Name of Student

Health Portfolio

I conducted a reflection on selfto gauge my health. The self-reflection wasdone through thedocumentation and analysis of simple daily routines. Theroutinesincluded sleep, diet, physical activity, and daily energy needs.Although they might seem simple, these regularactivities have agreat impact ona person’s health status.

Sleep Analysis

Sleep Diary

Measuring The Sleep Pattern

day 1

day 2

day 3

day 4

day 5

day 6

day 7


The time I woke up (hrs).









The time I went to bed the previous night (hrs).









Hours of actual sleep.








Sleep debt

(Optimal hours of sleep × 7) –Anumber of hours ofactual sleep.

(7 × 7) – 47 = 2hrs

The sleep debt is,therefore, 2 hours.

Sleep Disorder Symptoms

Inresponse to the questions stated in page A-13, I rarely have troublefalling asleep three nights a week or more. I also do not wake upfrequently during the nightand hardly do I wake up very early and find it difficult to go backto bed. Iwake up at dawn feeling refreshedsave for the days that I work late in the night. I do not snore whenam asleep I never gasp for breath Ialso never fall asleep when travelingfrom work even when am not driving Ido not have nightmares, and Iget no tingling or creeping sensations in my legs when I try tosleep.

NarrativeAnalysis of my Sleeping Routine

Ina week, I spend anestimatedaverage of 6.7 hours sleeping. This time is close to the requiredaverage of seven hours of sleep for an adult. Sleep is known as afundamental requirement for every individual. It enables the personto be refreshed and be able to perform their tasks in an appropriatemanner. From the diary, it is evident that I sleep for very few hoursduring some days and this is mainly due to some school assignmentsthat I always have to complete before going to bed. Such is usuallyunhealthy as it eats into my sleeping time. It also leads to fatigueduring the next day of work, and sometimes I am forced to spend mylunchbreaksleeping so as to compensate for the few hours not spent in bed theprevious night. The short hours of sleep also affect productivity andalertness during lecture sessions or when reading at the library.

Sleepis known to refresh an individual’s mind and prepare them for theday ahead. For the days that I spent longer hours sleeping, theactivities of the day weredonein an efficient manner,and I had no trouble trying to concentrate. In the days that very fewhours werespent,I had trouble trying to focus,my eyes felt itchy, I wasfatigued,and Ifrequently dozed off when I had no activity to do. The fatigue mademe feel sickly,and at times I had a headache due to the failure to meet the requiredsleeping hours.

Duringmy sleep, I rarely have nightmares, loud snoring, or difficulties inbreathing. Such affect an individual’s quality of sleep leading toinsufficient or low-qualitysleep. Sleep apnea, or shortage of breath while sleeping, is oftenassociated with an individual’s body characteristics, and is morecommon among the obese people. Ialways try to ensure that thequality of my sleep is as good as possible so as to improve myability to think in a critical manner, and also to concentrate inclass.

Therewere verylittlefluctuations in the hours that I spent sleeping during the week, asindicated in the sleep diary. These fluctuations were mostly as aresult of trying to complete school work or reading. None of the timelost from the average sleeping time was caused by a sleeping disorderor insomnia. These two are known to affect people in a significantmanner, leading to health complications such as depression. Otherinterruptions such as waking up frequently at night are known toaffect an individual’s quality of sleep. Such aremostly causedby the need to use the bathroom, sudden lights or sounds from outsidethe house, or frequentnotification sounds and vibrations from the phone. To prevent this, Ialways put my phone in a silent mode before going to bed. I alsoavoidtaking in too muchfluids before sleeping to prevent being in the situation where I needto visit the washroom frequently. All these ensure that my night ispeacefuland that I get quality sleep. I also try as much as possible to getto bed early enough so that my sleeping pattern may not bedisrupted.Thisgivesthe body enough time to refresh and be able to perform the tasks ofthe day in an efficientmanner.


Day/Wednesday, 26th October 2016

Food/ Drink Item

Amount Served

Apple juice


Whole wheat pasta

13 Oz

A slice of toast with a scrape of unsaturated margarine

One slice

Wholegrain sandwich

10 Oz

Vegetable salad

9 Oz

An orange


Lean grilled meat

5 Oz

Colored vegetables

3 heaped tablespoonful



Low sugar biscuits

0.3 Oz


The pyramidgives a comprehensive analysis of the foods that one is expected toeat tomaintain a healthy diet. From my food log of Wednesday 26thOctober2016, it is evident that I had eaten the foods in a balanced way. Thebiscuits which contain some sugar and high carbohydrate content weretakenin very lowamounts. The salads, vegetables, whole grain meals, and fruit juiceweretakenin largequantities.The meats are found highin the pyramid,and this wasalso reflectedin my log where only five ounces of lean meat wasconsumed.


From the MyPlaterecommendations, I was able to meet some of the requirements based onmy calorie target for each day. I was able to take a cup of milk asrecommended by MyPlateIalso took more than the recommended nine ounces of whole grains andmore than the recommended one cup of raw fruit. I did not includebeans in my diet but took lean beef as a primary source of protein inthe diet. For the meat, I exceeded the stated amount of one ounce andinstead took five ounces. According to MyPlate,I did fairly well in trying to balance the meals of that particularday.

From thenutrient report, I seemed to have done fairly well in the averageintake of almost all nutrients. My calorie target was 2000 Calories,but I only managed to consume foods with a total calorie of 1044calories, and this was therefore below my target. The foods consumedalso had a total of 3 grams of added sugars. Too much of this isoften discouraged,and the NutrientsReport suggestedthat the right amount should be any amount that falls below fiftygrams. It,therefore,indicates that I took the right amount of added sugars. The sodiumintake of 1640 mg was within the recommended standard of less than2300 mg. Thecholesterol level in the totalfoods consumed during that day was also within the required range. Iwas able to eata total of 149mg of cholesterol while the requiredamount wasstatedas one below three hundred milligrams. The total dietary fiber takenwas fifteen grams out of the requiredtwenty-fivegrams. This amount of dietary fiber takenwas too lowand needs improvement. From the report,therefore, I did fairly well in meeting my nutritionalneeds. I succeeded in attaining the required cholesterol volume, therequiredsodium intake, added sugar, and total fat. I,however,failed to meet my target for total calorie intake and fiber volume.

From theanalysis based on Supertracker,it is clear that some changes should bedoneon the dietary intakes tomeet the stated target. The target volume for calorie intake wascreated with a consideration of my daily activities, which involvereading, walking and jogging, hence the importance of attaining thegoal.Some of the changes that I will make include improving somecarbohydrates so as to improve the calorie intake and the totalcarbohydrate intake which according to the NutritionReportwas very low. I will also improve the level of dietary fiber byincreasing the intake of whole grains as these are important indigestion, and also contain minerals such as selenium, iron,phosphorous and magnesium. I can achieve my whole-grain-intake targetby incorporating foods such as two slices of bread or one pancake forbreakfast. Such is easy to achieveand can be fixed easily in the diet plan.

The ecologicalmodel of health and wellnessrelates perfectly with my current life. It indicates theinterrelationship between me and the environment that I find myselfin.It also gives a picture of the factors that influence the choicesthat I make. From the model, somefactors may hinder me from achieving my dietary target. One of themajor factorsis influence from friends who can sway me to take something that isdifferent from what I had planned. Some of my college friends alwayssuggest that we eat the same type of food and most times the food ismainly composed of snacks.

Physical Activity Analysis



Walking, 4.5 mph (13 min/mile)

60 minutes

Running, 6.7 mph (9 min/mile)

45 minutes


45 minutes


90 minutes

Sitting quietly, listening to music or watching a movie in a theater

120 minutes

From thephysical activity log, my moderate intensity-equivalent added up to720 minutes. Thiscomposedof the time spent in running and walking. Some of the activitiesundertaken were vigorous. Also, I did not follow any specificschedule to conductthe activities save for the running which I used to do in the morningand evening. I was also able to surpass my target of the averagenumber of days that I should take for the muscle strengtheningactivity. The targetfor the activitywas two days,but I was able to do a seven-daymuscle strengthening activity. I also made sure that I maintain theright fluid volume evenafter the vigorous activities such as running. Thiswas mainly achievedby taking water on a regular basis as water helps in rejuvenating thebody, keeping the muscles healthy, and maintaining a properelectrolyte balance.

Walking wasone of the very basicactivities that I undertook almost every day. I used to walk aroundschool from one lecture hall to the other or from the lecture hall tothe library. At times also, I walk from school to the place where Istay, which is not very far away from the school. One of the factorsthat affected my walking is lateness to be in class. Being late forclass forces me to board a bus or take a taxi to school. Friends alsoaffectmy walking in a positive way as we sometimes take long walks aroundtown or on our way home. I also spend most free weekends walking withfriends in my neighborhood or around town thus adding up to myphysical activity’s time.

From myphysical activity report, it is evident that I had achieved andsurpassed the threshold put by the PhysicalActivity Guidelines for Americans. Theguidelines putthat an adult American should have at least one hundred and fiftyhours of moderate-intensity aerobic physical activity fora week, and muscle strengthening activities that involve all themajor muscles for two or more days a week. On my part, I was able todo muscle strengthening activities for seven days, andmoderate-intensity aerobic physical activity for seven hundred andtwenty minutes in a week. These, according to the PhysicalActivity Guidelines for Americans, areusefulfor maintaining a healthy body. I was also careful not to overdo theactivities to a level that I would stress my muscles. I also ensurethat I balance the activities with a healthy diet to ensure that themuscles are healthy and that I maintain a healthy bodyand the right physique. The activities also help inthe maintenance of adesirable amount of fat that is only needed by the body while theexcess fat is burnt out.

Myneighborhood isproperly designedin a way that encourages physical activity. There are pavements wherepedestrians can walk safely, and I mostly use these for jogging inthe mornings and evenings. I also use them for walking. The distancefrom my place to the shops also encourages walking. There is usuallyno need for one to use a vehicle to reach the stores.The pavements have some trees along them,and this makes walking or jogging more comfortable as they preventdirect sunlight from affecting the activities. The people in theneighborhood are also encouraging. In most occasions, you would spotpeople running on the pavements, walking,or takingtheir dogs for a walkwhich encouragesme to do my evening and morning jogs with the feeling that I havecompany.

Daily Energy Needs Analysis

Calculation of Daily EnergyNeeds

Weight inpounds = 120lbs

Weight in Kgs= (120lbs ÷ 2.2lbs/Kgs)


Amount ofenergy per hour =54.5Kgs × 0.9 calorie/kg/hour&nbsp

=49.05 calorie/hour

Amount ofenergy per day = 49.05 calorie/hour × 24hours/day

=1177.2 calories/day

The estimateof my voluntary muscle activity level falls under the category oflight active where my BMR factor ranges between 0.55 – 0.65. Thisisdue to my occupation where I am a student.

Energyexpenditure above BMR = 1177.2 calories/day × 0.65 = 765.18calories/day

Total daily energy needs = 1177.2calories/day + 765.18 calories/day = 1942.38 calories/day

The daily calorie intake is 1044calories fromthe food plan generated. My target is however 2000 calories per day,which is slightly above my daily energyneed.

From the calculations, it isclear that my calorie needs and calorie intake do not match up. Mycalorie intake is much lower than the total amount of energy neededeach day. The report,therefore,indicates that I have failed to balance my needs with the totalintake for the day. Thefactor that might have contributed tosuch a result could be the limiting of food intake. Such ledto a reducedcalorie intake that was way below the target that I had placed formyself. The limitation of food intake wascaused by lack ofenough money to buy some required amount of food. Also, it is hardalwaysto tell thelevel of caloriescontained in the food that I pick from a store or hotel and I alsoforget to check using the available software on my phone.

With the activities that Iundertake each day, it is of great importance to modify the calorieintake to a level that will be suitable for the body’s requirement.Such is vitalsince I am keen to maintain my current body weight and stature. Ialways feel that this is the right weight and that I should alwayswork hard to keepit. The failure to meet my daily energy requirement may lead tomuscle wastage and a significant drop in the total body weight. Forthis case, I have two options in ensuring that I maintain my weight.One of the options isto make sure that Iincrease the calorie intake by including energy giving foods in mydiet. The second option would be to modify the physical activities ina manner that the amount of activity will be proportional to thecalorie intake. It is surelyof no importance for me to spend more energy that I consume.

I also noticed that a day mightend without having a proper knowledge of what I have consumed. Mosttimes when am in school I often eat without knowing the amount ofcalories that I have taken in. This is disadvantageous, especiallywhen I have a specific target to meet. It could also be the reasonwhy I have failed to balance between the amount of energy taken inand the amount of energy wasted during the physical activities. Withthis consideration, I will develop a simple chart, of an appropriatesize, which I will be using to note down the types of foods consumedand my performance for the day. I will also consider reducing theamount of time spent on physical activities because it feels that Ispend more energy than the amount of calories that I afford toconsume basing on the nutrition report.

Different factors affect themanner in which I canbalance my food intake and energy expenditure. One factor is theability to afford different kinds of food that I require at aparticular time of the day. Healthy foods are usually quite expensivecompared to snacks and other groups of foods. Being a collegestudent, I struggle to ensure that I try to balance my meals in amanner that will help me meet my target for the daily calorie intake.Meeting the nutritional requirement that will enable me meet my dailycalorie requirement has been quite expensive for me, and I reallystruggle to meet the daily requirement. I also get swayed at variousoccasions by friends who make me eat foods that I had not planned forand those that might have asignificant effecton my target for total calorie intake. In multiple occasions, work atschool and timing of the lectures have also had a significant effectin preventing me from achieving my target. Sometimes I have longclasses, which are exhausting, and the only free time such aslunchtime is spent sleeping or resting. Some periods such as the examperiod also make me skip some meals due to the amount of time that Ispend preparing for the exam.

A number of factors alsoinfluence my ability to involve myself in daily physical activity.Sometimes am forced to eat food just for the sake of eating andwithout considering a particular plan due to lack of options as aresult of lowfinances. The amount of time that I am free after school is one ofthe factors. Sometimes I plan for an evening jog or walk, then, someother significantactivity pops up. Also, during exam periods, I tend to reduce myphysical activities so as to create more time for revising andrestingso as to ensure that I get proper preparation for the exams. Myneighborhoodhas been an encouraging factor for my daily physical activity. Thepavements, trees, the numberof people, and security have always been supportive.The terrain is also suitable for jogging, cycling,and other physical activities.

To conclude, it is true thathealth is determined by multiple factors. Some of the factors includethe amount and quality of sleep that an individual gets, the type offood they consume, the physical activities that one involvethemselves, and the balance between the amount of calories consumedand the amount of energy used in doing the daily activities. I notedthat it is healthy to balance these factors in a way that will bebenefitial to my health.