ofFrederick Taylor`s scientific management. Journal of ManagementHistory, 19(4), 512-527.

Hanna, D., &amp Latchem, C. (2013). Leadership for 21st CenturyLearning: Global Perspectives from International Experts. NewYork, NY: Routledge.

Northouse, P. G. (2015). Leadership: Theory and practice.Washington, D.C.: Sage publications.

Witzel, M., &amp Warner, M. (2013). The Oxford handbook ofmanagement theorists. Boston, Mass.: Oxford University Press.