DIET, NUTRITION AND THE PREVENTION OF EXCESS WEIGHT GAIN AND OBESITY
Diet, Nutrition and thePrevention of Excess Weight Gain and Obesity
Thehealth of an individual is very crucial. Healthy living entails diet,nutrition and preventing excess weight gain which may lead toobesity. The research was carried out to review the diet that isconsumed as well as the causes of obesity[ CITATION Swi03 l 1033 ].From the research, regular physical exercises, high intake ofnon-starch polysaccharidesand breastfeeding are some of the actions that can be taken to curbobesity.
Accordingto the research that was carried out jointly by WHO and FAO expertson diet and prevention of obesity, it was found out that diet was oneof the factors that can promote or protect obesity[ CITATION Swi03 l 1033 ].Random clinical trials were carried out, and the results wereconvincing. It was noted that high fat and carbohydrates food is oneof the causes of obesity. Research showed that obese people wereinvolved in consuming more fatty foods as compared to leanindividuals.
Currentglobal situation and trends
Brazilis among the countries where the research was conducted.Investigations showed that around 10% of men living in urban areasare obese as compared to 1% of men living in rural areas. Besides,women all over the region were found out to be more obese than men[ CITATION Swi03 l 1033 ].It was realized that obesity was increasing more on those people whoearn a high income. In the US the number of obesity rose by 12-20 %between 1978 and 1990. While inthe UK, obesity increase was from 7% to 16% by the year 1995. On theother hand, Netherland has experienced a small increase that is about3% within 17 years. The trend of increase in obesity has beenreflected with the change in lifestyle as time is elapsing[ CITATION Swi03 l 1033 ].
Researchhas found out that westernization, urbanization, and mechanizationhas led to nutrition transition. The shift in lifestyle that ishappening in most of the countries has resulted to childhood andadulthood obesity. It is important to note that even low-incomecountries are experiencing the increase in obesity. Obesity hasbecome a health threat like other diseases such as cancer in thedeveloping nations.
Healthconsequences of obesity
Thestudy has shown that obese people die faster than lean people. Forexample in the US, it is estimated that around 53% of the women thathave died and who have a BMI that is greater than 29kg/m2 have beenassociated with obesity. Additionally, obesity can lead to diabetes(Pan, 2011). The two types of diabetes are associated with BMI thatis higher than 22kg/m2.Another consequence of obesity is high blood pressure. Highaccumulation of fats in the body leads to coronary heart diseasewhich is the primary cause of blood pressure.
Healthcare costs of obesity
Inthe US, it was estimated that 5.7% of government expenditure onhealthcare was put aside to take care of people suffering fromobesity in 1995. The percentage was much higher as compared to Franceand Australia (2%)[ CITATION Swi03 l 1033 ].However, it has been realized that the direct cost of obesity rangesfrom cardiovascular disease, diabetes among others. While indirectcosts include premature mortality and loss of workdays as well asdisability pensions.
Theseare factors and behaviors that have an effect on the level ofobesity. They include eating frequency, dieting, eating out,breastfeeding, restrained eating and binge eating patterns. Likewise,early nutrition is another factor that can pose an effect on thelevel of obesity.
Thevector issues regarding obesity include the percentage of fat andcarbohydrate present in the diet, sugar in foods and drinks, protein,alcohol and portion size.
Theenvironmental issues that may have an effect on obesity comprise ofsocioeconomic circumstances, schools and other educational settings,home environments, and food marketing sector.
Potentialstrategies to reduce obesity
Thereare some strategies can be employed in reducing obesity, theyinclude, fiscal food policies, nutrition information panels,nutrition signposting programs, reducing food marketing directed atchildren, community-wide intervention, treatment, breastfeeding,physical activities among others.
Ina nutshell, obesity is becoming a threat among the diseases that areaffecting the world. The reason is that the disease is affecting bothclasses of people globally. Additionally, the disease hasconsequences in that it leads to diabetes, hypertension, andcardiovascular diseases. The only way to do away with the disease isby indulging in physical exercises, proper nutrition among otherstrategies.
Pan, A. (2011). Red Meat Consumption and the Risk of Type 2 Diabetes. 3 Cohorts of US Adults and Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies, 1088-1096.
Swinburn, B. C. (2003). Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Excess Weight Gain and Obesity. Public Health Nutrition, 123-146.