How increasing levels of pollution in New York City are threatening human health

Howincreasing levels of pollution in New York City are threatening humanhealth

Author’sname

“Howincreasing levels of pollution in New York City are threatening humanhealth”

Summary

Thepaper addresses the skyrocketing rates of pollution and pollutantagents in New York City and how it has impacted on human health.According to the article by Knowlton,New York City has high emissions of carbon dioxide and the statisticssignify an upward trend(Knowlton,2015).Air pollution has an adverse impact on human health and results inrespiratory diseases such as asthma, among others. There is a directcorrelation between air pollution and hospital admissions in New YorkCity. Hospitals in the area have recorded a high rate of respiratoryand cardiovascular diseases, over the past. On the other hand,increased levels of pollution have a direct impact on the heat levelsand changes in climatic conditions. The impacts of air pollutionmentioned above have an adverse impact on human health.

Exposureto air pollutants tends to affect the victim over nine years later.For instance, the 9/11 incidence exposed people to PCB and PAH thatresulted in adverse health impacts on pregnant mothers. Moreover, theexposure to these pollutant agents continues to haunt and affectpeople years after the incidence. The rising levels of air pollutionare causing low birth weight, preterm births, and other healthcomplications. The paper further stipulates that lowering thecomposition matter through phasing out of high-sulfur heating willhelp prevent a considerable number of deaths associated withrespiratory problems. The Hurricane Sandy had a significantcontamination of lead, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB), polycyclicaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), and arsenic particles thus pollutingsoils in the region. The paper emphasizes how air pollution hasadversely affected people not only in New York City but the entireworld.

Outline

Thepaper seeks to determine the increased levels of pollution in NewYork City and how they have impacted on human health.

Ambientparticular matter

Thereis no significant correlation between ambient particulate matter,carbon dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, and low birth weights and pretermbirths (Johnson et al 2016). The research study provides acontradictory evidence that air pollution does not cause pretermbirths or low birth weight.

Reductionof PM

Thereduction of pollutant agents such as particulate matter in theatmosphere has resulted in the reduction of health conditions anddiseases such as premature deaths, respiratory and cardiovasculardiseases (Kheirbek, 2014). Studies have shown that significant dropin particulate matter and other peril pollutants in the atmospherereduce chances of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases.

Carbondioxide levels

Highlevels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere have an adverse impact onhuman health and leads to respiratory diseases such as asthma inchildren(Knowlton, 2015).Additionally, excess carbon dioxide creates high heat levels, whichnegatively affect people`s health.

Soilcontamination

Soilcontamination is another way through which pollution affects people`shealth. For instance, soil contamination dispersion from origin toresidential areas affects the well-being of people (Mandigo et al2016). It is, therefore, evident that pollution can affect humanhealth in numerous ways.

Exposureto 9/11 incidence

Pollutionhas long-term impacts on human health. For instance, the 9/11incidence has caused lasting effects on childbirth. Mothers exposedto the 9/11 incidence have a preterm birth, and high incidences oflow birth weight, among other complications reliant on the degree ofpollutant exposure.

Ambientair pollution

Researchhas exemplified that ambient air pollution has an adverse impact onhuman health however, various procedures employed to assess theimpact of pollution infer with the findings (Maslow &amp Stellman,2016). Therefore, air pollution causes innumerable human diseasesthat are short-term and long-term.

Ambientair pollutant high concentration

Researchstudies suggest that high ambient concentrations of air pollution arethe primary causes of high hospital admissions for asthma andemergency admissions. The increased exposure to air pollutantsincreases the chances of contracting a respiratory and cardiovasculardisease(Ren &ampTong, 2008). There have been reports of high cases of asthma in hospitals due toextended exposure to contaminants.

PMand Nitrogen Dioxide effects

Extendedexposure to PM and nitrogen dioxide has an adverse impact on pregnantwomen. For instance, pregnant women can suffer from hypertension,among other diseases. Research studies have indicated that pregnantwomen and children are at high risk of contracting diseases thatresult from air pollution (Restrepo et al, 2012). Therefore, highlevels of pollutants and exposure to pollutant agents pose a graverisk to human health in New York City.

Childrenexposure to pollution

Childrenare very susceptible to various diseases such as respiratory andcardiovascular diseases. Researchers have stipulated that spatial ortemporal exposure of children to pollutants causes asthma (Savitz,2015). Moreover, the exposure of children to pollutants leads to highemergency admission levels.

Highlevels of carbon dioxide

Carbondioxide is a hazard and harmful gas to human health and prolongedexposure can cause long term respiratory and cardiovascular diseases(Shmool &amp Clougherty, 2016). Elevated levels of carbon dioxide inNew York City have adversely affected human health leading tomortality, low birth weights, and preterm birth, among others (TheWhite House, 2012).

Conclusion

Airpollution has been and remains to be a major concern among stategovernment and health practitioners. Human exposure to air pollutantcan have adverse long-term implications such as respiratory problemsor pregnancy problems. Therefore, it is vital for the respectiveauthorities to take strong measures and policies in ensuring controlof air pollutants.

References

Johnson,S. Bobb, J. Ito, K. Savitz, A. Elston, B. Shmool L. Dominici, F.Ross, Z. Clougherty E. and Matte, T. (2016). Ambient Fine ParticulateMatter, Nitrogen Dioxide, and Preterm Birth in New York City.EnvironmentalHealth Perspectives.Aug2016, Vol. 124 Issue 8, p1283-1290. 8p. 1 Diagram, 4 Charts, 2Graphs, 1 Map.

Kheirbek,I. Haney, J. Douglas, S. Ito, K. Caputo Jr. and Matte, T. (2014). ThePublic Health Benefits of Reducing Fine Particulate Matter throughConversion to Cleaner Heating Fuels in New York City. EnvironmentalScience &amp Technology.12/2/2014, Vol. 48 Issue 23, p13573-13582. 10p.

Knowlton,K. (2015).ClimateChange Threatens Health.NRDC. //www.nrdc.org/resources/climate-change-threatens-healthAccessedon October 14, 2016.

Mandigo,A. DiScenza, D. Keimowitz, A. and Fitzgerald, N. (2016). Chemicalcontamination of soils in the New York City area following HurricaneSandy. EnvironmentalGeochemistry &amp Health.Oct2016, Vol. 38 Issue 5, p1115-1124. 10p.

Maslow,B. Caramanica, K. Jiehui, L. Stellman, D. and Brackbill, M. (2016).Reproductive Outcomes Following Maternal Exposure to the Events ofSeptember 11, 2001, at the World Trade Center, in New YorkCity.AmericanJournal of Public Health.Oct2016, Vol. 106 Issue 10, p1796-1803. 8p.

Ren,C.and Tong, S. (2008). Healtheffects of ambient air pollution – recent research development andcontemporary methodological challenges. EnvironmentalHealth 2008

Restrepo,C. Simonoff, S. Thurston, G. and Zimmerman, R.(2012). AsthmaHospital Admissions and Ambient Air Pollutant Concentrations in NewYork City. JEP&gtVol.3No.9A, September 2012

Savitz,A. Elston, B. Bobb, F. Clougherty, E. Dominici, F. and Ito, K.(2015).Ambient fine particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide, and hypertensivedisorders of pregnancy in New York City. Epidemiology26:748–757.

Shmool,C. Kinnee E.Sheffield E. andClougherty E. (2016). Spatio-temporalozone variation in a case-crossover analysis of childhood asthmahospital visits in New York City. EnvironmentalResearch.May2016, Vol. 147, p108-114. 7p.

TheWhite House, (2012).TheThreat of Carbon Pollution: NewYork.//www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/docs/state-reports/climate/New%20York%20Fact%20Sheet.pdfAccessed on October 14, 2016.