Health Promotion in Australia 4


Nameof Student:

TheName of the Class


TheName of the School (University)

TheCity and State where it is located


Part 1 —developinghealth care programs for a child, youth and family health:Immunisation program


Thetopic that I will review and appraise is immunization program

KeyPolicies and Guidelines Summary

Therelevant policy is Australia`sNational ImmunisationPolicycreated byAustraliangovernment through the Department of Health. Theimmunization policy stipulates that all the children should beimmunized against various preventable diseases such as tetanus,polio, whooping cough, diphtheria among many other preventablediseases that threat infant health. The policy acknowledges thatimmunization remains a crucial step in ensuring the control of highlyinfectious diseases that can cause death among infant.

Medicalpractitioners are required under the guidelines to give vaccinationswithout any form of discrimination. Besides, parents and guardiansare encouraged to seek maternity care in government hospitals so thatnewborns get their vaccines on time. Mothers are also required toattend clinics as stipulated on newborn vaccination cards to ensurekids pass all vaccination treatments (Happe, Land Lunacsek, etal..2014).

Aboutthe core principles evident in the policies and guidelines, write areview of contemporary practice

Basedon the successful immunization data recorded from 2005 to 2015, thenumber of the children attending full immunization schedules has beenincreasing gradually. The prevalence of immunizable disease cases hasbeen on the decline from 10 percent to 6 percent between 2005 and2015, which can be attributed to strong adherence to the policies andguidelines. For instance, the data for 2005 was 86.15 percent, andthe turnout has been growing over the course to the recent value of2015 that stands at 93.5 percent.

Thegovernment has supported these procedures by availing needed vaccinesand creating vaccination centers consisting of both mobile centersand temporary stations to reach out to diverse communities. Hospitalshave been playing a crucial role in supporting the success of theimmunization programs, sensitizing the public on the need for theirchildren to be immunized. Through the ministry of health, regulareducational programs have been aired through mass media, print media,and mobile phone alerts. Moreover, hospitals have invented specialmeasures to ensure all newborns complete their prescription by makingfollow-ups by contacting parents to remind them of immunizationappointments (Happe, Land Lunacsek et al. 2014).

Theimmunization program has been designed to cover all children, a movethat has contributed towards a gradual decrease in the numbers ofincidents of diseases preventable through immunization. Theimmunization schedule is categorized in four programs childprograms, school programs, and at risk groups programs. For instance,child programs begin at birth with the administration of hepatitis Bvaccine. Other vaccinations for hepatitis B, diphtheria, tetanus,macular pertussis, Haemophilus influenza type B meningococcal C,polio, pneumococcal conjugate, rotavirus, measles, mumps, and rubellaare given from the second month until the child turn four years old.

Lastly,school vaccinations are tailored to children with the age range of 10and 15 years old and focus on diseases such as varicella, HPV,diphtheria, tetanus and whooping cough. Besides, special vaccinationsare organized for specific at-risk category program. For example, theAboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders populations and pregnant womenare vaccinated for based on different schedules, depending on thecycles of disease-causing microorganism, specifically addressinghepatitis A, influenza, pneumococcal conjugate and Pneumococcalpolysaccharide (Tedeschi, 2012).

Criticallyanalyze the application of the policies and guidelines aboutcontemporary practice

Contemporarypractices reflect the policy principles have been fruitful inincreasing access to vaccination programs. Favorable policies andguidelines have contributed to the declining statistics in the numberof deaths and incidents relating to diseases preventable throughimmunization. However, much focus should be directed towards themigrants who have been at the center of the incidences of the fewremaining cases.

Also,aboriginal communities have not been notably included in thevaccination programs. Very few members of this community have beenable to access complete medical services due to historical legaciesof colonization characterized by social and economic exclusion. Infact, most of the reported cases of infections of immunizablediseases have been overrepresented in marginalized communities inAustralia. There have been disparities in accessing immunization foraboriginal communities and other migrants in the country.

Medicalservices have been scarce and relatively difficult to access in areasinhabited by these communities (Sutton and Gay et al. (2012). Othersocial and educational facilities have been inadequate, causingbarriers to basic education and basic knowledge healthcareoperations. Older migrants have also been casualties due toincomplete vaccination programs caused by their mobile ways of lifeas well as mortality rates that cause the vaccine to deteriorateslowly lowering immunity levels. For instance, before theavailability of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, it was reported thatthe highest rates of IPD ever reported in the world was of theindigenous children from central and northern Australia (Ryman andDietz et al., 2012).

Examineand reflect on your practice about policy, guidelines, andcontemporary practice

Althoughthe Australian government has been proactive in addressing the healthneeds of children, as exemplified by the free immunization program, alot that needs be done. For instance, measures need to be undertakenby relevant ministries and department if any further increase inefficiency is to be realized. Moreover, many stereotypes areresponsible for diseases incidence in Indigenous non-indigenouschildren. Educational programs on immunization should be encouragedto enhance awareness on how to deal with the challenge. Thegovernment should strive to extend immunization services to thegrassroots majority of the inhabitants live.


Sutton,A. J., N. J. Gay et al. 2012. &quotModeling alternative strategiesfor delivering hepatitis B vaccine in prisons: the impact on thevaccination coverage of the injecting drug user population.&quotEpidemiolInfect136(12): 1644-9.

Tedeschi,S. 2012. &quotVaccination in juvenile correctional facilities: statepractices, hepatitis B, and the impact on anticipated sexuallytransmitted infection vaccines.&quot PublicHealth Rep122(1): 44-8.

Happe,L. E., O. E. Lunacsek et al. 2014. &quotImpact of a pentavalentcombination vaccine on immunization timeliness in a state Medicaidpopulation.&quot PediatrInfect DisJ28(2): 98-101.

Ryman,T. K., V. Dietz et al. 2012. &quotToo little but not too late:results of a literature review to improve routine immunizationprograms in developing countries.&quot BMC.HealthServ.Res.8:134.

Part 2 —Developinghealth care programs for a child, youth and family health: InfantDeath During Sleeping (positioning, etc)


Thetopic that I will review and appraise is Infant death during sleeping(positioning etc)

KeyPolicies and Guidelines Summary

TheDepartment of Health policy recognizes the need to reduce rampantforms of infant mortality rate by addressing different causes. Thehealth policies recognize sudden infant death syndrome (SIDs) as oneof the critical challenges to sustainable health and providesguidelines that require the healthcare practitioners to undertakedrastic measures to address the issue, asserting the need forawareness among caregiver to prevent the death of infants in sleep.

Aboutthe core principles evident in the policies and guidelines, write areview of contemporary practice

Thepractice has been performing well in observing guidelines Australiahas been financing research to help identify the possible causes ofthe condition. Nevertheless, caregivers have been committed tooffering support to expectant mothers through maternal lessons beforethe child is born to ensure the expectant mothers are prepared forthe responsibility that awaits them. For example, lessons on sleepingpositions and breastfeeding have been insisted since they haveaccounted high figures in the total number of deaths yearly.Moreover, Families impacted by SIDS have been receiving emotionalsupport and grief counseling due to the social impact the conditionhas caused on many couples and families. The government has beenputting pressure on healthcare providers to draft relevant guidelinesthat will support the reduction of such deaths.

Suddeninfant death syndrome (SIDs) refers to sudden unexplained deaths ofchildren aged less than one year. The causes of these deaths cannotbe determined even through thorough autopsy and scene investigations.According to world health organization, SIDs is the leading cause ofdeath for infants aged between 1-12 months (Shealy, 2014). A newstudy has insisted on bed sharing as the single greatest risk factorfor sleep-related deaths in infants. Understanding the root causes ofthese deaths is crucial for medical practitioners in trying to reducethe numbers of children lost through this condition. Based onrecords, the primary causes of the disease have been environmentalstressors, specific times in the infant development and specificunderlying susceptibility. The practice has been focused onaddressing these factors as a way of addressing the problem (Tanakaand Miyake et al. 2013).

Criticallyanalyze the application of the policies and guidelines aboutcontemporary practice

Thepractice has been proactive in minimizes the deaths arising from thedeath of babies when asleep. The practice interventions haveparticularly focused on creating awareness to increase the capacityof caregivers in handling infants (Sharma and Petosa 2013).

Forinstance, as part of the requirements of the guidelines, nursing areengaged in providing training to new mothers on how to deal withinfants to prevent associated problems. Typically, after givingbirth, mothers are always advised by the nurses on the issue. Thenurses offer group and individual lessons to mothers in what Martinet al. (2012) refer as the antenatal training. While the trainingsessions are open to everyone and discretional to some extent, newmothers are particularly mandated to attend considering the lowexperiences. Moreover, some health organizations have gone beyondorganizing sensitization forums to create awareness on the issue,targeting expectant and new mothers (Shealy 2014). Training iscomprehensive and focuses on issues that typical lead to the death ofa child while asleep, including feeding, carrying and resting toprevent the issue. Mothers are also trained on life-saving skills toprevent child death in the case of complications such as choking(McCrory, 2011). In this regard, the programs can be inferred to beobjective and outright at addressing the health issue.

Indeed,the research on the intervention program has been conducted andmostly presents evidence that they have been effective in reducingthe issue. According to McClellan (2013), the number of children,dying in sleep has been falling drastically. For instance, the numberof reported incidences in 2015 was 54, which was lower than the 78incidences reported in 2010 (Shealy, 2015). This reduction has beenattributed to growing awareness on parenting infants. However, thispresent number of reported incidents remains relatively high,warranting further actions.

Examineand reflect on your practice about policy, guidelines, andcontemporary practice

Ashas been noted earlier, although the practice interventions have beensuccessful in reducing infant deaths occurring while an infant isasleep, there is still much more that is needed to reduce theinterventions to a negligible number. As Tanaka et al. (2013) note,most of the deaths were reported for the first three months of thebaby. Moreover, the preterm infants, including those who areunderweight, were at the greater risks of the associated deaths(Martin et al. 2012). In this regard, there will be a need to reformthe intervention program to address the weaknesses in these areas. Inparticular, training that is more comprehensive will be needed,informed by research evidence on what works well.


Martin,R., J. Di Fiore, et al. 2012. &quotGastroesophageal reflux inpreterm infants: is positioning the answer?&quot Thejournal of pediatrics151(6):560-561.

McClellan,M. 2013. &quotInfants of mothers with persistent nipple pain exertstrong sucking vacuums.&quot ActaPaediatr97(9):1205-1209.

McCrory,M. A. 2011. &quotDoes dieting during lactation put infant growth atrisk?&quot NutritionReviews59(1):18-27.

Tanaka,K., Y. Miyake, et al. 2013. &quotAssociation between breastfeedingand allergic disorders in Japanese children.&quot InternationalJournal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease14(4):513-518.

Sharma,M. and R. Petosa 2013. &quotImpact of expectant fathers inbreast-feeding decisions.&quot JAm Diet Assoc97(11):1311-1313.

Shealy,K. 2015. TheCDC Guide to Breastfeeding Interventions.Atlanta, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers forDisease Control and Prevention.

Shealy,K. 2014. &quotCharacteristics of breastfeeding practices among USmothers.&quot Pediatrics122Suppl 2:S50-55.

Part 2 —Youngpeople`s Health and Wellbeing: Obesity


Thetopic that I will review and appraise is obesity among the youth

KeyPolicies and Guidelines Summary

Thekey policy is provided by the Department of Health and is aimed ataddressing obesity among the Australian youth recognize that theincidences of the problem are on the rise and warrants specialattention to realize the overall population goal of sustainablehealth. The policy asserts that the need for practice to focus on thetwo core causes of the problem: behavioral habits, and dietaryhabits. In essence, the framework calls upon players to undertakenecessary measures by supporting the youth by encouraging physicalactivities and supportive dietary interventions. The policyguidelines recognize that since addressing obesity is challenging,and concerted efforts is needed from all the players interacting withthe youths, ranging from healthcare practitioners, schools andjuvenile delinquency treatment programs and families(Halford, J., etal. 2014).

Inrelation to the core principles evident in the policies andguidelines, write a review of contemporary practice

Thecontemporary practice presents many evidence of accession to thepolicies and guidelines to curb obesity among the youth. One of theareas of evidence has been the child obesity awareness practices,which have been aimed at increasing knowledge and capacity to dealwith the problems. The programs are focused on two core areas: nutrition and physical education. The awareness programs have seenthe participation of government agencies liaising withnon-governmental agencies and community volunteers. The players havebeen utilizing different channels of media such as the social media,radio, televisions, magazines and booklets to increase awarenessamong communities to overcome the obesity problems (Gliksman, Dwyer &ampWlodarczyk, 2013).

Anotherarea of evidence is the designing of school programs. The mainstreamlearning institutions have come in handy to support the obesitypolicies and guidelines through curriculum design. For instance, inacknowledgment of the fact that one of the primary causes of obesityamong the youth is a sedentary lifestyle, the school curriculums havebeen designed to allow ample time for engaging in physical exercises.The learning institutions have been proactive in incorporating healtheducation into learning the curriculum. School nutritional programshave also been reviewed to include balanced diet (Egberts &ampRiley, 2015).

Moreover,the concerned government agencies have also been proactive instriving to address obesity prevalence through different approaches,acknowledging the multispectral nature of the problem. For instance,in recognition of the fact that part of the cause of obesity issocioeconomic status, the government has been actively engaged inspearheading programs to support low-income families through freeeducation funding, homeless funding and free medical access to reducefinancial pressure to enable them to balance life(Lauer, Clarke &ampBurns, 2012 Gibson et al., 2014).

Criticallyanalyse the application of the policies and guidelines in relation tocontemporary practice

Thepolicies and guidelines are objective because they are focused on twocritical factors responsible for the prevalence of obesity:nutritional needs, and the physical exercise needs. Indeed, as WHO(2015) explains, about 96 percent of obesity cases among the youthsare attributable to poor food choices and the lack of physicalexercises. Typically, the cultural transformation has paved the wayto the growth of popularity of fast foods with high contents of sugarand fat, in which the youths prefer to the health foods. At the sametime, the industrial and technological developments have transformedthe society significantly and reaped it of time to engage in physicalexercises. Children do not have enough time to play because they areeither engaged in busy study schedules or involved in leisurelyindoor activities such as watching television and playing computergames. As documented by Whitzman (2015), the Australian childrenspend on average at least two and half hours per day either watchingtelevision or playing computer. Therefore, the pastime is replacingthe active leisurely activities. Therefore, a focus of the two areasis objective and outright at addressing obesity.

However,despite the commitment, the incidences of obesity among children havecontinued to rise. For instance, according to the statistics byEbbelung, Pawlak and Ludwig (2012), the number of obese andoverweight children has been doubling, with as significant as 35percent of the children confirmed to be obese. This trend lendsitself a challenge for the intervention program, signaling that theintervention programs are not adequately comprehensive. In thisregard, there is the need to re-examine the current approaches andidentify the areas of weaknesses.

Examineand reflect on your practice in relation to policy, guidelines andcontemporary practice

Itis indisputable that the success of any health intervention programshould be measured in terms of performance outcomes. Appropriateperformance outcome measures include increased awareness and reducedobesity prevalence. However, a look at the practice with respect tothe achievement based on two performance measures leads to theinference that the interventions have not been satisfactorilybeneficial. Therefore, there is the need to identify the areas ofweaknesses. Y-net (2015 has presented evidence that the obesityintervention programs have not been successful because of the narrowscope, exacerbated by lack of funding, which have resulted in failureto address the areas effect of socioeconomic status and theescalating health disparities between the high-income households andlow-income households.


Ebbelung,C.B., Pawlak, D.B. &amp Ludwig, D.D. 2012. Childhood obesity: publichealth crisis, common sense curve. TheLancet,360(10),473–482.

Egberts,K. &amp Riley, M. 2015. Food advertisements during children’s andadult’s viewing times: a comparative study. AsiaPacific Journal ofClinicalNutrition,13,60–62.

Gibson,L., et al. 2014. The role of family and maternal factors in childhoodobesity. MedicalJournal of Australia,186(11),591–595.

Gliksman,M.D., Dwyer, T. &amp Wlodarczyk, J. 2013. Differences in modifiablecardiovascular disease risk factors in Australian schoolchildren: theresults of a nationwide survey. PreventiveMedicine,19(3),291–304.

Halford,J., et al. 2014 Effect of television advertisements for foodconsumption in children. Appetite,42(2),221–225.

Lauer,R.M., Clarke, W.R. &amp Burns, T.L. 2012. Obesity in childhood: theMuscatine Study. ActaPaeditrica,38(6),432–437.

WHO.2015. Fact sheet Copenhagen 2005, the challenge of obesity in the WHOEuropean Region. 3.

Whitzman,C. 2015 Planning for health and wellbeing, obesity: an Australianperspective. In TheMillenium Disease (Barnett,G., ed.). Australian Parliament House, Launceston, pp. 32–33.

Y-net.2015. Proposalfor a Law against Fat Food Adverting before 21:00.Available at:,7340,L 3043595,00.html