‘Commonwealth’and International Relations Theories
‘Commonwealth’and International Relations Theories
Inthe first part of ‘Commonwealth,’(Page1 to 55), Hardt and Negri introduce the ideas of public wealth,private property, and political systems. Essentially, they state thatthe purpose of this section is to make readers understand thatrationalization of property is the basis of the contemporarypolitical structure. It is the notion that equality between themiddle class and the rich is what can make a republic prosperous(Hardt & Negri, 2009). Hardt and Negri use internationalrelations theoretical bases to explain the concepts of prosperity andpublic governance.
Republicof Property (page 1 to 21)
Hardtand Negri set off by condemning most modern scholarly and popularaddresses which confuse the connection between law and capital. Theauthors aim to illustrate the relationship between the two phenomena,thus the link between politics and economy. They desire to movescholars from their prejudiced understanding of the political systemto a logical critique of democracy (Onuf, 2012). The writers’criticism shows how law and capital are entangled together in a waythat the result of the connection is what they refer to as therepublic of property. Through this, the book’s section exploreswhat leads to a successful social life. The modern civilization isfounded on the right of property. However, it disregards those who donot have the privilege to own private property. Historically, therepublic of property began as the fundamental idea of democracy andis still the basis of every contemporary political structure (Hardt &Negri, 2009). Private property has become the right of everyindividual.
Theauthors’ main wish at this part is to provide an overview of thefirst international relations theory which is realism. To stay inline with the theory, every state struggles with for the purpose ofintensifying its own influence. Therefore, the authors use thistheory to explain why it is essential for the public to have a goodunderstanding of economy and law. They state that such an insightinfluences everyone to participate in increasing the power of theirstates. The contribution in such matters appears as a challengingmission, but it can be achieved through realism (Kydd, 2015). Thepublic requires creativity to satisfy the features of the theory.While realism offers the mechanisms to defend the republic ofproperty, Hardt and Negri help readers to see how democracy for themasses can be made a reality.
ProductiveBodies (pages 22 to 38)
Thissection emphasizes the idea of capitalism and how it still rules thecontemporary culture. At the same time, it triggers critical thinkingas well as the form of political structure that is needed to breakthe logic of capitalism. The Marxist view of property makes it easyfor Hardt and Negri to explore the aspect of consumerist production.They critique capitalism and regard it as a system that leads tocorruption and commodification of everything (Hardt & Negri,2009). The authors center their discussion on capitalist cultures andexplain the relevance of analyzing organizations.
Hardtand Negri adopt the theory of Marxism as a way of showing thepossibility of freedom through struggles. Beside their own thoughts,the authors use Marx theoretical framework to examine the connectionbetween power, poverty, and privatized property. They maintain thattheir approaches are materialist like the Marxist studies. Accordingto two authors, it is significant for everyone to embark onaccounting of property and evaluation of bodies. The section alsorelates to the theory of liberalism. The model points out that theties between nations have made it challenging for people to explaintheir national interests (Kydd, 2015). In this view, the authors’analysis of bodies and political power is suitable when one needs tostudy the modern forms of consumerist societies.
TheMasses of the Poor (Pages 39 to 55)
Hardtand Negri emphasize that the poor population is the opposite of thepreviously described republic of Property. Because the republiccontrols property and avoids the poor from accessing it, there isalways unending war between the well-off and the disadvantaged people(Hardt & Negri, 2009). The authors describe this struggle as theone exhibited between those who do not have roles in the governmentand those who do. The poor find themselves at the lower end ofindustrialism while the rich are always at its core.
TheIR theory applied at this part is idealism which a component ofliberalism and emphasizes why states must follow moral courses forthem to remain ethical in the global arena. According to Negri andHardt, idealism provides a theoretical basis for the study ofstruggles between the republic of property and multitude of the poor(Kydd, 2015). It is through idealism that one can begin to see thepoor masses as people with an inherent ability. In the authors’view, the less privileged members of the society need not to berestricted to the lowest tiers of the economic system (Hardt &Negri, 2009). They believe that for a society to be in line with thedemands of idealism, it must ensure that ranks are made available foreveryone regardless of the level of their possession.
Hardt,M., & Negri, A. (2009). Commonwealth. Cambridge, Mass: BelknapPress of Harvard University Press.
Kydd,A. H. (2015). International Relations Theory. Cambridge UniversityPress.
Onuf,N. G. (2012). World of our making: rules and rule in social theoryand international relations. Routledge.