Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

Eukaryoticand Prokaryotic Cells

Eukaryoticand Prokaryotic Cells

Cellscontrol the metabolic pathways in an organism hence ensuring theproper functioning of an organism. Every cell contains nucleic acidthat is responsible for the regulation of cellular activities. Twomajor cell types are basing on the biological system, that is,prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Both cells have nucleic acid a cell walland ribosome. However, Prokaryotes are described as the mostprimitive cells whereas eukaryotes are well organized with increasedfunctional efficiency. More contrasting properties are illustrated inthe table below:

Eukaryotes

Prokaryotes

    • They have a membrane bound nucleus with a linear genome.

    • They do not have a nucleus but possess a circular genome which is scattered across the cytoplasm.

    • Usually multicellular.

    • Usually unicellular.

    • Has high DNA content therefore packaged with histone proteins.

    • Has low DNA content hence the absence of histone proteins.

    • Some organelles such as mitochondria, chloroplasts, and endoplasmic reticulum are present.

    • Mitochondria, chloroplasts and endoplasmic reticulum, lysosomes, spherosomes, glyoxysomes, centrosomes and Golgi apparatus are absent.

    • Plants and fungi have a cell wall consisting of peptidoglycan.

    • Cell wall if present does not contain peptidoglycan.

    • The ribosomal sedimentation unit is 80S in the cytoplasmic compartment and 70S in the organellar compartment.

    • The ribosomal sedimentation coefficient is 70S.

    • They are large in size with a range of approximately 10-100.

    • They are smaller in size about 1-10µm.

    • Has both sexual and asexual reproduction.

    • Absence of sexual reproduction.

    • Pinocytosis, exocytosis, and endocytosis are present.

    • Absence of pinocytosis, exocytosis, and endocytosis.

Prokaryoteswere the earliest forms of life and eukaryotes are believed to be aproduct of their evolution. Prokaryotes have an advantage in thatthey have a larger surface area to volume ratio hence enabling themto have a higher metabolic rate hence faster growth.

References

Alberts,B., Johnson, A., Lewis, J., Raff, M., Roberts, K., &amp Walter, P.(2002). Molecularbiology of the cell.New York: Garland Science.

Jeon,K. (2007). Internationalreview of cytology.Amsterdam: Elsevier.

Kelly,D., Kelly, D., Mahy, B., &amp Pattison, J. (1984). Prokaryotesand eukaryotes.Cambridge [u.a.]: Cambridge Univ. Press.

Ogunseitan,O. (2005). Microbialdiversity.Malden, MA: Blackwell Pub.

Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells

Eukaryoticand Prokaryotic Cells

Thereare two main types of cells namely prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Eukaryotes refer to cells with complex internal structure and amembrane bound nucleus. Prokaryotes are types of cells that do nothave a nucleus bound by a membrane. Organisms such as archaea andbacteria exist in the prokaryote’s class. On the other hand,plants, animals, and fungi have cells that are placed in theeukaryotic range. Even though they exist within different lifeforms,prokaryotes and eukaryotes have similarities. First, both of thesecell types have a plasma membrane which separates and protects theinterior of a cell from the external elements (Pommerville, 2014).

Secondly,both prokaryotes and eukaryotes use ribosomes to synthesize proteins.Thirdly, they both contain cytoplasm which is the jellylike substancewithin a cell. However, prokaryotes and eukaryotes have manydifferences. First, a eukaryote contains a membrane-bound nucleuswhile a prokaryote does not have such a feature. Second, the formercontains mitochondria which are something that the latter does nothave. Mitochondria are the energy producing sites in eukaryotes.Prokaryotes display autotrophic or heterotrophic properties when itcomes to the production of energy. Third, eukaryotes have a selectivepermeability in their nuclear membrane whereas the prokaryotes lacksuch abilities (Schmidt and Schaechter, 2012 Khan, 2012).

Fourth,prokaryotes do not have lysosomes or peroxisomes. Comparatively,eukaryotes contain both lysosomes and peroxisomes. Fifth, eukaryotescontain an endoplasmic reticulum while prokaryotes do not have thesame structures. The endoplasmic reticulum is necessary for thesynthesis of lipids and proteins. Sixth, prokaryotes have one loop ofstable DNA which is contained in the nucleoid. In comparison, theeukaryotes hold their DNA material in compacted form withinchromosomes. Sixth, the genes within a prokaryote cell exist ingroups called operons. However, when it comes to eukaryotes, eachgene exists on its own. Lastly, most eukaryotes do not have a cellwall similar to what prokaryotes have (Hofkin, 2011).

References

Hofkin,B. V. (2011).&nbspLivingin a microbial world.New York: Garland Science.

Khan,F. A. (2012).&nbspBiotechnologyfundamentals.Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Pommerville,J. C. (2015).&nbspFundamentalsof microbiology.Burlington, MA: Jones &amp Bartlett Learning

Schmidt,T. M., &amp Schaechter, M. (2012).&nbspTopicsin ecological and environmental microbiology.Amsterdam: Academic Press.