Gilbert-Barness,E. (2011). Teratogenic causes of malformations. Annalsof Clinical & Laboratory Science, 40(2),99-114. Retrieved fromhttp://www.annclinlabsci.org/content/40/2/99.short
Duringblatogenesis period, critical morphogenetic processes occur. Thesecrucial morphogenetic processes extend throughout the first fourweeks of development from fertilization till the termination ofgastrulation stage (27days-28 days). When Postconception is altered,it can result into structural abnormalities which include patternsof congenital anomalies that arise from develop mental of fielddefects. Severe damage of the fallopian tube may lead into the deathof the product that has been conceived. However, due to the existenceof the pluripontential nature of the cells, the oviduct damage can becompensated so as to allow development to carry on in its normalfashion.
Mostresearchers believe that all-or-none rule is applicable during thefirst week of development. Due to the fact that most fetus are lesssusceptible to morphologic alteration, the development process ofmajor organs get completed earlier resulting into the commonanomalies. The common anomalies related with teratogenic exposureduring the fetal periods lead to intrauterine growth retardation(fetal growth restriction) and phenogenesis abnormalities (mild errormorphogenesis) like clinodactyly and epicanthic folds.
Barton,L. L., Mets, M. B., & Beauchamp, C. L. (2012). Lymphocyticchoriomeningitis virus: emerging fetal teratogen. Americanjournal of obstetrics and gynecology, 187(6),1715-1716. Retrieved fromhttp://www.ajog.org/article/S0002-9378(02)00497-0/abstract?cc=y=
Lymphocyticchoriomeningitis virus is a rodent-borne arena virus whichoften undiagnosed expectant’s fetal teratogen. It isusually described as a neonate born, having chorioretinitis andhydrocephalus after maternal. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virusinfection causes chorioretinopathy and congenital hydrocephalus. Thevirus is an underdiagnosed fetal teratogen and can be cured throughdiagnosis which should be subjected to infants and children withmysterious hydrocephalus and macrocephaly.
Waisbourd‐Zinman,O., Koh, H., Tsai, S., Lavrut, P. M., Dang, C., Zhao, X., … &Porter, J. R. (2016). The toxin biliatresone causes mouseextrahepatic cholangiocyte damage and fibrosis through decreasedglutathione and SOX17. Hepatology.Retrieved from:http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.28599/full
Fibroticdisease is the most common and dangerous indication of pediatricliver transplantation. The disease is of unknown etiology and affectsextrahepatic bile duct of mostly newborns. Furthermore, the currentlydescribed toxin is known as biliatresome which causes obstruction oflumen at the mouse cholangiocyte due to decreased glutathione.Fibrotic disease causes teratogen in fetus which can lead tomiscarriage or death before delivery.
CBower,JM Ramsay, (2014) – Journal of paediatrics and child health – WileyOnline Library. Retrieved fromhttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bdra.20773/full
Accordingto Bower at al, (2014) congenital heart diseasesis a chief cause ofmortality and morbidity in the infancy,newborn period, andchildhood.This disease can beas a result of genetic factors from either of the parents and canlead to teratogens in infancy causing infertility of the uterus.
Inconclusion, teratogenic exposures can result into a wide range ofeffects that array from functional CNS abnormalities, infertility,structural defects, parental growth restriction, miscarriages, andeventually death.
Dutta,S. (2015). Human Teratogens And Their Effects: A CriticalEvaluation. InternationalJournal of Information Research and Review, 2(3),525-536.
Gilbert-Barness,E. (2010). Teratogenic causes of malformations. Annalsof Clinical & Laboratory Science, 40(2),99-114.