Healthcare Informatics


Howis a CIS a better solution to collecting and storing data?

AClinical Information System (CIS) provides doctors with an easilyaccessible repository which contains information such as a patient’smedical history. Furthermore, the CIS recognizes the variousworkflows available in a hospital. Thus, information is stored in astructured format which is well organized and allows for easy andquick searches. On top of that, all relevant data can be collectedand stored in one system due to its flexibility in recording amultitude of information pertinent to a person’s treatment. Also,the CIS allows medical facilities to store patient data in a securemanner since the login credentials are only given to individuals whoare addressing a patient’s needs (Aitken, Marshall, and Chaboyer,2015).

Explainat least one way a CIS is adaptable and accessible compared to apaper system.

Storingdata within the CIS is more convenient than storing the informationon documents because it is remotely accessible by various medicalpractitioners in real time and at different locations. Remote accessis critical, especially in emergency situations such as ambulatoryservices that rely on prompt diagnosis. A patient could be allergicto a particular medication, but since the information is not shared,a doctor would not know. Paper records are not readily transferrablebetween health facilities. Thus a hospital would need to perform newtests on a patient, a process that takes up more time. Lastly, a CISis freely customizable depending on the hospital’s workflow or adepartment’s needs. For instance, in a hospital, there could be aRadiology Information System and a Laboratory Information System.Both systems would be part of the CIS, and they would communicatewith each other. Paper records cannot allow for information exchangein such a manner (Morrison, Jones, and Bracken, 2014).

Whatis the financial impact on an organization?

Theinitial cost of acquisition of a CIS is high, and it acts as abarrier for many hospitals wishing to implement the system.Statistics from (2014) show that implementing a CIScosts between 15,000 and 70,000 depending on the service provider.These figures are not inclusive of annual maintenance costs. However,research by Fleming, Culler, McCorkle, Becker, and Ballard (2011)places the number at around 162,000 dollars with first-yearmaintenance fees being 85,000 dollars. These costs are for a facilitywith five physicians. The high implementation costs arise from thepurchase of hardware components, a CIS software, training,maintenance, and installation fees. Healthcare facilities shouldunderstand that implementing a CIS is more of a quality improvementmeasure than a cost-cutting initiative.


Aitken,L. M., Marshall, A., Chaboyer, W., and Australian College of CriticalCare Nurses,. (2015).&nbspACCCN`scritical care nursing.Chatswood, NSW: Elsevier Australia.

Fleming,N., Culler, S., McCorkle, R., Becker, E., &amp Ballard, D. (2011).The Financial And Nonfinancial Costs Of Implementing ElectronicHealth Records In Primary Care Practices. HealthAffairs,30(3),481-489. Retrieved from

Howmuch is this going to cost me?.(2014). 14 November 2016, from

Morrison,C., Jones, M. R., and Bracken, J. (2015).&nbspClinicalinformation systems in critical care.CambridgeNew York: Cambridge University Press.

Healthcare Informatics




ElectronicHealth Record

Anelectronic health record (EHR) is a digital version of a patient’shealth information that is created and maintained by the healthcareservice provider (Schueth,2011).It can be accessed in real time, and it makes secure access topatient information by authorized users. According toFernández-Alemanet al.(2013), information security, interoperability, multiple access,efficiency and economy of scale are some of the advantageousattributes of an electronic health record.

Typesof information in an EHR

AnEHR contains more information than what is contained in a paperchart it provides comprehensive health information about patients.The information contained in an EHR includes patient demographics,allergies, immunizations and their dates, previous and currentmedications, diagnoses, lab test results and images, vital signs andmedical history. EHR also contains administrative information such asbilling and insurance data (Hsiao&amp Hing, 2012).

WhoManages an EHR

Asmuch as electronic health records provide information about patients,they do not belong to the respective patients. Their use is mainly tothe healthcare service providers, government agencies, donors andsome profit making organizations. These organizations manage theserecords for proper healthcare service, decision making, funding, andplanning. Due to the sensitive and vital nature of these records, aprofessional health information officer is put in charge of the EHRsat the hospital and regional level. These are people who haverelevant training in the field of electronic health records. Theyinclude those who studied courses in health records and information,health informatics, information sciences, statistics and informationtechnology related courses.

Howan EHR is used

Datais captured into the system and stored for update, sharing, accessand use. The use of the EHR is the ultimate goal of its creation. Ashighlighted above, various groups of users use EHRs for variedreasons. Health service providers use them to know the drugs they canprescribe, tests and procedures that can be done, how to handle thepatient etc (Murphyet al., 2012).Patients use them to get an understanding of their health status.Governments use them for planning, funding and rapid response toemergencies. It is worth noting that EHRs have restrictions onlyauthorized persons have access to the records.

Doesan EHR Follow the Patient to Other Health Facilities?

Whena patient leaves a health facility to another, their EHR is sharedwith the other facility (Murphyet al., 2012).This is especially common in referrals. Sharing of patientinformation is one of the primary goals of EHR. The sharing can beinvoked by the generating facility (as is the case with referrals),another facility or the patient. This is to enable the other healthfacility to understand the patient history so as to form a premiseupon which to base their course of action. Sharing EHRs preventsduplication of processes and prescribing drugs that have adverseeffects on the patient.


Fernández-Alemán,J. L., Señor, I. C., Lozoya, P. Á. O., &amp Toval, A. (2013).Security and privacy in electronic health records: A systematicliterature review.&nbspJournalof biomedical informatics,&nbsp46(3),541-562.

Hsiao,C. J., &amp Hing, E. (2012).&nbspUseand Characteristics of Electronic Health Record Systems AmongOffice-Based Physician Practices, United States, 2001-2012&nbsp(pp.1-8). US Department of Health and Human Services, Centers forDisease Control and Prevention, National Center for HealthStatistics.

Litvin,C. B., Ornstein, S. M., Wessell, A. M., Nemeth, L. S., &amp Nietert,P. J. (2013). Use of an electronic health record clinical decisionsupport tool to improve antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratoryinfections: the ABX-TRIP study.&nbspJournalof general internal medicine,&nbsp28(6),810-816.

Murphy,D. R., Reis, B., Kadiyala, H., Hirani, K., Sittig, D. F., Khan, M.M., &amp Singh, H. (2012). Electronic health record–basedmessages to primary care providers: valuable information or justnoise?.&nbspArchivesof internal medicine,&nbsp172(3),283-285.

Schueth,T. (2011). Electronic Health Records.


Healthcare Informatics



TheUS Department of Veterans Affairs is one of the key sectors in thecountry. The department deals with various issues aimed at assistingthe veterans. In Southern California, there exist a number ofVeterans Affairs Hospitals spread across several locations includingLos Angeles and San Diego among others. The major role of thedepartment is to ensure the provision of the necessary services toall the veterans in the United States. The various services providedinclude healthcare as well as the benefit programs. The departmentalso ensures that the families of the former military people get tothe national cemeteries as easy as possible. The department has keydivisions, which help it in carrying out its duties. The divisionsinclude the veteran health and the veteran benefit administrations aswell as the national cemetery administration. The department thoughtits hospitals support medical sectors by providing the necessaryequipment. These VA hospitals are integral in the care plan of thecountry given that they service the elderly as well as the retiredservice men and women. The VA aid in the distribution andimplementation of relevant information in the health sectors of theveterans (Karlin &amp Cross, 2014).

Thereason why I chose the veteran department was that all the relevantinformation about its activities and the role is available on itswebsite. The department is tasked with helping to improve the safetyof the patients in the hospitals by providing medical equipment.

Theclinical information systems have a direct impact on the patients andother personnel in the hospital. A good clinical information systemleads to patient satisfaction. It also results in the improvement ofthe quality of services provided since there is easier access to anyrelevant patient data. The quality of the service goes hand in handwith timely delivery, which reduces the chances of the health risksto patients. The aspects related to proper information system includeaccuracy and completeness.


Karlin,B. E., &amp Cross, G. (2014). From the laboratory to the therapyroom: National dissemination and implementation of evidence-basedpsychotherapies in the US Department of Veterans Affairs Health CareSystem. AmericanPsychologist,69(1), 19.

Healthcare Informatics



Technology plays a critical role in the field of healthcare. Theadvancement in technology leads to the design, development, creation,usage, and the maintenance of information systems applied across thehealthcare industry. The assignment answer below elaborates a mindmap of the different healthcare information technologies and alandscape of the technology as it impacts to the society.

Mind map

Electronic Health Record



Portal Technology

Remote Monitoring Tools

Healthcare Information Technologies

Wireless Communication

Sensors and Wearable Technology

Walkie-Talkies –Smartphones

Vocera Messaging – Web-based Consoles


How has the healthcare technology landscape changed?

There exist various innovations in the 21st century in thetechnological field, and the changes get reflected in healthcare[ CITATION Lau16 l 1033 ].The digital innovations in technology have revolutionized thehealthcare a great deal. Healthcare technology landscape advanceswith growth in technology by providing physicians wide-scaleinformation that is more accurate as relates to patients[ CITATION Tri15 l 1033 ].Technology in healthcare has moved from the general gathering ofinformation to acquiring data that is more specific to personalizedcare.

Are the healthcare technologies used for the same purpose? Explain

The healthcare technologies used serve different purposes though someare related. The various functions served by healthcare technologieswork in correspondence to achieve the general objective of thehospital as a caregiving facility. The smartphones, tablets, andapplications in the health centers serve to acquire for theclinicians while the healthcare staffing management technology getsused in scheduling the duties in hospitals for optimal patient care[ CITATION Bob12 l 1033 ].

How can they be used across departments?

The different healthcare technologies get employed in variousdepartments for different purposes aimed at improving the quality ofcare administered to patients[ CITATION Bob12 l 1033 ]. An exampleincludes the telehealth tools that contain the bidirectional videofeeds, cameras, televisions and the wireless infrastructure that helpin relaying information across different departments for achievementof cross-departmental roles.

How do healthcare technologies impact the roles across theindustry?

The healthcare innovations about technology lead to a continuedgrowth that brings about change as the sector evolves. The healthcaretechnologies play a vital role across all the processes in hospitals:registration of patients, monitoring of patients` data, executing oflaboratory tests and patient self-care tools[ CITATION Tri15 l 1033 ].The roles of health caregivers get redefined since manual recordkeeping gets replaced by the electronic health record system[ CITATION Aka141 l 1033 ].Remote monitoring tools enable physicians to work from their offices,therefore, reduced cost and unnecessary visits to seek doctor advice.

In summary, the advancement in technology contributes a lot toimproved medical care as pertains healthcare information technology.The health informatics field helps the tech innovation realize therapid development for interdisciplinary roles in health facilities.


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Hussung, T. (2015, 3 26). Digitizing Healthcare: How The use Technology Is Improving Medical Care. Retrieved from

Jayanthi, A. (2014, 1 28). 10 Biggest Technological Advancements for the Healthcare in the Last Decade. Retrieved from Becker hospital review:

Petti, L. (2016, 6 12). How the Digital Technology is Changing the Landscape of Health Care. Retrieved from CNBC: