Approachesto literacy instruction in early childhood through adolescence

Literacyinstructions are tools used to enhance the ability to read andcomprehend. Notably, individuals’ ability to communicate or engagein fluency conservation depends on how literate they are (Gillen,Julia, and Nigel pg. 2).Consequently, this has prompted holding of discussions and conductingresearches on the best strategies that teachers can use to developthe ability of the children to read, write and comprehend as theytransit to adolescence as well as adulthood.

Whileteaching Grade4 Social Studies (culture and black history),teachers may opt to use different strategies to improve the pupils’ability to understand the meaning of various words as employed innarratives as well as how they are applied in daily life encounters.

Forinstance, ensuring phonology awareness while teaching Tier 1 words(&quotSelectingVocabulary Words to Teach English Language Learners | ColorínColorado&quot).An example can be through teachers differentiating between cognatesfrom different languages, for example, English –Spanish words suchas “family/familia.”The teachers should ensure they write the words on the board to showthe difference in spellings as well as different intonation appliedin their pronunciations. Consequently, this strategy will equippupils with the ability to differentiate words from differentlanguages, but with similar spelling or sound similar.

Additionally,teachers can use other strategies such as the use of images toexplain the different meaning of tier two words, especially whenteaching tier 2 words. For example, words like ‘income’have more than one meaning. To illustrate this, teachers can useimages showing an employee receiving money at the end of the month asincome (salary). Alternatively, they can use a picture indicating thedifference between what was spent and what was earned to explainanother meaning of income (revenue). Notably, this strategy willpromote comprehension.

Moreover,teachers can deploy a strategy of pre-reading by asking pupils toidentify the different meaning of words from dictionaries to equipthem with knowledge of how words can be used under differentscenarios(Greenwood, Charles, et al. pg. 244).Such words like “community”can be used. As a result, this strategy will enhance the ability ofthe pupils to compare and contrast different words as used in variouscircumstances. More often, this strategy is more effective inteaching tier 2 words.

Onthe other hand, most of the Tier 3 words are rarely used in the lowergrades and require a brief explanation in learning (&quotReadingRockets&quot).For example, words such as “gender”which rarely emerge in a grade 4 reading context. In thiscircumstance, the teacher can explain its meaning by quoting that allmale pupils belong to the male gender while all female studentsbelong to the female gender. Also, the teacher can expound on thisconcept by indicating that the two genders are the opposite of eachother.

Inconclusion, different approaches to literacy instruction have beendeveloped to ensure a continuous development in communication fromearly childhood to adolescence among the learners.


Gillen,Julia, and Nigel Hall. &quotThe emergence of early childhoodliteracy.&quotHandbookof Early Childhood Literacy, ed. Nigel Hall, Joanne Larson, andJackie Marsh (Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage, 2003)&nbsp(2013):1-12.

Greenwood,Charles R., et al. &quotThe Center for Response to Intervention inEarly Childhood Developing Evidence-Based Tools for a Multi-TierApproach to Preschool Language and Early LiteracyInstruction.&quot&nbspJournalof Early Intervention&nbsp36.4(2014): 246-262.

&quotReadingRockets.&quot ReadingRockets.N.p., 2016. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.

&quotSelectingVocabulary Words To Teach English Language Learners | ColorínColorado.&quot, 2016. Web. 31 Oct. 2016.



Author’s name

In teaching the tenth grade class about first aid as a unit, I haveselected four words to use in the process based on the three tiersystem of classification. Those selected consist of one word fortiers one and three and two words for tiertwo because it is the most frequently utilized in most of theliterature and oral conversations (Fidelholtz &amp Szpyra, 2011p.201). The tier one word is “call,”the tier two words are “assessment “and“intervention” and the tier three wordis “cardiopulmonary resuscitation” also abbreviated as CPR. Eachof the words has aparticular contribution to the first aid unit that entails theinitial help given to any person who suffers injury or illness thatis sudden to help preserve essentialfunctions before medical help isinitiated. The unit’s objective is to equip the studentswith knowledge of initial response in case of a health emergency thatmay need first aid.


The strategy to be used in teaching this word is the use of “contextclues” (Kindle, 2016). In this case, the context is an emergencysituation where somebody could be dying outof any cause such as an accident or anyhealth condition like stroke and requiresfirst aid. I will ask the students to imagine they found some peoplelying on the ground and they are dying, there is nothing around them,what would be their first response? (Kindle, 2016) I expect them tosay they would shout or scream for people to come and help. Thisgives them a clue for the word “call.”They will know that the first thing to do in such a scenario is to“call” for help from people around there or emergency servicesthrough 911. This helps in saving thepeople. It is the best strategy for this word because it reflects aperson’s instincts during a scarysituation as a medicalemergency case and they will understand its meaning in firstaid.


The strategy to be used is Robert Marzano’s six stages of teachingvocabulary (Kindle, 2016). First, I vividly explain assessment as aprocess of identifying where there are problems in a person who needsfirst aid and prioritizing actions. Secondly, I let the studentsdefine the word in the way they understandit. Thirdly, I ask them to create a picture of the actionof the word in their mind. Then the students participate inactivities to intensify the knowledge of the word. For example, I canask them to tell me what they would do if somebody ischoked because of smoke from a fire, they would say toextinguish the fire. This is prioritizationdue to assessment. The fifth stage is to let them discuss the wordwith peers, and finally,I let them demonstrate the act of assessing an emergency situation.This strategy suits this word because theassessment of a situation determines howbest you will perform during first aid thussaving a life (Fidelholtz &amp Szpyra, 2011 p.201). Moreover, thestudents will always remember the meaning of assessment when theyencounter a scenario, and they will actimmediately.


I would use the four-stage strategy to teach this word (Nagy &ampAnderson, 2016 p. 93). The first step is toquestion the word by asking the students ifit makes sense. The second phase is to slowdown when I notice the students do not know its meaning. I read asentence with the word and ask them to make sense of it. Thirdly, Irewind the sentence, this time giving cluesthat include the action that the student may take during anemergency. Fourthly, I ask them for substitute words. Interventionsin an emergency include making a call andassessment. The intervention determines howsafe the patient will be (Nagy &amp Anderson, 2016 p. 96). Thestrategy is good for this word because it helps students thinkfurther and give suggestions of alternative words (Nagy &ampAnderson, 2016 p. 103).

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Because various words are used to make one, I would use the “wordparts” strategy (Rieben, Saada-Robert, &amp Moro, 2012 p. 159).First, I ask them to split the word into parts and try to understandeach single word. In this case, cardio, pulmonary and resuscitationas separate words. I will define each word for them,and they derive a meaning for the entire word. CPR entails a seriesof interventions that are meant to help maintain the bloodcirculation, breathing, and other essentialbody functions before medical aid comes. The reason for using theword part strategy in teaching this word is because it has variouscomponent words and therefore there is no standard definition for it.Again, CPR is necessary for students toknow because it improves their response to an emergency situation(Rieben, Saada-Robert, &amp Moro, 2012 p. 137).

In conclusion, tier one and three selected words are call andcardiopulmonary resuscitation. Tier twowords selected are intervention and assessment. The strategy used toteach “call” is the understanding by use of context clues.Moreover, Marzano’s six stage strategy is to beused for “assessment” and the four-stage planfor “intervention.” Finally,cardiopulmonary resuscitation” is to be taught using the word partstrategy. These strategies are vital in making students understandthe terminologies used in first aid.


Fidelholtz, J. &amp Szpyra,J. (2011). Three Tiers in Polish and EnglishPhonology.&nbspLanguage,&nbsp74(1),201.

Kindle, K.(2016).&nbspVocabularyDevelopment During Read-Aloud:Primary Practices.&nbspReadingRockets.Retrieved 27 October 2016, from

Nagy, W. &amp Anderson, R.(2016).&nbspTeachingWord-Learning Strategies&nbsp(1sted., pp. 93-103). New York. Retrieved from

Rieben, L., Saada-Robert,M., &amp Moro, C. (2012). Word-search strategies and stages of wordrecognition.&nbspLearningAnd Instruction,&nbsp7(2),137-159.