Somereports depict the English language learners (ELLs) as a highlydifferentiated and complicated group of students, but in the realsense, ELLs have several gifts, backgrounds, educational requirementsand objectives (Hill& Miller, 2013).Some of the ELLs come from backgrounds with little or no use of theEnglish language while others originate from the communities whereEnglish is the majorly spoken language. Therefore, ELLs may havediverse characteristics, which make them lack homogeneity (Harper,2012).In this respect, the ELL students may have a great inclinationtowards their native culture, have a thorough understanding ofmultiple cultures or only identifies with the U.S. culture. Thisstudy focuses on the kindergarten group of ELLs and how to developefficient mechanisms that can assist them to learn the Englishlanguage.
Someof the students may be stigmatized by others because of their accent,speaking in mother tongue, or even speaking in English in the case ofthose ELLs surrounded by non-ELL families (Diaz,Cochra & Karlin, 2016).While some of the English learners may excel well at school, otherencounter difficulty and need a lot of help (Harper,2012).Some of the students find the education life satisfying while othersfeel separated from it. Based on all the traits of the learners, thefacilitators cannot apply one approach to meet the educationalobjectives of the ELLs.
TheEnglish language instructors need to develop techniques that wouldfacilitate the speaking, reading and writing skills of thekindergarten students (Hill& Miller, 2013).The young learners need to be taught the various types and formats ofacademic language. It would assist kids to realize that there is asignificant difference between the communication observed in thenormal routines and the official language.
Twoof the vital resources required for the kindergarten ELL pupils aretime and practice (Harper,2012).Due to the delicate nature of these students, the tutor cannot rushthe learning process as it would lead to the students’ confusion(Hill& Miller, 2013).The teachers should design some activities that enhance interactionswhere the pupils can demonstrate what they learned by using Englishto explain various concepts. The tutors can informally evaluate thecorrect usage of the language regarding the different structures andvocabulary (Diaz,Cochra & Karlin, 2016).Through this practice, the instructor can offer guidance to thestudents encountering difficulty and instructions for further growthin the usage of English language. An adequate program would see thatthe ELLs can verbally demonstrate their language proficiency at leastthree times in the learning week. Such a plan would adequatelyenhance the verbal skills of the ELLs.
Anothertechnique of assisting the kindergarten English language learners isthe identification, teaching, and tabling of the necessary academicvocabulary and structures in a content lesson on a daily basis(Harper,2012).Apart from assisting the students to read and write, the tutors needto help the students in using the various aspects of the subject thatare relevant to various school programs. The teachers should ensurethat they establish suitable learning environment to facilitateoptimal language and literacy understanding to minimize the learningbarriers (Hill& Miller, 2013).It is important to elicit the necessary knowledge in one topicthrough a variety of tasks such as graphics and questions with theaim of evaluating the understanding among the ELLs about the contenttaught. There is need of increasing the involvement of the parents inassessing the progress of the students and engaging the learners inregular writing activities that apply the taught vocabulary andwriting format (Diaz,Cochra & Karlin, 2016).
Phonologyis concerned with the sound system and studies the speech structurein a linguistic setting (Hill& Miller, 2013).It analyzes the fundamental speech structures and the preferred typesof pronunciation. In the English language, the smallest sections ofsounds, which build up to form a language are known as phonemes.According to the National Reading Panel, when phonics are taught inthe early stages of school life, the learning becomes more efficientthan when taught in the later grades (Diaz,Cochra & Karlin, 2016).Therefore phonics is a crucial aspect for an English tutor to analyzeamong the students if they are expected to be good learners in thefuture (Harper,2012).
Thoughit is possible to teach all the phonic rules and combinations ofletters, the practice of reading instructions is crucial in thedevelopment of reading skills. Phonics equips the children with theknowledge of word structures, allowing them to apply the rules taughtto read new words (Harley,2013).The students require the understanding of the objectives and processfor the directives they receive. Enhancing this aspect would increasethe metacognitive control over the learning process (Diaz,Cochra & Karlin, 2016).For instance, students can think about their learning procedures ofthe words and the link between classroom reading and instruction. Thestudents can also reflect on revising their reading techniques ifthey encounter difficulty.
Morphologyinvolves the structure of the words. In an advanced level of study,the smallest unit of meaning is known as a morpheme (Hill& Miller, 2013).Some examples of morphemes include affixes such as “un-,” “re-,“base words such as "hat, love or dog," the pluralsletters such as “s” and “es.” The assessment of morphologyamong the learners assists the evaluator to determine the level ofvocabulary development among the students, as it reflects thesmallest basis for comprehension.
Pragmaticsis the effect of a particular context on language use. For instance,the way one speaks to their elders is not similar to how one speakswith the siblings. Pragmatics indicates the way speech is employed bythe society to achieve some specific goals (Harper,2012).For instance, the language used in the formal settings may have anotable difference with the type of language utilized by the sameindividuals during a lunch break with their friends. It is,therefore, important for the tutor to analyze the students’pragmatics to determine if they can differentiate the different typesof setting and use of language (Diaz,Cochra & Karlin, 2016).
Thesyntax comprises of sentence structure and usage of phrases. Thisknowledge can aid in improving the ability of the learners tounderstand what they read and make contextual predictions. Thecomprehension skills may differ with the genre being read (Harper,2012).For instance, there may be variations in understanding of a historyand a tale because a storybook differs from a history text. However,the learners should navigate adequately by the period they enter themiddle school.
Semanticsinvolve the meaning of a sentence. Individuals derive clues from thegrammatical structure of the language for understanding. Thefigurative techniques and vivid description make the communicationsmore attractive (Hill& Miller, 2013).For instance, indicating that an individual is green with envy doesnot mean that the person changed their skin color as it expresses thedegree of their character traits. Also stating that someone had coldfeet does not mean that individual recorded low temperatures on hislegs, but it describes a situation of anxiety for an individual. Useof semantics among the English learners indicates that they havereached an advanced stage of learning where they can decipher thehidden meanings of the language (Diaz,Cochra & Karlin, 2016).
Theimportance of understanding the English language structures and thelanguage acquisition theory gains more importance as the ELL studentsincrease in the classrooms (Harley,2013).Even after more than 60 years inquiry into the infant languagedevelopment, the mechanisms that allow children to separate thesyllables that they hear and words out of the strings of soundsaround them are still a puzzle. In 1957, Skinner provided one of theearliest scientific processes of language learning. Skinner statedthat it was the environment that influenced the language developmentamong the children. According to Skinner, children learn languages bybehaviorist reinforcement procedures, through the association ofwords and their meanings (Harley,2013).The correct pronunciations are established once the child understandsthe importance of words and phrases in communication.
NaomChomsky proposed the theory of Universal Grammar after arguing thatpractical learning cannot depend on upon language input alone. Thisscholar was highly accorded for his work and is recognized by manyintellectuals up to date (Harley,2013).The theory indicates how the logical sections such as nouns and verbscan influence the language acquisition process in the children andthe entire linguistic processes among the adults (Harley,2013).It is important for the instructors to approach the languageacquisition from the general cognitive processing perspective as itis simple and minimizes the excessive bio-linguistic process.
Diaz,A., Cochran, K., & Karlin, N. (2016). The Influence of TeacherPower on English Language Learners` Self-Perceptions of LearnerEmpowerment. CollegeTeaching,1-10.
Harley,T. A. (2013). Thepsychology of language: From data to theory.Psychology Press.
Harper,C. A. (2012). 2012-Research exercise: Improving Teacher Preparationto Enhance Academic Achievement of .
Herrell,A. L., & Jordan, M. L. (2015). 50strategies for teaching English language learners. Pearson.
Hill,J. D., & Miller, K. B. (2013). Classroominstruction that works with English language learners.ASCD.