Effectsof Chocolate Consumption on Expectant Women and the Unborn Child
Didyou know that chocolate contains some essential mineral substancessuch as Theobroma cacao Phyto-complex that are splendid for expectantwomen`s health? Flavonoids are part of the polyphenols that arerandomly distributed in the plants and are common in many daily dietsand plants, such as cocoa (Di etal.1860). The consumption of foods rich in these mineral supplementswould assist in boosting the health of the pregnant women and theirfetus. Cocoa flavonoids enhance the proper functioning of the heart,prevent the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein, and reducecholesterol concentrations in the blood stream (Di etal.1860). However, there are studies indicating that chocolate containssome substances (such as caffeine) that may result in growthretardation among the infants if they are consumed during trimester(Vik 324). With studies suggesting the possibility of positive andnegative impacts, it is necessary to investigate whether theconsumption of chocolate affects mothers and infants differently. Agenerous intake of high-cocoa-content chocolate can be an adequatesource of dietary supplements that assist in improving the bloodpressure and other biochemical aspects of the pregnant women.
Buscicchio,G., Lorenzi, S. and Tranquilli, A. “The effects of differentconcentrations of cocoa in the chocolate in-taken by the mother onfatal heart rate”. TheJournal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine26.15 (2013): 1465-1467. Print.1
Thepurpose of this article is to provide the findings of a studyconducted to determine the effect of 30 % and 80 % concentration ofcocoa on the heart rate of pregnant women. The data used to conductthe study was obtained from a total of 100 pregnant women who had nocomplications. Based on the findings of the study, the authors arguethat a high concentration of chocolate increases all variables(including the acceleration, fetal movements, FHR variations, andduration of episodes) that were considered in the research. An 80 %level of concentration resulted in a higher acceleration than the 30% chocolate content.
Theauthors present an idea and support it with the findings of anempirical study, which enhance the credibility of the content of thearticle. Although the authors state that the fetal heart rate wasbrought about by chocolate, the limitation of the scope of theirstudy does not allow them to assess the possible impact of calories.They acknowledge the fact that a lower concentration of chocolatecould have a disproportionately higher content of calories, but thereis no evidence that this was adequately taken into account whenmaking the argument.
Thepaper provides useful information that will be used to advance anargument that an intake of dark chocolate by pregnant women increasesthe fetal reactivity through a stimulating action. The findingsreported in the article will also be used to support a notion thatthe level of increase in blood pressure of an expectant mother andthe concentration of chocolate are positively related.
1.This article was derived from “The Journal of Maternal-Fetal &Neonatal Medicine” while Google Scholar wasusedin making the correct citation format.
Mogollon,J., Bujold, E., Lemieux, S., Bourdages, M., Blanchet, C., Bazinet,L., Coullard, C., Noel, M. and Dodin, S. “Blood pressure andendothelial function in healthy, pregnant women after acute and dailyconsumption of flavanol-rich chocolate: A pilot, randomizedcontrolled trial. NutritionalJournal12.41 (2013): 1-13. Print.2
Theaim of a research reported in the article is to determine the impactof consumption of chocolate that is rich in flavanol on the bloodpressure and flow-mediated dilation in pregnant women. The authorswere motivated to conduct the study by an observation that most ofthe previous randomized controlled trials had provided findingsshowing that flavanol-rich chocolate is beneficial to the BP and FMD,but none of them had investigated the impact that it could have onpregnant women. The authors found out that the consumption of highflavanol-chocolate resulted in a significant increase in plasmaepicatechin in pregnant women after 180 minutes. However, the impactof this consumption of chocolate on BP, DPB, and FMD was notstatistically significant.
Theauthors pursue the purpose of their research by conducting arandomized control trial. This research design is preferred becauseit enhances the objectivity of the study through the randomassignment of subjects into groups. However, the ceiling effect,which is associated with the consumption of an extremely low amountof flavanol-rich chocolate, might have affected the accuracy of theresults. The ceiling was put in order to avoid the possible sideeffects of the chocolate on pregnant women.
Thefindings reported in the article are useful and they will be used tosupport an argument that the consumption of high-flavanol chocolateby expectant mothers increases the level of plasma epicatechin, butits impact on BP and FMD is insignificant.
2.The article was derived from “Nutritional Journal”. GoogleScholar wasusedto make the correct citation format.
Vik,T., Bakketeig, S., Trygg, K., Lund-Larsen, K. and Jacobsen, G. Highcaffeine consumption in the third trimester of pregnancy:Gender-specific effects on fetal growth. Paediatricand Perinatal Epidemiology17 (2003): 324-331. Print.3
Theaim of the research reported in the article was to ascertain theallegation that the consumption of caffeine by expectant mothers,which could be contained on chocolate, tea, or soft drinks, can causefetal growth retardation in their children. They pursue the purposeof their research using the data collected from 111 mothers with 55girls and 56 boys, who were within the gestation period. The authorsfound out that the risk of small-for-gestation-age infants ispositively associated with the intake of caffeine, including the onethat is contained in chocolate. However, this was mainly found inboys. The fact that boys are more vulnerable was confirmed, evenafter taking account of all other risk factors, such as smoking. Theyalso identified that an intake of a high concentration of caffeineduring the third trimester increases the risk of fetal growthretardation.
Thearticle is quite credible, given that the authors made an argumentand supported by the findings of an empirical findings. However, thecase-control is considered as an inefficient methodology for thestudy of rare cases.
Thecontent of the article is useful and the information reported on itwill be used to advance an argument that the intake of chocolateaffects unborn children negatively. The findings reported in thearticle will be used to support an idea that the unborn children,especially the boys are at a higher risk of suffering from growthretardation if their mothers take chocolate during the thirdtrimester.
3.Thearticle was derived from “Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology”.Google Scholar wasusedto make the correct citation format.
Buscicchio,G., Lorenzi, S. and Tranquilli, A. “The effects of differentconcentrations of cocoa in the chocolate in-taken by the mother onfatal heart rate”. TheJournal of Maternal-Fetal and Neonatal Medicine26.15 (2013): 1465-1467. Print.
DiRenzo, G. C., Brillo, E., Romanelli, M., Porcaro, G., Capanna, F.,Kanninen, T. T., & Clerici, G. Potential effects of chocolate onhuman pregnancy: a randomizedcontrolledtrial. TheJournal of Maternal-Fetal & Neonatal Medicine25.10 (2012): 1860-1867.
Mogollon,J., Bujold, E., Lemieux, S., Bourdages, M., Blanchet, C., Bazinet,L., Coullard, C., Noel, M. and Dodin, S. “Blood pressure andendothelial function in healthy, pregnant women after acute and dailyconsumption of flavanol-rich chocolate: A pilot, randomizedcontrolled trial. NutritionalJournal12.41 (2013): 1-13. Print.
Vik,T., Bakketeig, S., Trygg, K., Lund-Larsen, K. and Jacobsen, G. Highcaffeine consumption in the third trimester of pregnancy:Gender-specific effects on fetal growth. Paediatricand Perinatal Epidemiology17 (2003): 324-331. Print.