Earth Science Climate Changes

EarthScience Climate Changes


EarthScience Climate Changes

Earthscience encompasses all disciplines and aspects concerning the planetearth. Changes in the climate are classified under earth sciencewhere these changes happen over the years and get revealed by changesin weather, oceans, ecosystems and more. The study of these climatechanges is necessary for scientists to establish and evaluate thepossible effects on human life on planet earth. This paper discussesthe main aspects of Earth science climate changes resulting from theoceans.

Oneaspect considered under earth science climate changes is thethermohaline circulation. It is an ocean circulation that happens onlarge scale basis and is often influenced by global density gradientsresulting from freshwater fluxes and surface heat on the ocean. Saltywater is denser than fresh water thus the influx of fresh water inthe sea introduces a disparity in the ocean water resulting into athermohaline circulation (Wake, 2013). The same phenomenon isobserved when high atmospheric temperatures heat up the ocean surfacewater making it less dense than the cooler water found beneath theocean surface. Due to thermohaline circulation, great mixing happensin the sea basin thus reducing differences and achieving a globalsystem of the earth’s oceans. As a result of the distribution,energy (in the form of heat) and matter gets transported thus makingthe process to have an impact on earth’s climate.

GulfStream is a wind-driven surface current which originates from theequatorial Atlantic Ocean and travels polewards. As a result ofevaporation, the water under transit by the Gulf Stream becomessaltier, colder, and denser such that it eventually sinks at highlatitudes to form the North Atlantic Deep Water. The oldest water inthe North Pacific up wells to counter the Gulf Stream processesallowing for extensive mixing to occur which result in reducing thedifferences between them (Wake, 2013). Thermohaline Conveyor beltutilizes the differences in density caused by water salinity and hightemperature thus the Gulf Stream countering process does not enhancethe process since it tries to bridge the gap between waterdifferences. The Gulf Stream countering process can be strengthenedby many phenomena including the global warming. Due to the globalwarming, ice melting in the cooler pole regions results in therelease of less dense, fresh, and warmer water which tends toneutralize the Gulf Stream effect.

Measuressuch as the line W have been put in place to monitor the system ofsome powerful currents such as the Gulf Stream which carry heatpoleward and take cold, dense waters to the equator in return. Line Wis a long-term strategy for observing climate, which is focused onthe Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). This measureis expected to clarify the relationship between ocean circulationsand the variability of air exchanges in the North Pole and ultimatelyreveal the role of the ocean in global climate variability due to itstransport of heat, freshwater, and matter (Wake, 2013).

NorthAtlantic Deep Water (NADW) is a phenomenon which results from therelease of heat to the atmosphere by warm waters. The water becomescolder and sinks to the bottom allowing the Southern Ocean Water(SOW) to fill the deep Atlantic. WHOI noted that the rate ofoverturning was higher nowadays and could accelerate shortly thusgiving a reason to worry about the possible change of DADW formationshortly. Climate can be affected by natural which constitutes theearth`s ecology. It is recommended for measures to be put in placewhich counter the adverse changes in the climate.


Wake,B. (2013). Oceanography: Historical ocean heat. NatureClimate Change,3(12),1017-1017.