Dental Caries in Children

DentalCaries in Children

Thetitle given to the articles’ report is suitable because it reflectsthe major information included in each review. A reader can acquirean idea regarding the issue that is addressed in the paper by justanalyzing the heading. For instance, Chou et al. (2015) gave aprecise and detailed heading, which was enough to inform a researcherthe content discussed.

Abstract

Formost of the sources used in the study, the abstracts provide aconcise and informative description of the research. The criticaldata analyzed in the sections include the results, problems, methodsand the conclusion drawn by the investigators. Nonetheless, somearticles lack all this information in the general section, but theabstract still offers valuable information. Sheiham (2016) and Chouet al. (2015), for instance, lacks all the details, but theysummarize the objective of the research, findings and some of thechallenges caused by dental caries among children.

ProblemStatement

Thereport has avowed the problem statement in a clear manner. Moreover,the declaration is easy to locate because it is situated in theintroduction paragraph. Besides, the report is valuable in thenursing career because it offers strategies for preventing dentalcaries among children. Besides, it provides information on suitabletechniques that can be applied in the treatment of dental cariesamong the affected kids. Although a qualitative approach in isapplicable in this exploration, mixed research method would beappropriate, given that the report used different methods to gatherthe information.

Hypotheses/ResearchQuestions

Insome of the articles, the research questions are stated explicitly atthe top. Nonetheless, some of the sources lack clear hypotheses, butthey have distinctly indicated the objective of the studies. In thatcase, the target audience can create the theories once theyunderstand the intention of the investigators. However, for thesources that contain the research questions, they are wordedexcellently, and the major variables are indentified. Furthermore,the study population in some papers is defined, but some referencesused in the report only show the study approaches applied withoutspecifying the precise population that was investigated. It isnoteworthy that all the sources featured in the research questionswere consistent with the theoretical and literature structure.

LiteratureReview

Inthe case of the support sources used in the creation of the report,all the references are recent and up-to-date. The oldest articleswere published five years ago ( i.e. 2011) while the most recent werepublished in 2016. The literature analysis is crucial because itoffers a reliable point of reference for the topic discussed –dental caries in children. In all the studies, the investigators haveclearly identified the research gaps and proposed questions thatcould assist in the future analysis of the topic.

Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

Theprimary concepts under study are vividly defined. Jackson et al.(2011), for example, explains the approach, method and the expectedfindings of the research hey conducted. The introduction serves asthe theoretical framework because it explains the steps that theinvestigators followed to come up with the results. The study wasintended to identify the significance of children’s oral health toschool performance and truancy. It further indicated that theinvestigators integrated quantitative (descriptive statistics) andqualitative methods to analyze data obtained from the North CarolinaChild Health Assessment and Monitoring Program (CHAMP). Based on theinformation included in the study, the intended audience can easilyidentify the conceptual map and the rationale utilized by theauthors. Although some articles used to inform the report lackstheoretical framework, the conceptual plan can help investigators tounderstand the approach followed to reach the conclusion indicated.

Method

Protectionof Participants’ Rights

Inall the case studies conducted to investigate the various effects ofdental caries among school going children, the study subjects wereclearly informed of the purpose of the data collected. Moreover, theresearchers sought permission from the respective institutions beforeusing the health information of the students. Moreover, the identityof the particular children whose health information was used remainedconfidential for ethical reasons. It is noteworthy that the dentalreport was made in a way that it could maximize the benefits ofchildren who are either affected or vulnerable to the illness. Infact, the researchers intended to gather information that could helpto curb the spread of the disease among the school-going children.

ResearchDesign

Thedata collection strategies used were enough to inform the report. Theinvestigators used ten independent and peer-reviewed articles.Furthermore, the reports mainly applied the mixed method,particularly, quantitative and qualitative research methods, todecrease the risks to the external and internal validity constructs.Examples of research designs used included survey, sampling, andmeta-analysis research methods among others. The combination ofmultiple techniques ensured to decrease the bias that could resultdue to the inaccuracies of the investigation approach utilized.

Populationand Sample

Inmost of the sources used to inform the research, the population wasidentified, as well as described. However, the actual identity of thestudents observed was not revealed to maintain their privacy. Thepopulation was described discreetly to enlighten the target audienceon the main features the investigators were analyzing, but theindividual description of the intended readers was not provided.Nevertheless, some of the articles mentioned the populationconsidered without going into detail since they were reviewingprimary data gathered by other bodies. For example, Çolak,Dülgergil, Dalli, and Hamidi (2013) surveyed data of patients fromdifferent dental clinics. In such cases, it was impossible for theinvestigators to acquire the actual information of the patientsevaluated. Nevertheless, lack of identity of the real patients didnot compromise the validity of the results since the information waskept confidential to comply with the set ethical standards.

DataCollection and Measurement

Inthe case of information gathering, the report has used variousapproaches that are described explicitly. Although the research doesnot offer any evidence to prove that the investigation method appliedyielded either reliable or valid information, one can conclude thatthe data is unquestionable since the sources are peer-reviewed.Besides, the research approach used is clearly defined and measures,such as using a significant sample of students, applied to avoidbias.

Discussion

Interpretationof the Findings

Allthe original findings from the study are first explained in therelationship to the conceptual framework of the current study.Moreover, all the studies are in line with both the study results, aswell as some of the limitations of the research. Overall, the reportdoes offer an overview of the general effect of dental caries amongschool age children. Some of the issues discussed include thelong-term implications of the condition, major causes of the disease,recommended treatment, the effect of the illness on the self-esteemand personality among others factors.

Implications/Recommendations

Inall the cases used to inform the report, the researchers havediscussed the effect of the study to the research. For instance,Sheiham (2016) attribute tooth decay to adverse effects on studentssuch as loss of self-confidence and weight loss. Furthermore, theresearcher points out reduced cerebral and intellectual growth asanother possible development defect associated with the illness.Based on the evidence gathered, the implications are true sincestudents suffering from tooth decay have speech problems, frequenttoothaches that could hinder their ability to feed well and unsightlyshape of mouth due to lack of teeth. The combination of theseoutcomes would make an individual to lack self-esteem and propermental development due to lack of essential nutrients needed for ahealthy mind.

GlobalIssues

Presentation

Thereport followed a logical approach, which included an abstract,introduction, body and conclusion. The abstract provided the readerwith a brief summary of the information that would be discussed inthe report. Similarly, the introduction briefly analyzed the issueswhile the body discussed them in detail. Finally, the conclusion gavea brief review of the results and findings determined in the body.Subsequently, presently the report to an audience would be easy sincethe information is arranged in a logic approach. Furthermore, eachsection discusses unique information intended to enrich the knowledgeof medical practitioners, parents, educators and children on theissue of prevention and treatment of tooth decay.

ResearcherCredibility

Theidentity of the researcher enhances the confidence of the validity ofthe individual cases used to inform the report on the effects ofdental caries to school-age children. For instance, the data gatheredin the Mandal et al. (2013) study is credible because theinvestigators are government representatives specializing ingathering data from the parents and guardians of children below 17years in the United States. The professionals conduct the studiesannually therefore, they are skilled and informed on the rightparents to call to obtain dental information of the kids. First, theinvestigators use telephone interview method, which means theyacquire primary data from the parents of the affected patients.Secondly, the analysts are used to gathering the health data of thepopulation every year across the United States hence, they areinformed about the most reliable techniques of collecting reliabledata. Considering that multiple professionals conducted the majorityof the studies with interest in achieving dental health of children,the entire report is highly credible.

Procedures

Theinformation was gathered using different approaches such asquantitative and qualitative analyses, sampling, personal interviewsand literature analysis. The canvassers combined numerous ways toeliminate bias in data collection. Besides, the staff behind thecompilation of the studies used to inform the report was composed ofprofessionals involved in developing strategies for ensuring goodhealth among children.

Results

Dataanalysis

Allthe studies conducted in the study aimed at testing the hypothesesidentified in the research. Given that there was a lot of data thatneeded to be analyzed, the application statistical analysis was asuitable option. For instance, Shakya et al. (2013) applied the SPSS11 software to acquire accurate data of the patients reviewed.

Findings

Theresearchers concluded that dental caries affects numerousschool-going children after evaluating the data using statisticalmethods. Nonetheless, the summary of the findings was not presentedusing tables and visible figures therefore, it is difficult todetermine the accuracy of the statistical data analyzed. Fortunately,the findings are reported in a simple language and numbers that makeit easy for even non-experts in the field to understand the concepts.Given that the researchers have focused on elaborating the meaning ofthe statistical data, the results can be used to inform theevidence-based treatment approaches.

assessment

Giventhat the study drew conclusions based on the evaluation of a widerange of data analyzed using statistical methods, it is safe to haveconfidence in the findings. The reliability of the research isenhanced by the fact that the conclusions complement previous studiesconducted by independent researchers. Consequently, the resultsacquired about dental caries are essential to nurses and otherpractitioners as it can help them to improve the quality andtreatment strategies used for children with teeth issues.

Reference

Alkarimi,H., Watt, R., Pikhart, H., Sheiham, A., &amp Tsakos, G. (2014).Dental caries and growth in school-age children. Pediatrics,133(3),616-623.

Benzian,H., Monse, B., Heinrich-Weltzien, R., Hobdell, M., Mulder, J., &ampvan PalensteinHelderman, W. (2011). Untreated severe dental decay: aneglected determinant of low Body Mass Index in 12-year-old Filipinochildren.&nbspBMCPublic Health,&nbsp11(1),1.http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-11-558

Bonecker,M., Abanto, J., Tello, G &amp Oliveira, L. (2014). Impact of DentalCaries on Preschool Children’s Quality of Life: An Update.BrazilianOral Research, 26(1).

Chou,R., Cantor, A., Zakher, B., Mitchell, J. P., &amp Pappas, M. (2013).Preventing dental caries in children &lt 5 years: Systematic reviewupdating USPSTF recommendation. Pediatrics,peds-2013. Retrieved October 20, 2016,http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/132/2/332

Çolak,H., Dülgergil, Ç. T., Dalli, M., &amp Hamidi, M. M. (2013). Earlychildhood caries update: a review of causes, diagnoses, andtreatments.&nbspJournalof Natural Science, Biology and Medicine,&nbsp4(1),29. Retrieved from:&nbsphttp://www.jnsbm.org/article.asp?issn=0976-9668year=2013volume=4issue=1spage=29epage=38aulast=%C7olakon 4thOctober, 2016.

Esa,R., Ong, A. L., Humphris, G., &amp Freeman, R. (2014). Therelationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysianadolescents: a latent variable approach. BMCoral health,14(19), 1.

HakanÇolak,Ç. D. (2013). Earlychildhood caries update: A review of causes, diagnoses, andtreatments.Retrieved September 27, 2016, from:http://www.jnsbm.org/article.asp?issn=0976-9668year=2013volume=4issue=1spage=29epage=38aulast=%C7olak

Jackson,S. L., Vann Jr, W. F., Kotch, J. B., Pahel, B. T., &amp Lee, J. Y.(2011). Impact of poor oral health on children`s school attendanceand performance.&nbspAmericanJournal of Public Health,&nbsp101(10),1900-1906. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3222359/

Krisdapong,S., Prasertsom, P., Rattanarangsima, K., Sheiham, A. (2013). Schoolabsence due to toothache associated with sociodemographic factors,dental caries status, and oral health-related quality of life in 12-and 15-year-old Thai children. JPublic Health Dent, 73(4):321-8.

Lueangpiansamut,U., Chatrchaiwiwatana, S., Muktabhant, B. &amp Inthalohit, W.(2012). Relationship between dental caries status, nutritionalstatus, snack foods, and sugar sweetened beverages consumption amongprimary schoolchildren grade 4-6 in Nongbua Khamsaen School, Na KlangDistrict, Nongbua Lampoo Province, Thailand. Journalof the Medical Association of Thailand, 95(8):1090-7. Retrieved from http://jmat.mat.or.th

Mandal,M., Edelstein, B. L., Ma, S., &amp Minkovitz, C. S. (2013). Changesin children’s oral health status and receipt of preventive dentalvisits, United States, 2003–2011/2012.&nbspPreventingchronic disease,&nbsp10(8),166-174. LINK: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3854874/

Quock,R.L. (2015). Dental caries: A current understanding andimplications. Journalof Nature and Science, 1(1)e27.

Raj,S., Goel, S., Sharma, V., &amp Goel, N. (2013). Short-term impact oforal hygiene training package to Anganwadi workers on improving oralhygiene of preschool children in North Indian City. BMCoral health,13(1),1.

Shakya,A., Shrestha, M., Shrestha, A., &ampPrasai, L. (2013). Dental cariesprevalence, oral health knowledge and practice among indigenousChepang school children of Nepal. BMCOral Health.http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6831-13-20LINK:http://bmcoralhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6831-13-20

Shanbhog,R., Godhi, B. S., Nandlal, B., Kumar, S. S., Raju, V., &amp Rashmi,S. (2013). Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries evaluatedusing PUFA index in orphanage children from India. Journalof International Oral Health : JIOH,5(5),1–9. LINK: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3845277/

Sheiham,A. (2016). Dental caries affects body weight, growth, and the qualityof life in pre-school children. BritishDental Journal,625 – 626. Retrieved 15thOctober 15, 2016, fromhttp://www.nature.com/bdj/journal/v201/n10/full/4814259a.html

VargheseN.J. etal.(2016). Healthier choice symbols for cariogenic foods. OralHealth and Dentistry, 1(1),4-7.

Xavier,A., de Carvalho, É. S., da Silva Bastos, R., de Lourdes Caldana, M.,Damiance, P., &amp de Magalhães Bastos, J. (2016). Impact of dentalcaries on quality of life of adolescents according to access to oralhealth services: a cross sectional study. BrazilianJournal of Oral Sciences,15(1),1-7.

Dental Caries in Children

DentalCaries in Children

Thetitle given to the articles’ report is suitable because it reflectsthe major information included in each review. A reader can acquirean idea regarding the issue that is addressed in the paper by justanalyzing the heading. For instance, Chou et al. (2015) gave aprecise and detailed heading, which was enough to inform a researcherthe content discussed.

Abstract

Formost of the sources used in the study, the abstracts provide aconcise and informative description of the research. The criticaldata analyzed in the sections include the results, problems, methodsand the conclusion drawn by the investigators. Nonetheless, somearticles lack all this information in the general section, but theabstract still offers valuable information. Sheiham (2016) and Chouet al. (2015), for instance, lacks all the details, but theysummarize the objective of the research, findings and some of thechallenges caused by dental caries among children.

ProblemStatement

Thereport has avowed the problem statement in a clear manner. Moreover,the declaration is easy to locate because it is situated in theintroduction paragraph. Besides, the report is valuable in thenursing career because it offers strategies for preventing dentalcaries among children. Besides, it provides information on suitabletechniques that can be applied in the treatment of dental cariesamong the affected kids. Although a qualitative approach in isapplicable in this exploration, mixed research method would beappropriate, given that the report used different methods to gatherthe information.

Hypotheses/ResearchQuestions

Insome of the articles, the research questions are stated explicitly atthe top. Nonetheless, some of the sources lack clear hypotheses, butthey have distinctly indicated the objective of the studies. In thatcase, the target audience can create the theories once theyunderstand the intention of the investigators. However, for thesources that contain the research questions, they are wordedexcellently, and the major variables are indentified. Furthermore,the study population in some papers is defined, but some referencesused in the report only show the study approaches applied withoutspecifying the precise population that was investigated. It isnoteworthy that all the sources featured in the research questionswere consistent with the theoretical and literature structure.

LiteratureReview

Inthe case of the support sources used in the creation of the report,all the references are recent and up-to-date. The oldest articleswere published five years ago ( i.e. 2011) while the most recent werepublished in 2016. The literature analysis is crucial because itoffers a reliable point of reference for the topic discussed –dental caries in children. In all the studies, the investigators haveclearly identified the research gaps and proposed questions thatcould assist in the future analysis of the topic.

Conceptual/Theoretical Framework

Theprimary concepts under study are vividly defined. Jackson et al.(2011), for example, explains the approach, method and the expectedfindings of the research hey conducted. The introduction serves asthe theoretical framework because it explains the steps that theinvestigators followed to come up with the results. The study wasintended to identify the significance of children’s oral health toschool performance and truancy. It further indicated that theinvestigators integrated quantitative (descriptive statistics) andqualitative methods to analyze data obtained from the North CarolinaChild Health Assessment and Monitoring Program (CHAMP). Based on theinformation included in the study, the intended audience can easilyidentify the conceptual map and the rationale utilized by theauthors. Although some articles used to inform the report lackstheoretical framework, the conceptual plan can help investigators tounderstand the approach followed to reach the conclusion indicated.

Method

Protectionof Participants’ Rights

Inall the case studies conducted to investigate the various effects ofdental caries among school going children, the study subjects wereclearly informed of the purpose of the data collected. Moreover, theresearchers sought permission from the respective institutions beforeusing the health information of the students. Moreover, the identityof the particular children whose health information was used remainedconfidential for ethical reasons. It is noteworthy that the dentalreport was made in a way that it could maximize the benefits ofchildren who are either affected or vulnerable to the illness. Infact, the researchers intended to gather information that could helpto curb the spread of the disease among the school-going children.

ResearchDesign

Thedata collection strategies used were enough to inform the report. Theinvestigators used ten independent and peer-reviewed articles.Furthermore, the reports mainly applied the mixed method,particularly, quantitative and qualitative research methods, todecrease the risks to the external and internal validity constructs.Examples of research designs used included survey, sampling, andmeta-analysis research methods among others. The combination ofmultiple techniques ensured to decrease the bias that could resultdue to the inaccuracies of the investigation approach utilized.

Populationand Sample

Inmost of the sources used to inform the research, the population wasidentified, as well as described. However, the actual identity of thestudents observed was not revealed to maintain their privacy. Thepopulation was described discreetly to enlighten the target audienceon the main features the investigators were analyzing, but theindividual description of the intended readers was not provided.Nevertheless, some of the articles mentioned the populationconsidered without going into detail since they were reviewingprimary data gathered by other bodies. For example, Çolak,Dülgergil, Dalli, and Hamidi (2013) surveyed data of patients fromdifferent dental clinics. In such cases, it was impossible for theinvestigators to acquire the actual information of the patientsevaluated. Nevertheless, lack of identity of the real patients didnot compromise the validity of the results since the information waskept confidential to comply with the set ethical standards.

DataCollection and Measurement

Inthe case of information gathering, the report has used variousapproaches that are described explicitly. Although the research doesnot offer any evidence to prove that the investigation method appliedyielded either reliable or valid information, one can conclude thatthe data is unquestionable since the sources are peer-reviewed.Besides, the research approach used is clearly defined and measures,such as using a significant sample of students, applied to avoidbias.

Discussion

Interpretationof the Findings

Allthe original findings from the study are first explained in therelationship to the conceptual framework of the current study.Moreover, all the studies are in line with both the study results, aswell as some of the limitations of the research. Overall, the reportdoes offer an overview of the general effect of dental caries amongschool age children. Some of the issues discussed include thelong-term implications of the condition, major causes of the disease,recommended treatment, the effect of the illness on the self-esteemand personality among others factors.

Implications/Recommendations

Inall the cases used to inform the report, the researchers havediscussed the effect of the study to the research. For instance,Sheiham (2016) attribute tooth decay to adverse effects on studentssuch as loss of self-confidence and weight loss. Furthermore, theresearcher points out reduced cerebral and intellectual growth asanother possible development defect associated with the illness.Based on the evidence gathered, the implications are true sincestudents suffering from tooth decay have speech problems, frequenttoothaches that could hinder their ability to feed well and unsightlyshape of mouth due to lack of teeth. The combination of theseoutcomes would make an individual to lack self-esteem and propermental development due to lack of essential nutrients needed for ahealthy mind.

GlobalIssues

Presentation

Thereport followed a logical approach, which included an abstract,introduction, body and conclusion. The abstract provided the readerwith a brief summary of the information that would be discussed inthe report. Similarly, the introduction briefly analyzed the issueswhile the body discussed them in detail. Finally, the conclusion gavea brief review of the results and findings determined in the body.Subsequently, presently the report to an audience would be easy sincethe information is arranged in a logic approach. Furthermore, eachsection discusses unique information intended to enrich the knowledgeof medical practitioners, parents, educators and children on theissue of prevention and treatment of tooth decay.

ResearcherCredibility

Theidentity of the researcher enhances the confidence of the validity ofthe individual cases used to inform the report on the effects ofdental caries to school-age children. For instance, the data gatheredin the Mandal et al. (2013) study is credible because theinvestigators are government representatives specializing ingathering data from the parents and guardians of children below 17years in the United States. The professionals conduct the studiesannually therefore, they are skilled and informed on the rightparents to call to obtain dental information of the kids. First, theinvestigators use telephone interview method, which means theyacquire primary data from the parents of the affected patients.Secondly, the analysts are used to gathering the health data of thepopulation every year across the United States hence, they areinformed about the most reliable techniques of collecting reliabledata. Considering that multiple professionals conducted the majorityof the studies with interest in achieving dental health of children,the entire report is highly credible.

Procedures

Theinformation was gathered using different approaches such asquantitative and qualitative analyses, sampling, personal interviewsand literature analysis. The canvassers combined numerous ways toeliminate bias in data collection. Besides, the staff behind thecompilation of the studies used to inform the report was composed ofprofessionals involved in developing strategies for ensuring goodhealth among children.

Results

Dataanalysis

Allthe studies conducted in the study aimed at testing the hypothesesidentified in the research. Given that there was a lot of data thatneeded to be analyzed, the application statistical analysis was asuitable option. For instance, Shakya et al. (2013) applied the SPSS11 software to acquire accurate data of the patients reviewed.

Findings

Theresearchers concluded that dental caries affects numerousschool-going children after evaluating the data using statisticalmethods. Nonetheless, the summary of the findings was not presentedusing tables and visible figures therefore, it is difficult todetermine the accuracy of the statistical data analyzed. Fortunately,the findings are reported in a simple language and numbers that makeit easy for even non-experts in the field to understand the concepts.Given that the researchers have focused on elaborating the meaning ofthe statistical data, the results can be used to inform theevidence-based treatment approaches.

assessment

Giventhat the study drew conclusions based on the evaluation of a widerange of data analyzed using statistical methods, it is safe to haveconfidence in the findings. The reliability of the research isenhanced by the fact that the conclusions complement previous studiesconducted by independent researchers. Consequently, the resultsacquired about dental caries are essential to nurses and otherpractitioners as it can help them to improve the quality andtreatment strategies used for children with teeth issues.

Reference

Alkarimi,H., Watt, R., Pikhart, H., Sheiham, A., &amp Tsakos, G. (2014).Dental caries and growth in school-age children. Pediatrics,133(3),616-623.

Benzian,H., Monse, B., Heinrich-Weltzien, R., Hobdell, M., Mulder, J., &ampvan PalensteinHelderman, W. (2011). Untreated severe dental decay: aneglected determinant of low Body Mass Index in 12-year-old Filipinochildren.&nbspBMCPublic Health,&nbsp11(1),1.http://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2458-11-558

Bonecker,M., Abanto, J., Tello, G &amp Oliveira, L. (2014). Impact of DentalCaries on Preschool Children’s Quality of Life: An Update.BrazilianOral Research, 26(1).

Chou,R., Cantor, A., Zakher, B., Mitchell, J. P., &amp Pappas, M. (2013).Preventing dental caries in children &lt 5 years: Systematic reviewupdating USPSTF recommendation. Pediatrics,peds-2013. Retrieved October 20, 2016,http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/132/2/332

Çolak,H., Dülgergil, Ç. T., Dalli, M., &amp Hamidi, M. M. (2013). Earlychildhood caries update: a review of causes, diagnoses, andtreatments.&nbspJournalof Natural Science, Biology and Medicine,&nbsp4(1),29. Retrieved from:&nbsphttp://www.jnsbm.org/article.asp?issn=0976-9668year=2013volume=4issue=1spage=29epage=38aulast=%C7olakon 4thOctober, 2016.

Esa,R., Ong, A. L., Humphris, G., &amp Freeman, R. (2014). Therelationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysianadolescents: a latent variable approach. BMCoral health,14(19), 1.

HakanÇolak,Ç. D. (2013). Earlychildhood caries update: A review of causes, diagnoses, andtreatments.Retrieved September 27, 2016, from:http://www.jnsbm.org/article.asp?issn=0976-9668year=2013volume=4issue=1spage=29epage=38aulast=%C7olak

Jackson,S. L., Vann Jr, W. F., Kotch, J. B., Pahel, B. T., &amp Lee, J. Y.(2011). Impact of poor oral health on children`s school attendanceand performance.&nbspAmericanJournal of Public Health,&nbsp101(10),1900-1906. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3222359/

Krisdapong,S., Prasertsom, P., Rattanarangsima, K., Sheiham, A. (2013). Schoolabsence due to toothache associated with sociodemographic factors,dental caries status, and oral health-related quality of life in 12-and 15-year-old Thai children. JPublic Health Dent, 73(4):321-8.

Lueangpiansamut,U., Chatrchaiwiwatana, S., Muktabhant, B. &amp Inthalohit, W.(2012). Relationship between dental caries status, nutritionalstatus, snack foods, and sugar sweetened beverages consumption amongprimary schoolchildren grade 4-6 in Nongbua Khamsaen School, Na KlangDistrict, Nongbua Lampoo Province, Thailand. Journalof the Medical Association of Thailand, 95(8):1090-7. Retrieved from http://jmat.mat.or.th

Mandal,M., Edelstein, B. L., Ma, S., &amp Minkovitz, C. S. (2013). Changesin children’s oral health status and receipt of preventive dentalvisits, United States, 2003–2011/2012.&nbspPreventingchronic disease,&nbsp10(8),166-174. LINK: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3854874/

Quock,R.L. (2015). Dental caries: A current understanding andimplications. Journalof Nature and Science, 1(1)e27.

Raj,S., Goel, S., Sharma, V., &amp Goel, N. (2013). Short-term impact oforal hygiene training package to Anganwadi workers on improving oralhygiene of preschool children in North Indian City. BMCoral health,13(1),1.

Shakya,A., Shrestha, M., Shrestha, A., &ampPrasai, L. (2013). Dental cariesprevalence, oral health knowledge and practice among indigenousChepang school children of Nepal. BMCOral Health.http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1472-6831-13-20LINK:http://bmcoralhealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1472-6831-13-20

Shanbhog,R., Godhi, B. S., Nandlal, B., Kumar, S. S., Raju, V., &amp Rashmi,S. (2013). Clinical consequences of untreated dental caries evaluatedusing PUFA index in orphanage children from India. Journalof International Oral Health : JIOH,5(5),1–9. LINK: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3845277/

Sheiham,A. (2016). Dental caries affects body weight, growth, and the qualityof life in pre-school children. BritishDental Journal,625 – 626. Retrieved 15thOctober 15, 2016, fromhttp://www.nature.com/bdj/journal/v201/n10/full/4814259a.html

VargheseN.J. etal.(2016). Healthier choice symbols for cariogenic foods. OralHealth and Dentistry, 1(1),4-7.

Xavier,A., de Carvalho, É. S., da Silva Bastos, R., de Lourdes Caldana, M.,Damiance, P., &amp de Magalhães Bastos, J. (2016). Impact of dentalcaries on quality of life of adolescents according to access to oralhealth services: a cross sectional study. BrazilianJournal of Oral Sciences,15(1),1-7.