Efficacyof Human Papilloma virus vaccine
Thehuman papilloma virus has been reported to be the most frequentlysexually transmitted pathogen especially among the women under theage of thirty years. A persistent infection with this virus has beenimplicated as a risk factor for development of cancer of the cervix.The common culprits of the HPV type that have been implicated tocause cervical cancer are genotype 16 and 18 [ CITATION Jem13 l 2057 ].
Withthis regard, vaccines have been developed against HPV 16 and HPV 18which are the risk factors for cancer of the cervix. Recommendationshave been made to vaccinate girls who fall between the age of twelveyears and seventeen years in order to curb these pathogens. This istargeted especially before the girls can become sexually active[ CITATION Her13 l 2057 ].
Thestrength of this vaccine is that they are very safe to use by girlseven under the age of seventeen years.
Ithas also led to the increase of screening rates for cervical cancer.This improves early detection of the disease at an early age beforeit grows to later stage.
Vaccinationagainst HPV 16 and 18 has the potential to reduce the incidence ofmortality as a result of cervical cancer. There are bettercost-effectiveness ratios when using quadrivalent vaccines on girlsat the age of 17years as compared to the use of bivalent vaccines forgirls of the same age[ CITATION Lva13 l 2057 ].
Resultsshow that the immune response to the vaccination and any side effectsthat may arise from the vaccine are not dependent on age. The youngergirls who fall between the age of 9 years and 15 years were reportedto have a similar reaction to the vaccine immunologically as theirolder counterparts.
Transmissionmodels have found the cost-effectiveness ratio after the vaccinationto fall under 50,000 euro per additional QALY.
Cervicalcancer cases might reduce drastically if the HPV vaccination againstcervical cancer is fully implemented. HPV vaccination iscost-effective considering the amount of money spent on medicallymanaging the disease itself. Cervical cancer affects the quality oflife and therefore prevention of its progression in the communityresults to better living conditions. The benefits of implementationof the vaccine outweigh the costs incurred in managing the disease.The costs may include both direct and indirect with a worse effectbeing the patient succumbing to the disease. This therefore meansvaccination improves prevention of mortality.
Herrero R., H. A. (2013). Reduced Prevalence of Oral Human Papillomavirus $ years after Bivalent HPV Vaccination in Randomized Clinical Trial . Plos One.
Jemal A., S. E. (2013). Annual Report to the Nation on the Status of Cancer Featuring the Burden and Trends in Human Papilloma Virus- Associated Cancers and HPV Vaccination Coverage Levels. Journal of National Cancer Institute.
L, M. (2013). Reduction in Human Papilloma Virus Prevalence Among Young Women followingHPV Vaccine introduction . Journal of infectious Diseases, 192.
Leval A., H. E. (2013). Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Effectiveness. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 469- 474.
Lval A., H. E. (2013). Quadrivalent Human Papillomaavirus Vaccine Effectiveness: a Swedish National Cohort Study. Journal of National Cancer Institute, 469- 474.
Smith J., W. E. (2013). Real worl Effectiveness of Population-based Roll Out of human Papilloma Vaccination against Rates of Genital Warts. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 044.