is thecondition characterized by malfunctions in the production and use ofinsulin. The pancreas may produce inadequate insulin or the body mayexhibit resistance towards it. The major types include type 1, type 2and gestational diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, insulin-dependent (IDDM),results when there is the insufficient production of insulin. Type 2diabetes, non-insulin dependent (NIDDM), is caused by the reducedability of body cells to utilize the hormone effectively (Holt etal., 2011). Gestational diabetes results when the blood sugarlevel is more than optimum and lower than the diagnostic diabeteslevel. This paper discusses this condition regarding itsepidemiology, etiology, pathology, symptoms, and treatment.


The WHO (2016) reports that there were 422 million people living withdiabetes in 2014. The prevalence of the disease among people over 18years was 8.5%. The prevalence is increasing at a high rate in middleand low-income nations. claimed the lives of about 1.5million people in 2012. WHO (2016) forecasts that the condition willbe the 7th leading cause of mortality in 2030.


IDDM results whenthere is the lack of or insufficient insulin due to abnormalities ofthe beta cells in the pancreas. There is no known cause of thedestruction of beta cells. Type 1 diabetes may result from theinterplay between inherited genes, autoimmunity of beta cells andenvironmental factors such as viruses and toxins (Ozougwu et al.,2013). Type 2 diabetes results from a combination of factors such asinsulin resistance, genetic susceptibility, and environmentalfactors.


In IDDM, thedestruction of beta cells results in the deficiency of insulinsecretion and metabolic malfunctions. Also, the pancreatic alphacells become activated and start excessive secretion of glucagon. Theelevated glucagon level increases the effects of metabolicabnormalities due to inadequate insulin. The progression of type 2diabetes from impaired glucose tolerance takes place in conjunctionwith the reduction in insulin secretion, primary cause. Fat and livercells exhibit resistance to insulin and thus, prevent it fromregulating the glucose levels in the blood.


The symptoms ofdiabetes include elevated thirst, increased urination frequency,extreme hunger, sudden loss of weight, feeling tired most of thetime, skin dryness, and blurred vision (CDC, 2015).


There is no curefor diabetes. However, it can be managed through diet improvements,physical exercise, glucose level regulation, blood pressureintervention, and blood lipid control (WHO).


CDC (2015), Basics About , Retrieved fromhttp://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/basics/diabetes.htmlAccessed 12 November 2016

Holt, R. I. G., Cockram, C., Flyvbjerg, A., &amp Goldstein, B. J.(2011).&nbspTextbook of . New York, NY: John Wiley &ampSons.

Ozougwu, J. C., Obimba, K. C., Belonwu, C. D., &amp Unakalamba, C.B. (2013). The pathogenesis and pathophysiology of type 1 and type 2diabetes mellitus.&nbspJournal of Physiology andPathophysiology,&nbsp4(4), 46-57.

WHO, , Retrieved fromhttp://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs312/en/Accessed 12 November 2016




Humans suffer from different kinds of diseases, where some arechronic, but remain curable or manageable. The health professionalscontinuously study these ailments with the aim of developingeffective treatments as well as prevention strategies. One suchillness is diabetes, which is considered a life-long disease. It isclassified into Type 1 and Type 2 depending on the symptoms that oneshows. The paper seeks to investigate the Type 2 diabetes by focusingon how it occurs, the effects on the body, its mode of treatment,identify those commonly diagnosed with the disorder, and a comparisonof the mortality vs. survival rate among the victims.


Type 2 diabetes refers to a condition where the body cannot produceenough insulin. Research shows that the disease has been in existentfor many years as it was previously referred to as the sweet urinedisease (Thomas, 2013). However, it was not until 1936, when HaroldHimsworth differentiated between the two kinds of diabetes. Furtherstudies led the doctors to develop a successful treatment for Type 2diabetes that involved taking oral drugs to control the blood sugarlevels (Cambra et al., 2016).

How the DisorderOccurs

Type 2 Diabetes occurs when the body is incapable of utilizing theinsulin properly, resulting in high glucose levels or sugar in theblood. The insulin resistance makes the cells lack the sugar neededfor energy, which leads the body to rely on tissues, muscles, andorgans as other sources. For instance, the pancreas may make extrainsulin, but due to the body’s demand for the energy from sugar, itbecomes difficult for the organ to keep up with the needed amounts.Hence, it becomes difficult to sustain the amount of blood glucose atnormal levels.

The Effects onthe Body

The effects of the disease on the human body tend to occur over time.For instance, it may damage body parts such as eyes. A diabeticindividual may suffer from blurred vision temporarily that canadvance to severe vision loss a condition known as diabeticretinopathy. Another effect is that one may develop nerve damagewhere they become insensitive to external factors such as pain. Type2 Diabetics also tend to have poor circulation making it difficultfor an infection or a wound to heal. Hence, they are advised to becautious as they perform their activities because any physical injurythat appears minor can quickly become a serious condition thatresults in the loss of a leg or foot (Harris, 2013). Another effecton the body is that one is at risk of suffering from cardiovasculardiseases such as heart attack, stroke, and high blood pressure. Theycan also suffer from kidney damage or failure as the organs becomestrained to balance the blood sugar levels.

Treatments forthe Disorder

Type 2 diabetes is considered a treatable disease that requires thepatient to implement various interventions. One of the actions theyneed to undertake is making necessary lifestyle changes such asconsuming fiber rich foods and healthy carbohydrates in their diets(Thomas, 2013). One is also encouraged to engage in physical activityto maintain the heart healthy and control the weight. If thecondition worsens, the doctor may prescribe medication, which thepatient takes to ensure the blood glucose levels remain steady. Attimes, the glucose-lowering tablets may be ineffective. Thus, thepatient is required to inject insulin treatment at least twice or upto four times a day depending on one’s condition. Since it is knownthat diabetic patients are at a higher risk of suffering fromcardiovascular diseases, they are recommended to undertake theblood-sugar test (HbA1c) as it allows one to monitor their treatmentplan and determine whether glucose levels are stable (Harris, 2013).

Those CommonlyDiagnosed with the Disorder

Individuals whose family has a history of Type 2 diabetes are themost commonly diagnosed with it. The risk of contracting the diseaseis also high among older people, particularly those who are above55years (Cambra et al., 2016). Besides, those above 45 years and areoverweight, or have been diagnosed with high blood pressure are alsolikely to test positive for Type 2 diabetes. Women who hadgestational diabetes during their pregnancy or gave birth to a childabove 4.5 kilograms are also commonly found to have Type 2 diabetes(Cambra et al., 2016). Although the illness was said to affect theolder population, the number of children suffering from the diseasehas been increasing. According to Harris (2013), around 208,000Americans below the age of 20 have been diagnosed with diabetes. Thefigures may rise since more children are leading unhealthy lifestylesthat increase their risk of getting the disease.

Mortality vs.Survival Rate

An analysis of the Type 2 diabetes indicates that the mortality rateof the disease has been increasing. For instance, in 2012, 1.5milliondeaths were caused by diabetes while 2.2 million more arose from highblood glucose (Harris, 2013). The mortality rate is expected toincrease since the disease is not only affecting the adults but thechildren as well. The survival rate for the patients differs based onthe medication a victim receives. It is believed that people who takethe prescribed medication and treatment tend to have a highersurvival rate (Harris, 2013). Hence, people need to be regularlytested so that they can receive the treatment early and live forlonger.


Cambra, K., Galbete, A., Forga, L., Lecea, O., Ariz, M. J.,Moreno-Iribas, C., &amp … Ibañez, B. (2016). Sex and agedifferences in the achievement of control targets in patients withtype 2 diabetes: results from a population-based study in a SouthEuropean region. BMC Family Practice, 171-7. Doi:10.1186/s12875-016-0533-9

Harris, R. E. (2013). Epidemiology of chronic disease: Globalperspectives. Burlington, MA: Jones &amp Bartlett Learning.

Thomas, M. (2013). Understanding type 2 diabetes: Fewer highsfewer lows better health. Wollombi, N.S.W: Exisle Publishing.