ShouldPeople Travel?

Ladiesand gentlemen,

Mostof you sitting here today have traveled around and beyond the bordersof our country while a few have not gone beyond this state. Manyscholars and travel enthusiasts have researched on the benefits oftraveling to human beings.Today, I will to talk about their findings and discuss the reasons asto why traveling is necessary.

Travelingputs everything into perspective for an individual. Typically, peopletake some of the things they have for granted. When one experiencesfirsthand poverty in slums and the struggles of villages strugglingto rebuild after floods or a deadly hurricane, they get to view lifedifferently. It helps shape the way people see the world (Matthew &ampJames 740). They eventually realize just how blessed and privilegedthey are.

Thereis more education in traveling than what a classroom can offer in acentury’s worth of lessons. From learning a new language toexperiencing different cultures and making indigenous food, travelingprovides a learning experience that could only be imagined. Thisexperience also expands the mind of the traveler and makes theirbrain remain active (Matthew &amp James 732). The travel experiencesof touring the world also teach people simple but significant lifevirtues like tolerance, gratefulness, and patience.

Anindividual can build and maintain meaningful relationships andcontacts through traveling. The people one interacts with during thetrip can increase the social circle of the traveler (Angela &ampJames 721). When one is away from home, there are less socialboundaries, and therefore, there are a lot of potential friends andeven spouses. These people could be the locals and the fellowtourists who are curious to know who you are and where you come from.When one establishes new contacts, they become happier. Moreover, itis worth mentioning that the bond between family members and spousesis usually strengthened during travel experiences (Angela &amp James728).

Peoplethat travel tend to be more satisfied and fulfilled in life. Nomatter how well a trip is planned, there will always be events thatare unforeseeable. Some could be challenging while others could beinteresting. After overcoming some challenges experienced while on atrip, one is always invigorated and more willing to take upon anyother challenges in future (Chun-Chu &amp James 718). The occurrenceof unforeseeable events tests a person’s flexibility. Researchshows that people that travel are more flexible in life,relationships, and at the workplace than those that do not travel.Travelers can accept change and move on in life swiftly.

Touringthe world helps a person appreciate the beauty of the world. Manytimes, the news is filled with overwhelmingly bad news. As such,there need for traveling to explore the beauty that the world has tooffer. The relaxation that comes from the serenity of themother-nature helps an individual to meditate and make sound lifedecisions (Chun-Chu &amp James 714). Importantly, the life-longmemories are also created through experiencing the world’s beauty.

Thespirit of adventure is set up in people through traveling. It alsobrings one out of their comfort zone. Doing new and unfamiliaractivities develops an individual, in turn, boosting theirself-confidence (Chun-Chu &amp James 710). That feeling ofaccomplishment is important to a person’s self-discovery. Newactivities also help the traveler to learn and develop personalskills, which they never knew that they possessed.

AsI conclude, traveling is highly recommended to everybody because itboosts their inter-personal skill and broadens their perspective.Great memories are also created through touring the world. Moreover,traveling the world is good for the body, mind, and soul. So, do nothesitate to take that vacation, explore the world and experience whatit has to offer.

Thankyou all for listening to me!


Angela M. Durko, James F. Petrick. &quotFamily and Relationship Benefits of Travel Experiences.&quot Journal of Travel Research (2013): 720-730.

Chun-Chu Chen, James F. Petrick. &quotHealth and Wellness Benefits of Travel Experiences.&quot Journal of Travel Research (2013): 709-719.

Matthew J. Stone, James F. Petrick. &quotThe Educational Benefits of Travel Experiences.&quot Journal of Travel Research (2013): 731-744.


HigherEducation Funding: An Annotated Bibliography

Dougherty, Kevin J., Rebecca S. Natow, and Blanca E Vega. &quotPopular but Unstable: Explaining Why State Performance Funding Systems in the United States Often Do Not Persist.&quot Teachers College Record, v114 n3 2012 (2012): 1-41.

Thisjournal article analyzes the failure of state funding systems, basingon extended interviews with educational stakeholders and currentrecords. It further discusses the reasons against the currentperformance-based financing and the progress made by the states thatdropped that system. This report is significant to my research as itlies within the scope of my topic, although it is limited toperformance funding, I will expand on that in the course of thestudy.

Long,Bridget Terry. &quotMaking College Affordable by Improving AidPolicy.&quotIssues in Science and Technology 26, no. 4(2010).

Thisarticle examines the problem of affordability, the implications oflowering cost and effects of aid policy. Particularly, it providesinsight on how the assistance programs influence the decisions madeby aspiring college students. Moreover, the article discusses therole of loans in the welfare of students and making collegeaccessible to low-income students. It also discusses the ways ofmaking financial aid policies more efficient. The updated informationin this article goes in relevant to my research. Basing on myresearch topic, it will be useful and appropriate.

Mitchell,Michael, Vincent Palacios, and Michael Leachman. &quotStates arestill funding higher education below pre-recession levels.&quotCenteron Budget and Policy Priorities(2014).

Theauthors describe ways in which states have reduced funding and howeducation has been affected. They discuss how the cut in thefinancing has driven the tuition fee up, as the institutions nowshift the costs to the students. This article is relevant to my paperas it will analyze the effects of less funding in a bid to argue forfunding increment.

Samuels,Robert. WhyPublic Higher Education Should Be Free: How to Decrease Cost andIncrease Quality at American Universities.Chicago: Rutgers University Press, 2013.

Themain ideas that Samuel presents are how the costs of higher educationcan be decreased and quality increased. Additionally, he reviews theways of making higher education free. The author has technicalsupport for his ideas and proposals. In particular, this article willbe beneficial for my research because I will be analyzing whether ornot college funding should be increased.

TheOxford Review of Economic Policy Ltd. &quotUniversity funding andstudent funding: international comparisons .&quot Oxfordreview of economic policy(2016): 576-595.

Thisjournal compares the funding of students and universities. It furtheranalyzes how better funding improves the quality of education andstudent morale, which is a result of better facilities and resourcesfor research and studies. I have chosen this journal article becauseit suits the overview of my paper and has insights on reasons forincreased funding.


Politicsand Entertainment

Politicsand entertainment have been related for a while now. Ever since theend of the era where politics was domination and tyranny,entertainment has increasingly provided the grounds forneutralization of political heat. It is arguable that entertainmentcan impact the perception, thoughts, and actions of people towardsthe political world. For example, it is clear that members of theaudience do not separate news or entertainment media. There is atendency for individuals and texts to be hybrid. How people makesense of politics and how a variety of political information work intandem is fundamental to understanding the great role of media ingovernment, on the other hand, politicians also have to perform andkeep the audiences amused.

Mediahouses and entertainment platforms have increasingly incorporatedpolitics in their agendas. The news cannot afford to be boring.Therefore, politics commonly take center stage in the news (Bolinp.14). Musicians, actors, and other performers have also not laggedbehind on this. For many years, musicians and entertainers haveexpressed their political view through their work. The world ofentertainment and the political world are very different. However,they relate and work together to fulfill their separateself-interest. This relationship impacts the public discussion anddialogue around a broad scope of subjects.

Onthe other hand, politicians incorporate the media and entertainmentfraternity as a way of improving their public relations andperfecting their images. When they work together with the media andentertainers, they garner support from various divides and presentthemselves in the best ways they can (Bolin p.22). By associatingwith the entertainment world, they aim at addressing different topicsthrough the media so as to influence the public view. Manygovernments have the desire to control the media because theyunderstand the massive impact the media has on the masses.Additionally, the political world has embraced entertainment as itassists in knowing the public view and what the public desires. Agood example is the recently concluded the United States presidentialcampaigns the candidates totally incorporated the media in their bidto take The Oval Office. President-elect Donald Trump used theinternet and media to gain popularity and become a frontrunner in thecampaign (Reston, par. 5). His much-publicized controversies fromencouraging racism to inappropriate and personal comments aboutwomen, he knew just how to use the media to gain fame and popularitydespite the fact that it was all wrong and against the principlesthat the country stands for (Reston, par. 2). He knew how to spin thenews and get everyone talking about him that was good politics forhim.

Inmany instances, musicians, artists, and the media have collided withthe political world. When things get out of hand and politics is seento be violating the principles that the people stand for, thesegroups have stood up and criticized the governments and politicians.It is important to note that most governments and politicians do notlike criticism and they view it as opposition and rejection. Thiscollision has led to the bullying of the artists, journalists, andentertainers by the people in power. Even though this happens, thisgroup has been tasked by the public to voice their issues.

Themedia and the entertainers are often biased in some instances. Theyhave felt the strong urge to criticize and speak against certainpoliticians and government if they share different views even if itis in their selfish interests. Since the media and entertainers havea significant influence on the masses, the negative and biasedrepresentation of facts often leads to unrest and opposition againstthe people in power and for what they advocate.

Inconclusion, entertainment and politics emerge as interdependentforces even as they seem to be worlds apart. Politicians strive touse the media to present the best versions of them. Entertainment isalso appreciated more and more by the people in politics as it helpsconvince the masses and make them accept their agendas. Theentertainment world has also helped shaped the public opinion as wellas voice the public’s concern.


Bolin, Göran. Television Journalism, Politics, and Entertainment: Power and Autonomy in the Field of Television Journalism. Chicago, 13 March 2014.

Reston, Maeve. Donald Trump tests the limits of his showman style. New York, 16 June 2016.



TheCrucibleis arguably Arthur Miller’s best creation. Miller wrote TheCruciblebasing on the events of a little Massachusetts’ village, Salem. In1692, a witch hunt sent the once tranquil community into hysteria.John Proctor, Reverend Parris, and Danforth are the authoritycharacters in the play. However, they are caught up with theirmotivations and agendas during the Salem trials even as each of themstruggles to display the best versions of them. Danforth, deputygovernor, is the custodian of the law Reverend Parris is thereligious leader of this small Puritan society while John Proctor isa farmer and a well-respected family man. Thecrucibleis founded on law, order and authority and the three above mentionedcharacters portray various motivations on the stands they all takeduring the trials.


Withhigh values and upright character, the Puritan society regarded himwith great respect. Despite his moral indiscretion at some point,Proctor is the protagonist in this play (Bloom 15). He was determinednot to be caught up in the wave of hysteria that the witch trialsbrought to the village. This was what encouraged him to find andreveal the lies and falsehood. He exposed the Putnams by uncoveringthat they had motivated the girls to act as if they were attacked. Bydoing this, he wanted to prove that the Putnams were merely jealousbecause they had lost seven children (Miller 52). Additionally,Proctor is motivated to stand with the truth even if it meantsacrificing himself to validate his claims of Abigail being a liar. Although he did not sign the confession paper, he respected the courtand its processes, and that is the reason he accepted his conviction.


ReverendParris is the religious leader of this small Puritan society. Amajority of the townsfolk disliked him because he was self-absorbedand paranoid (Bloom 26). Parris only worries about his reputationwhich is unlike what is expected of a clergyman. Nevertheless, as thetrials proceeded, his fundamental motivation was to disapprove hisenemies, whom he believed wanted him to leave Salem. Apart from that,he had the urge of having his enemies persecuted. Parris had seen hisdaughter dancing in the woods but still aligned with the court tohide any association to witchcraft. He also stood with the court toshow that he believed in God’s laws, and also gain materialpossessions, such as the deed to the pastor’s house (Miller 67).

DeputyGovernor Danforth

Danforthis a straightforward and stern man and is the presiding judge in thewitch trials. According to Bloom (98), he is powerful andauthoritative, and he avoids delaying any executions to reinforce hisfirm and resolute stature. Moreover, he wants to restore law andorder by upholding the court’s repute. When he forced Proctor toput his signature on a confession, he proved his interest ofadherence to the law during the trials and believed that byconvicting the witches, he was doing what is right.

Salemis a theocracy meaning that God is the ultimate judge and arbiter.The Deputy Governor Danforth and Reverend Parris, however, arecustodians of legislation. Nonetheless, Miller depicts law and orderin this play in an entertaining manner. Through the charactersdiscussed above, he shows that individuals are capable of using thelaw for their own personal gain, as in the case of Reverend Parris(Bloom 108). On the other hand, through deputy governor Danforth, heshows that laws could be executed reasonably and justly if entrustedto the right people.

Accordingto Kohlberg’s theory on moral stages, individuals will makedecisions or act in line with what they stand to gain, obedience tothe law, to win other people’s approval, among other things. Inthis play, it is evident that Reverend Parris acts to fulfill selfishdesires. Lastly, these three characters are relevant to the play’stitle as they all go through severe testing of their characters andbeliefs.

Inconclusion, Parris, Danforth, and Proctor each reflect the play titlein a unique manner. Miller uses them to depict his thoughts on lawand order, and how different people view it. As a result, custodiansof the law could either reinforce it reasonably or misuse it as theyplease.


Bloom, Harold. Arthur Miller`s The Crucible. Chicago: Infobase Publishing, 2008.

Miller, Arthur. The Crucible: A Play in Four Acts. New York: Penguin Books, 2003.


Geographyof Latin America

Importsubstitution industrialization and neoliberalism are economicpolicies used by nations to spur economic growth in their countries.In Latin America, these two policies have been heavily utilized inthe past. Both of them have had different impacts on the urbangeography of Latin America. The aim of this paper is to create anunderstanding of the profoundly different influences of these twopolicies by differentiating between the two policies and thencomparing and contrasting their respective effects on urban areas.Also, an examination of relevant core terms will be conducted.

Differencebetween the policies

ImportSubstitution Industrialization

ImportSubstitution Industrialization (ISI) is an economic and trade policythat advocates for increased self-sufficiency and decreaseddependence on foreign countries through the replacement of importswith domestic production (Westra 38). Albeit tracing its beginningsin the 18thcentury, ISI was heavily used in 20th-centuryeconomic development particularly in Latin America where manycountries focused on local production of industrialized commodities.The policy uses techniques such as trade protectionist policies,subsidies, barriers to trade such as tariffs and high taxes, and notsupporting foreign direct investment to lead economic development andgrowth.

Inthe 1950’s through the 1980’s the ISI policies gained prominencein Latin America as a result of works by various economics as well asthe establishment of the UN economic commission for Latin America andthe Caribbean. The rationale behind the policy is that if localproduction is stressed, primary industries will actively gatherresources from other sectors and utilize such resources efficientlyleading to increase in total factor productivity and an accumulationof capital. Therefore, the developing country will build theessential competencies needed to compete in international markets onan equal basis with the more developed nations. Also, higher outputgrowth rate will stimulate rapid technological development.


Neoliberalismis an economic policy that represented the re-emergence on 19thcentury liberalistic ideas (Westra 67). It is an economic policymodel that aims to facilitate economic growth and development bytransferring economic control from the public domain to the privatesector. The policy works in an almost opposite way to ISI since,while ISI imposes restrictions to foreign goods, neoliberalism isprimarily concerned with policies and techniques that will open upthe market. Hence, in neoliberalism, trade protectionist policies arelimited, tariffs, subsidies, and taxes reduced and deficit spendinglimited. Therefore, by reducing the barriers and regulators to trade,neoliberalism approaches free up the economy and enhances privatesector power over public sector power by restricting the power of thegovernment to influence the economy. Financialization in the 1970’sand 80’s is mostly attributed to the reemergence of neoliberalismwhere concepts of privatization,reduced government spending, free trade, fiscal austerity, andderegulation were widely promoted.

Effectsof import substitution industrialization and neoliberalism on urbanurbanization

Importsubstitution industrialization in Latin America influenced the urbangeography of the involved countries in a variety of ways. Despite jobcreation and increased economic growth in the short run, ISItechniques are not sustainable in the long term. The first impact ofimport industrialization substitution on the urban geography of LatinAmerica was the stimulation of urban growth. Urbangrowthis the expansion of a metropolitan area into the nearby environments.As the countries implemented more restrictions on foreign goods,local production through industrialization was encouraged. Therefore,many industries were set up in urban areas. Besides, the increasedfocus on manufacturing led to the neglection of other sectors of theeconomy such as agriculture. This is because protection raisesmanufactured goods’ prices and lowers the prices of farm produces. As a result, many people migrated from the rural areas to the citiesto seek for jobs and take advantage of the new opportunitiespresented by increased industrialization. However, people migrated tothe urban areas at higher rates than the rate of growth of the urbanmarkets and infrastructural facilities leading to overurbanizationwhich is the growth of urban populations to levels that surpass theurban area’s capacity.

Furthermore,ISI resulted in increased urban primacy and the development ofsquatter settlements. Urbanprimacyis the ratio of the largest city in a country to the second largestcity indicating centrality within the network of urban cities withgreater levels of dominance. ISI limits a country’s access toforeign manufactured goods and promotes investments in heavy industryand manufacturing sectors. However, most of these investments takeplace in the already large cities leading to an increase in urbanprimacy. ISI also led to increased preferences of profits over wages.Also, there was a mushrooming of haphazard manufacturing firms withbelow par efficiencies due to lack of competition reducing theexploitative capacities of existing economies of scale. This led toinequities in the distribution of income and, hence, a rise inpoverty levels. The informalsectorwas heavily affected as a result since housing prices rose whileunemployment and revenue levels plummeted. In response, individualsmoved from well-off areas within the cities and set up shanty townswith improvised housing on the periphery of cities where life wassomehow cheaper. Such settlements are the squattersettlementsand are generally located trash dump sites, rivers, lagoons, railroadtracks, and other poor areas. Also, gendercitiesemerged because more men than women worked in factories while in thesquatter settlements women could not move freely due to risk ofviolence and rape. Thus, ISI ensured that gender inequalities havebeen woven into the fabric of the cities.

Neoliberalism,on the other hand, has also influenced the geography of urban citiesin Latin America, but in a different manner than import substitutionindustrialization. Latin America countries like Argentina implementedthe policy in the 1960’s to stimulate economic growth. Fiscalausterity policies were implemented, the market was opened up toforeign competition and privatization(transferof industries from the public to the private sector) encouraged.Neoliberalism reduces economic progression in the short-term as thecountry adjusts to international competition, but as foreignenterprises begin to invest directly into the urban areas and localcompetencies and sound market policies are created, urban growth isfostered. Hence, neoliberalism leads to the expansion of urbancities, but without the problems of ISI such as increased urbanprimacy, overurbanization, income and gender inequality, shantysettlements and high unemployment rates. In addition, neoliberalismentails careful planning on the part of the government andpolicymakers leading to the growth of healthy and prosperous urbancenters.


Westra,Richard. ConfrontingGlobal Neoliberalism: Third World Resistance and DevelopmentStrategies.Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press, 2011.Print