Exam Essay Exam Essay




Sinceindependence, the U.S. has operated under two constitutions. Thefirst Constitution referred to as the Articles of Confederation waseffected in the year 1781 after being ratified in Maryland. Thesecond one was effected in 1788 after being ratified by NewHampshire. Although these two documents are considerably different,they still have something in common. One of the most apparentsimilarities is that the two documents were approved the same people.

Inspite of the fact that they resemble, they differ in various ways.For instance, the Articles of Confederation had a unicamerallegislature called Congress. On the other hand, the U.S. Constitutionhad a Bicameral parliament that was also called the Congress butdivided into Senate and House of Representatives. Although the rolesof the legislature are similar, they significantly differ in terms ofeffectiveness. A Bicameral legislature is considered to more stableand has more varied representation than a Unicameral. Accordingly,this is because the two houses (Senate and House of Representatives)can check on the power of each other.


Inthe U.S, civil liberties are immutable rights that are retained bythe citizens under the U.S. Constitution, as clarified andinterpreted by the Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. For a longtime, the degree of civil liberties and the periphery of thepopulation have significantly expanded. In today’s politicalenvironment, civil liberties are consistently scrutinized. Forinstance, the freedom speech has been misinterpreted for a long time.Fundamentally, every citizen has a right to express him or herself.Nevertheless, one does not have a right to yell at another person asit interferes with the right of the other person. Concerning thefreedom of speech, there have been various cases that have been ruledby the Supreme Court such as Widmar v. Vincent to show the severityof an individual failing to honor the freedom of speech.

Civilliberties are one of the most respected elements in the Americanconstitution. In spite of this respect, civil liberties havecontinues to experience significant threats. The federal governmentis one of the most apparent threats that are experienced today.Fundamentally, the threats are implemented by limiting the politicalspeech of individuals by interfering the broadcasting content.


Inthe U.S., political parties do a variety of activities. One of themost critical functions of the political parties is to recruitcandidates for public office. Fundamentally, democracy is notconceivable without the political party’s initiative to recruitcandidates. Recruitment is done to ensure that the citizens have thecapacity to take office effectively. In addition to hiring, politicalparties ensure that the interests, opinions, and the interests of thecitizens are integrated.

Americanpolitical parties have local, national, and state organizations whereeach level is loosely tied with each other. For instance, the localand state organizations join their hands together to support theirpresidential candidate. Besides each level shares almost similarpolitical beliefs where they look to win as many offices as possible.Primarily, this will ensure that the political party will have morepowers to make critical decisions.


Thenomination and the election of the president in the US is aconsiderably complicated and indirect process. The process requiresregistered U.S. Based voters to cast their ballot papers for theirfavorite candidate.

TheU.S presidency has undergone various developments since the 1700s.The presidency that was dawned in the 21st century is considerablydifferent from the presidency that was created in the 18th century.For instance, the Congress was the most overriding branch in thenational government throughout the 1800s to 1930s. This dominationwas until the 20th when the balance of power shifted to balance thepower to ensure that the executive branch has equal power with thelegislature.

Inpractice, various factors can be used to judge a presidentialcandidate leadership. The vision of the Presidential candidate is oneof the most important factors that can be used to test the leadershipthat is expected from a presidential candidate. A good leader isexpected to have realistic goals and good intentions for the citizenseven before assuming the office.


TheCongress was established in 1787 after the adoption of theConstitutional Convention. Fundamentally, the idea of creatingCongress came from various places including from the president,citizens, state legislatures, congressional staff, and governors,among others. Although Congress has a considerable number offunctions, lawmaking is its primary function. Apparently, lawmakingis made possible, as the Congress comprises of elected individualsfrom various regions. Besides, the Congress represents the people ofthe U.S. at a national level.

Beforea bill is passed to be a law, it must pass through the house ofCongress and signed by the President. Although it may initiate at anyadministrative level, it has to be passed during the samecongressional period after it has been proposed and it has to be forone year. Essentially, if not all, the process is successful, thebill is dropped.


TheFederal Court System has undergone various improvements since theframers created the first system. According to the expectations ofthe framers, the United States was to exist in a “one SupremeCourt.” In other words, the county was to make the Supreme Court asthe first and the only court that was to be established by the USConstitution.

Todaythe system has three basic levels. These levels include the SupremeCourt, the Court of Appeals, and District Courts. These developmentswere made as it came to the knowledge of the framers that as thecounty grew, there might need to have more courts.

Historically,cases of the Supreme Court have led to the development of variouselements of the U.S. constitutional law. For instance, the case ofMarbury v, Madison (1803) had a significant impact on the Americanconstitutional law. Hollingsworth v. Perry (2013) was also critical.