Human Trafficking Washington State Citizen`s Perceptions of Effectiveness of Two Anti-Trafficking Bills Passed

HumanTrafficking: Washington State Citizen’s Perceptions ofEffectiveness of Two Anti-Trafficking Bills Passed

EricClifford Odom

AmericanMilitary University

6November 2016

Abstract

Theresearch will review the perception of the people of Washington Stateon two bills passed by the Congress. There is no doubt that humantrafficking is a major issue not only in the US but also in theworld. A qualitative research method will be adopted and 50respondents involved in the research process. In order to facilitatethe data collection process questionnaires will be sent to therespondents. The respondents will be randomly selected in a bid toavoid any form of biasness. In addition to the primary data that willbe collected, secondary data will also be used to attain aconclusion.

HUMANTRAFFICKING: WASHINGTON STATE CITIZEN’S PERCEPTIONS OFEFFECTIVENESS OF TWO ANTI-TRAFFICKING BILLS PASSED

Humantrafficking crimes affect almost every country in the world. It hasbeen associated with transnational and small criminal organizations,corruption in governments and lack of proper labor laws andregulation (Farrellet al., 2014).Originally the definition of trafficking was associated with womenand children trade for prostitution (Boucheet al., 2016).However, more recently, human trafficking has taken a wider scope andincludes other types of illegal activities that infringe on humanrights and values such as fraud, coercion beyond sexual exploitationand labor malpractices (Amahazion,2015).Countries like Korea, Japan, US, and China have registered high ratesof human trafficking crimes an aspect that the UN has voiced itsconcern (Jones,2016).The US through the congress has passed major anti-trafficking billstheJustice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015, Human ExploitationRescue Operations Act of 2015 or the HERO Act of 2015,and theTrafficking Awareness Training for Health Care Act of 2015that pave way for the fight against human trafficking in the US.

ProblemStatement

Asmuch as the state government and the federal government has come upwith laws to combat human trafficking, the people of Washington Statehave expressed diverse views towards the efficiency and reliabilityof the laws. According to the United Nations, about 3287 people inthe world are sold or kidnapped into slavery every single day (Jones,2016).Most of the people trafficked either across boundaries or within acountry’s territory are children and most of the cases are sextrafficking related. Sex trafficking is one of the serious crimes inthe US and violates most of the human rights. Thus, there is a needto ensure that women and children are protected in a bid to enhancealignment to the human rights. UNICEF approximates that the sexmarket generates about $32 billion in profit each year as an averagehuman is sold into slavery for $100. The UN goes further to depictthat about two million children are trafficked into the global sexmarket and the issue has become a global menace (Jones,2011).The average number of human trafficking in the last ten years isillustrated in appendix 2.

Basedon the data it is imperative to note that the vice has continued togain reputation as more and more people get trafficked across theworld. Unfortunately the figure may be much higher as the recordsillustrate only the reported cases. There are numerous cases that gounreported. There is no doubt that American children are at risk ofsexual violation and exploitation. Moreover about 56% of girls in thestreets are at risk of sexual slavery or exploitation because thecrime of trafficking is based on opportunity. Further, men, childrenand women are continuously trafficked within the US and acrossinternational borders in order to provide cheap labor forunscrupulous business people. Trafficking is a crime that impairsglobal economic development. Due to the illegal nature of the crimeit is difficult to gather enough statistical evidence on the exactextent of the problem. However, some researchers have managed tocollect evidence to effectively and reliably come forth with a viableconclusion on the state of affairs especially in the US, Japan, Chinaand Korea. Human trafficking is the fastest growing business andmeans by which people have become enslaved in various parts of theworld as depicted by the UN office on drugs and crime. Thus, it isimperative to ensure that human trafficking problem is addressed bythe institution of mechanisms and policies to thwart the vice. Theresearch will review some of the major bills passed in the US toaddress the issue of human trafficking and the perception of thepeople from Washington State.

LiteratureReview

Dataand methodologies for the estimation of the prevalence of humantrafficking in the US and the world are not well defined. Thus, onmost cases estimates are widely used and changed with time. Accordingto the US Department of State, approximately one million victims weretrafficked across the world and half of the victims were young peopleaged 18 or below. The department goes further to illustrate that 80%of the people trafficked across the world are females and 70% aretrafficked into the global sex market (Farrellet al., 2014).At the same time, the international labor organization depicts thatat any given time there are about 12.3 million people in forcedlabor, bonded labor, sexual servitude, forced child labor andinvoluntary servitude. The US alone registers approximately 50,000individuals trafficked every year into the country. In a bid to fightthe crime, the US has prosecuted about 360 defendants over the lasteight years associated with human trafficking and it has secured 280convictions. Amahazion(2015) depicts that human trafficking from both a local and globalperspective is a menace that need to be addressed before it spoolsout of control. According to the author, human trafficking leads toviolations of key human rights protected by the constitution. Themain impediments to the fight against human trafficking originatefrom the poor policies and regulations, corruption in governmentagencies and lack of political goodwill to fight the crime.

Boucheet al. (2016) asses the efficiency of countering human traffickingand the strides adopted by major governments like the US government.There is no doubt that the Obama administration assented to the billon anti-human trafficking. However, as much as the bill was passedeventually there was a major delay in passing the bill from thesenate. The national assembly passed the bill within the shortesttime possible, but the bill dragged in the senate an illustration ofthe lack of political will to fight human trafficking. Theresearchers go forth to assess how effective and reliable thepolicies, regulations and strategies are in preventing humantrafficking. From their study the researchers argue that more needsto be done despite the fact that there has been a major transition inthe fight against human trafficking. The researchers particularlydepict that the prosecution process has been a major success in thefight against the crime and this is based on the fact that about 75%of the prosecutions have led to convictions. Farrellet al. (2014) agrees that the government has made significantprogress in fighting human trafficking but some areas need redresslabor trafficking. Previously the laws constrained the powers of thestate prosecutors, however, much has changed with the adoption of newbills.

Jones(2016) depicts that despite the sophisticated technologies andcontinued revamp of the legal system the US still remains to be oneof the largest destinations of human trafficking. According to theresearcher, the government has failed considerably in addressing theissue because most of the policies and regulations are not effectiveand reliable. Jones depicts that the US prosecution department hasfocused its attention immensely towards the poor and powerless in thesociety as opposed to fighting the financiers of the crimes. At thesame time, the government has continuously neglected the victims fromethnic minority groups. Shamir (2012) asserts that the legalframework instituted to fight human trafficking is ineffective andcannot be relied upon in bringing about change in the society. Theresearcher provides different measures to curb human trafficking thatinclude expulsion of the binding agreements, reducing the power ofintermediaries and extension of labor laws to the weak and powerlessin the society. Yardley (2012) explains that the state of Washingtontops the list in the fight against human trafficking. Theanti-trafficking laws established in Washington State provide anessential platform to fight the crime. However, Yesak (2014) explainsthat there is a collapse in the government systems and this explainswhy human trafficking has thrived in several parts of the country.

ResearchMethods

ResearchDesign

Aqualitative research design will be adopted. Both primary andsecondary data will be used in the research to assess the perceptionsof the people of Washington State. The points of view of therespondents will be given special consideration. Further, existingresearches will be essential to come to a conclusion on theperceptions of the people of Washington States on the anti-humantrafficking bills. Descriptive analysis will be adopted to describethe data collected. Graphs, tables, descriptive tools, and figureswill be essential in analyzing the data collected.

Participants

Theprimary participants are the people of Washington State. A randomsampling technique will be used to attain a sample size of fiftyrespondents who will be required to fill in questionnaires. A randomsampling method will be essential as it will avoid biasness.

Instruments

Aquestionnaire will be used to collect the views of the respondents.In a bid to reach out to people of different ages, sex and economicalstatus the online platform will be essential in the dissemination ofthe questionnaires. Online questionnaires give enough time to therespondents to forward their answers.

Procedure

Thefirst step will be drafting the questionnaire to be used in thesurvey followed by the identification of the respondents. A randomsampling procedure will be adopted to select the fifty respondentsthat will be involved in the study. Further, questionnaires will besent to the respondents and collected filled in questionnairescollected after one week. The collected primary data will be analyzedand compared to the already existing secondary data. Conclusions willbe made after the analysis of both primary and secondary data.

References

Amahazion,F. (2015). Human trafficking: the need for human rights andgovernment effectiveness in enforcing anti-trafficking.&nbspGlobalCrime,&nbsp16(3),167-196.

Bouche,V., Farrell, A., &amp Wittmer, D. (2016). Identifying EffectiveCounter-Trafficking Programs and Practices in the US: Legislative,Legal, and Public Opinion Strategies that Work.&nbspUSDepartment of Justice: NCJRS, 3(1), 10-23.

Farrell,A., Owens, C., &amp McDevitt, J. (2014). New laws but few cases:understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution ofhuman trafficking cases.&nbspCrime,Law and Social Change,&nbsp61(2),139-168.

Jones,S. V. (2011). Human trafficking victim identification: Should consentmatter.&nbspInd.L. Rev.,&nbsp45,483.

Shamir,H. (2012). Labor Paradigm for Human Trafficking, A.&nbspUCLAL. Rev.,&nbsp60,76.

Yardley,W. (2012). Washington Passes Law to Curb Sex Trafficking – The New… Retrieved October 28, 2016, fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/02/us/washington-passes-law-to-curb-sex-trafficking.html.

Yesak,A. (2014). Human trafficking: The failure of states to eradicateslavery.&nbspCrime,Law and Social Change,&nbsp1(1),1-5.

Appendices

Appendix1: Annotated Bibliography

Amahazion,F. (2015). Human trafficking: the need for human rights andgovernment effectiveness in enforcing anti-trafficking.&nbspGlobalCrime,&nbsp16(3),167-196.

Inthis article, the author describes human trafficking as a globalmenace. The author expresses that this problem involves exploitationof innocent individuals through ways such as forced sex, labor andorgan removal. The author acknowledges the legislative lawsprotecting people against trafficking. He examines human traffickingdata in 168 countries between 2001 and 2011. Findings from the dataexamined, particularly for the United States suggest that enforcementis affected by the collaboration of states, ties in world culture,the effectiveness of the government, flow of human traffic andpolitical mechanisms at the state level. The author also assesses thepublic opinion regarding the effectiveness of some traffickingenforcement in the countries studied, with different views coming upregarding their overall effectiveness.

Bouche,V., Farrell, A., &amp Wittmer, D. (2016). Identifying EffectiveCounter-Trafficking Programs and Practices in the US: Legislative,Legal, and Public Opinion Strategies that Work.&nbspUSDepartment of Justice: NCJRS.

Inthis article, the authors assess the effectiveness ofcounter-trafficking efforts in the United States. They argue thatfollowing endless efforts to combat human trafficking in the UnitedStates in the last decade, there is the need to examine theeffectiveness of some of the key strategies employed to fight humantrafficking. In particular, the authors explore the effectiveness ofState legislation to evaluate the provisions that are more effectivein producing the desired effects. Moreover, they explore thecharacteristics of State prosecutions on human trafficking offensesto assess the implementation of State laws. In addition, they explorethe knowledge of the citizens regarding human trafficking, theirbeliefs and their expectations from the government anti-traffickinglegislation. The authors pay special attention to the State ofWashington given that it recently passed legislation to fight humantrafficking.

Farrell,A., Owens, C., &amp McDevitt, J. (2014). New laws but few cases:understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution ofhuman trafficking cases.&nbspCrime,Law and Social Change,&nbsp61(2),139-168.

Thearticle highlights the efforts made by all US States in combatinghuman trafficking. The authors assert that all States and the FederalGovernment have formulated human trafficking laws. The researchersutilize data from 140 cases in 12 US States, interviews with victims,state prosecutors and victims’ service providers to determine theeffectiveness of human trafficking laws. The study finds that locallaw enforcements identify very few human trafficking cases. Itdemonstrated that state prosecutors charge human traffickers withlesser crimes because of the weakness of the laws. The States showedsimilar institutional, legal and attitudinal challenges thatconstrain the prosecution of human traffickers, despite thevariations in the State laws. The research demonstrated thedifficulty of prosecuting human trafficking cases across the country.Prosecutors need to work with law enforcement officers to implementinvestigative strategies that build strong human trafficking casesagainst the major criminal elements. This is a helpful article inanalyzing the effectiveness of human trafficking laws.

Jones,S. V. (2011). Human trafficking victim identification: Should consentmatter.&nbspInd.L. Rev.,&nbsp45,483.

Theauthor highlights the sophisticated nature of human trafficking inthe United States. He says that despite the country’s wealthaugmented by sophisticated paradigms in law enforcement, the countryis the third largest destination for human trafficking. He shedslight on the reasons for the increasing rate of human traffickingssuch as reckless neglect of boys and girls during investigations andreporting. The article highlights various legislative weaknesses suchas the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, which allows corporationsto escape prosecution. He says that one of the primary concerns infighting human trafficking is the US government’s disproportionateattention ion the prosecution of the powerless and poor in thesociety. The dismal results of human trafficking laws enforcementdemonstrate the increasing neglect of victims from ethnic minoritygroups.

Shamir,H. (2012). Labor Paradigm for Human Trafficking, A.&nbspUCLAL. Rev.,&nbsp60,76.

Theauthor asserts that despite gaining condemnation and internationalattention over the past decade, the legal instruments designed tocombat the problem have been largely ineffective. He says thatcurrent legal frameworks enable the protection of only a small numberof people, most of whom do not fall under the magnitude of humantrafficking. Moreover, the value of the assistance provided isquestionable. This article thus calls the United States to shift itsparadigm in anti-trafficking policy. The author argues that it istime to move away from the human rights approach to the laborapproach. This approach should aim at disrupting the structure oflabor markets that rely on exploitative labor practices. The articlecontends that this labor paradigm offers a practical and effectivestrategy for combating human trafficking. Additionally, the authorproposes the mechanism of incorporating paradigm shift into existinganti-trafficking laws. He proposes five measures for effectiveimplementation of anti-trafficking policies based on the laborapproach. For example, he proposes the banning of bindingarrangements, reduction in the power of intermediaries, extend theapplication of labor laws to vulnerable workers and providingguarantees for the right to unionize. This article offers aneffective alternative to the current laws.

Yardley,W. (2012). Washington Passes Law to Curb Sex Trafficking – The New… Retrieved October 28, 2016, fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/02/us/washington-passes-law-to-curb-sex-trafficking.html.

Inthis news article, William Yardley acknowledges the fact that theState of Washington tops the list of the war against humantrafficking. He begins by telling the story of a 15-year-old girl whowas rescued by the police from the world of sex trafficking. He thengives an account of the Washington State bill signed into lawrequiring all sex workers advertised to be above 18 years. This billwas meant to prevent chances of underage trafficking for sex in theState. Some of the people interviewed expressed views such as thebill is of its kind in the country, and it could make a difference inpeople`s lives.

Yesak,A. (2014). Human trafficking: The failure of states to eradicateslavery.

Theauthor conducts a study on the failure of States to end the vice ofhuman trafficking. He presents the findings of his study where heacknowledges the facts that human trafficking is an intricate topicgiven the accuracy and nature of the crime. He notes that humantrafficking is influenced by an assortment of variables includingprostitution, victimization, poverty and illegal immigration amongothers. According to him, the public, particularly in the U.S statesthat have passed anti-trafficking laws, believes that most of theselaws are not effective because the vice continues to rock thecountry.

Appendix2

Appendix2: Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking Washington State Citizen`s Perceptions of Effectiveness of Two Anti-Trafficking Bills Passed

HumanTrafficking: Washington State Citizen’s Perceptions ofEffectiveness of Two Anti-Trafficking Bills Passed

EricClifford Odom

AmericanMilitary University

6November 2016

Abstract

Theresearch will review the perception of the people of Washington Stateon two bills passed by the Congress. There is no doubt that humantrafficking is a major issue not only in the US but also in theworld. A qualitative research method will be adopted and 50respondents involved in the research process. In order to facilitatethe data collection process questionnaires will be sent to therespondents. The respondents will be randomly selected in a bid toavoid any form of biasness. In addition to the primary data that willbe collected, secondary data will also be used to attain aconclusion.

HUMANTRAFFICKING: WASHINGTON STATE CITIZEN’S PERCEPTIONS OFEFFECTIVENESS OF TWO ANTI-TRAFFICKING BILLS PASSED

Humantrafficking crimes affect almost every country in the world. It hasbeen associated with transnational and small criminal organizations,corruption in governments and lack of proper labor laws andregulation (Farrellet al., 2014).Originally the definition of trafficking was associated with womenand children trade for prostitution (Boucheet al., 2016).However, more recently, human trafficking has taken a wider scope andincludes other types of illegal activities that infringe on humanrights and values such as fraud, coercion beyond sexual exploitationand labor malpractices (Amahazion,2015).Countries like Korea, Japan, US, and China have registered high ratesof human trafficking crimes an aspect that the UN has voiced itsconcern (Jones,2016).The US through the congress has passed major anti-trafficking billstheJustice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015, Human ExploitationRescue Operations Act of 2015 or the HERO Act of 2015,and theTrafficking Awareness Training for Health Care Act of 2015that pave way for the fight against human trafficking in the US.

ProblemStatement

Asmuch as the state government and the federal government has come upwith laws to combat human trafficking, the people of Washington Statehave expressed diverse views towards the efficiency and reliabilityof the laws. According to the United Nations, about 3287 people inthe world are sold or kidnapped into slavery every single day (Jones,2016).Most of the people trafficked either across boundaries or within acountry’s territory are children and most of the cases are sextrafficking related. Sex trafficking is one of the serious crimes inthe US and violates most of the human rights. Thus, there is a needto ensure that women and children are protected in a bid to enhancealignment to the human rights. UNICEF approximates that the sexmarket generates about $32 billion in profit each year as an averagehuman is sold into slavery for $100. The UN goes further to depictthat about two million children are trafficked into the global sexmarket and the issue has become a global menace (Jones,2011).The average number of human trafficking in the last ten years isillustrated in appendix 2.

Basedon the data it is imperative to note that the vice has continued togain reputation as more and more people get trafficked across theworld. Unfortunately the figure may be much higher as the recordsillustrate only the reported cases. There are numerous cases that gounreported. There is no doubt that American children are at risk ofsexual violation and exploitation. Moreover about 56% of girls in thestreets are at risk of sexual slavery or exploitation because thecrime of trafficking is based on opportunity. Further, men, childrenand women are continuously trafficked within the US and acrossinternational borders in order to provide cheap labor forunscrupulous business people. Trafficking is a crime that impairsglobal economic development. Due to the illegal nature of the crimeit is difficult to gather enough statistical evidence on the exactextent of the problem. However, some researchers have managed tocollect evidence to effectively and reliably come forth with a viableconclusion on the state of affairs especially in the US, Japan, Chinaand Korea. Human trafficking is the fastest growing business andmeans by which people have become enslaved in various parts of theworld as depicted by the UN office on drugs and crime. Thus, it isimperative to ensure that human trafficking problem is addressed bythe institution of mechanisms and policies to thwart the vice. Theresearch will review some of the major bills passed in the US toaddress the issue of human trafficking and the perception of thepeople from Washington State.

LiteratureReview

Dataand methodologies for the estimation of the prevalence of humantrafficking in the US and the world are not well defined. Thus, onmost cases estimates are widely used and changed with time. Accordingto the US Department of State, approximately one million victims weretrafficked across the world and half of the victims were young peopleaged 18 or below. The department goes further to illustrate that 80%of the people trafficked across the world are females and 70% aretrafficked into the global sex market (Farrellet al., 2014).At the same time, the international labor organization depicts thatat any given time there are about 12.3 million people in forcedlabor, bonded labor, sexual servitude, forced child labor andinvoluntary servitude. The US alone registers approximately 50,000individuals trafficked every year into the country. In a bid to fightthe crime, the US has prosecuted about 360 defendants over the lasteight years associated with human trafficking and it has secured 280convictions. Amahazion(2015) depicts that human trafficking from both a local and globalperspective is a menace that need to be addressed before it spoolsout of control. According to the author, human trafficking leads toviolations of key human rights protected by the constitution. Themain impediments to the fight against human trafficking originatefrom the poor policies and regulations, corruption in governmentagencies and lack of political goodwill to fight the crime.

Boucheet al. (2016) asses the efficiency of countering human traffickingand the strides adopted by major governments like the US government.There is no doubt that the Obama administration assented to the billon anti-human trafficking. However, as much as the bill was passedeventually there was a major delay in passing the bill from thesenate. The national assembly passed the bill within the shortesttime possible, but the bill dragged in the senate an illustration ofthe lack of political will to fight human trafficking. Theresearchers go forth to assess how effective and reliable thepolicies, regulations and strategies are in preventing humantrafficking. From their study the researchers argue that more needsto be done despite the fact that there has been a major transition inthe fight against human trafficking. The researchers particularlydepict that the prosecution process has been a major success in thefight against the crime and this is based on the fact that about 75%of the prosecutions have led to convictions. Farrellet al. (2014) agrees that the government has made significantprogress in fighting human trafficking but some areas need redresslabor trafficking. Previously the laws constrained the powers of thestate prosecutors, however, much has changed with the adoption of newbills.

Jones(2016) depicts that despite the sophisticated technologies andcontinued revamp of the legal system the US still remains to be oneof the largest destinations of human trafficking. According to theresearcher, the government has failed considerably in addressing theissue because most of the policies and regulations are not effectiveand reliable. Jones depicts that the US prosecution department hasfocused its attention immensely towards the poor and powerless in thesociety as opposed to fighting the financiers of the crimes. At thesame time, the government has continuously neglected the victims fromethnic minority groups. Shamir (2012) asserts that the legalframework instituted to fight human trafficking is ineffective andcannot be relied upon in bringing about change in the society. Theresearcher provides different measures to curb human trafficking thatinclude expulsion of the binding agreements, reducing the power ofintermediaries and extension of labor laws to the weak and powerlessin the society. Yardley (2012) explains that the state of Washingtontops the list in the fight against human trafficking. Theanti-trafficking laws established in Washington State provide anessential platform to fight the crime. However, Yesak (2014) explainsthat there is a collapse in the government systems and this explainswhy human trafficking has thrived in several parts of the country.

ResearchMethods

ResearchDesign

Aqualitative research design will be adopted. Both primary andsecondary data will be used in the research to assess the perceptionsof the people of Washington State. The points of view of therespondents will be given special consideration. Further, existingresearches will be essential to come to a conclusion on theperceptions of the people of Washington States on the anti-humantrafficking bills. Descriptive analysis will be adopted to describethe data collected. Graphs, tables, descriptive tools, and figureswill be essential in analyzing the data collected.

Participants

Theprimary participants are the people of Washington State. A randomsampling technique will be used to attain a sample size of fiftyrespondents who will be required to fill in questionnaires. A randomsampling method will be essential as it will avoid biasness.

Instruments

Aquestionnaire will be used to collect the views of the respondents.In a bid to reach out to people of different ages, sex and economicalstatus the online platform will be essential in the dissemination ofthe questionnaires. Online questionnaires give enough time to therespondents to forward their answers.

Procedure

Thefirst step will be drafting the questionnaire to be used in thesurvey followed by the identification of the respondents. A randomsampling procedure will be adopted to select the fifty respondentsthat will be involved in the study. Further, questionnaires will besent to the respondents and collected filled in questionnairescollected after one week. The collected primary data will be analyzedand compared to the already existing secondary data. Conclusions willbe made after the analysis of both primary and secondary data.

References

Amahazion,F. (2015). Human trafficking: the need for human rights andgovernment effectiveness in enforcing anti-trafficking.&nbspGlobalCrime,&nbsp16(3),167-196.

Bouche,V., Farrell, A., &amp Wittmer, D. (2016). Identifying EffectiveCounter-Trafficking Programs and Practices in the US: Legislative,Legal, and Public Opinion Strategies that Work.&nbspUSDepartment of Justice: NCJRS, 3(1), 10-23.

Farrell,A., Owens, C., &amp McDevitt, J. (2014). New laws but few cases:understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution ofhuman trafficking cases.&nbspCrime,Law and Social Change,&nbsp61(2),139-168.

Jones,S. V. (2011). Human trafficking victim identification: Should consentmatter.&nbspInd.L. Rev.,&nbsp45,483.

Shamir,H. (2012). Labor Paradigm for Human Trafficking, A.&nbspUCLAL. Rev.,&nbsp60,76.

Yardley,W. (2012). Washington Passes Law to Curb Sex Trafficking – The New… Retrieved October 28, 2016, fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/02/us/washington-passes-law-to-curb-sex-trafficking.html.

Yesak,A. (2014). Human trafficking: The failure of states to eradicateslavery.&nbspCrime,Law and Social Change,&nbsp1(1),1-5.

Appendices

Appendix1: Annotated Bibliography

Amahazion,F. (2015). Human trafficking: the need for human rights andgovernment effectiveness in enforcing anti-trafficking.&nbspGlobalCrime,&nbsp16(3),167-196.

Inthis article, the author describes human trafficking as a globalmenace. The author expresses that this problem involves exploitationof innocent individuals through ways such as forced sex, labor andorgan removal. The author acknowledges the legislative lawsprotecting people against trafficking. He examines human traffickingdata in 168 countries between 2001 and 2011. Findings from the dataexamined, particularly for the United States suggest that enforcementis affected by the collaboration of states, ties in world culture,the effectiveness of the government, flow of human traffic andpolitical mechanisms at the state level. The author also assesses thepublic opinion regarding the effectiveness of some traffickingenforcement in the countries studied, with different views coming upregarding their overall effectiveness.

Bouche,V., Farrell, A., &amp Wittmer, D. (2016). Identifying EffectiveCounter-Trafficking Programs and Practices in the US: Legislative,Legal, and Public Opinion Strategies that Work.&nbspUSDepartment of Justice: NCJRS.

Inthis article, the authors assess the effectiveness ofcounter-trafficking efforts in the United States. They argue thatfollowing endless efforts to combat human trafficking in the UnitedStates in the last decade, there is the need to examine theeffectiveness of some of the key strategies employed to fight humantrafficking. In particular, the authors explore the effectiveness ofState legislation to evaluate the provisions that are more effectivein producing the desired effects. Moreover, they explore thecharacteristics of State prosecutions on human trafficking offensesto assess the implementation of State laws. In addition, they explorethe knowledge of the citizens regarding human trafficking, theirbeliefs and their expectations from the government anti-traffickinglegislation. The authors pay special attention to the State ofWashington given that it recently passed legislation to fight humantrafficking.

Farrell,A., Owens, C., &amp McDevitt, J. (2014). New laws but few cases:understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution ofhuman trafficking cases.&nbspCrime,Law and Social Change,&nbsp61(2),139-168.

Thearticle highlights the efforts made by all US States in combatinghuman trafficking. The authors assert that all States and the FederalGovernment have formulated human trafficking laws. The researchersutilize data from 140 cases in 12 US States, interviews with victims,state prosecutors and victims’ service providers to determine theeffectiveness of human trafficking laws. The study finds that locallaw enforcements identify very few human trafficking cases. Itdemonstrated that state prosecutors charge human traffickers withlesser crimes because of the weakness of the laws. The States showedsimilar institutional, legal and attitudinal challenges thatconstrain the prosecution of human traffickers, despite thevariations in the State laws. The research demonstrated thedifficulty of prosecuting human trafficking cases across the country.Prosecutors need to work with law enforcement officers to implementinvestigative strategies that build strong human trafficking casesagainst the major criminal elements. This is a helpful article inanalyzing the effectiveness of human trafficking laws.

Jones,S. V. (2011). Human trafficking victim identification: Should consentmatter.&nbspInd.L. Rev.,&nbsp45,483.

Theauthor highlights the sophisticated nature of human trafficking inthe United States. He says that despite the country’s wealthaugmented by sophisticated paradigms in law enforcement, the countryis the third largest destination for human trafficking. He shedslight on the reasons for the increasing rate of human traffickingssuch as reckless neglect of boys and girls during investigations andreporting. The article highlights various legislative weaknesses suchas the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, which allows corporationsto escape prosecution. He says that one of the primary concerns infighting human trafficking is the US government’s disproportionateattention ion the prosecution of the powerless and poor in thesociety. The dismal results of human trafficking laws enforcementdemonstrate the increasing neglect of victims from ethnic minoritygroups.

Shamir,H. (2012). Labor Paradigm for Human Trafficking, A.&nbspUCLAL. Rev.,&nbsp60,76.

Theauthor asserts that despite gaining condemnation and internationalattention over the past decade, the legal instruments designed tocombat the problem have been largely ineffective. He says thatcurrent legal frameworks enable the protection of only a small numberof people, most of whom do not fall under the magnitude of humantrafficking. Moreover, the value of the assistance provided isquestionable. This article thus calls the United States to shift itsparadigm in anti-trafficking policy. The author argues that it istime to move away from the human rights approach to the laborapproach. This approach should aim at disrupting the structure oflabor markets that rely on exploitative labor practices. The articlecontends that this labor paradigm offers a practical and effectivestrategy for combating human trafficking. Additionally, the authorproposes the mechanism of incorporating paradigm shift into existinganti-trafficking laws. He proposes five measures for effectiveimplementation of anti-trafficking policies based on the laborapproach. For example, he proposes the banning of bindingarrangements, reduction in the power of intermediaries, extend theapplication of labor laws to vulnerable workers and providingguarantees for the right to unionize. This article offers aneffective alternative to the current laws.

Yardley,W. (2012). Washington Passes Law to Curb Sex Trafficking – The New… Retrieved October 28, 2016, fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/02/us/washington-passes-law-to-curb-sex-trafficking.html.

Inthis news article, William Yardley acknowledges the fact that theState of Washington tops the list of the war against humantrafficking. He begins by telling the story of a 15-year-old girl whowas rescued by the police from the world of sex trafficking. He thengives an account of the Washington State bill signed into lawrequiring all sex workers advertised to be above 18 years. This billwas meant to prevent chances of underage trafficking for sex in theState. Some of the people interviewed expressed views such as thebill is of its kind in the country, and it could make a difference inpeople`s lives.

Yesak,A. (2014). Human trafficking: The failure of states to eradicateslavery.

Theauthor conducts a study on the failure of States to end the vice ofhuman trafficking. He presents the findings of his study where heacknowledges the facts that human trafficking is an intricate topicgiven the accuracy and nature of the crime. He notes that humantrafficking is influenced by an assortment of variables includingprostitution, victimization, poverty and illegal immigration amongothers. According to him, the public, particularly in the U.S statesthat have passed anti-trafficking laws, believes that most of theselaws are not effective because the vice continues to rock thecountry.

Appendix2

Appendix2: Human Trafficking

Human Trafficking Washington State Citizen`s Perceptions of Effectiveness of Two Anti-Trafficking Bills Passed

HumanTrafficking: Washington State Citizen’s Perceptions ofEffectiveness of Two Anti-Trafficking Bills Passed

AnnotatedBibliography

Amahazion,F. (2015). Human trafficking: the need for human rights andgovernment effectiveness in enforcing anti-trafficking.&nbspGlobalCrime,&nbsp16(3),167-196.

Inthis article, the author describes human trafficking as a globalmenace. The author expresses that this problem involves exploitationof innocent individuals through ways such as forced sex, labor andorgan removal. The author acknowledges the legislative lawsprotecting people against trafficking. He examines human traffickingdata in 168 countries between 2001 and 2011. Findings from the dataexamined, particularly for the United States suggest that enforcementis affected by the collaboration of states, ties in world culture,the effectiveness of the government, flow of human traffic andpolitical mechanisms at the state level. The author also assesses thepublic opinion regarding the effectiveness of some traffickingenforcement in the countries studied, with different views coming upregarding their overall effectiveness.

Bouche,V., Farrell, A., &amp Wittmer, D. (2016). Identifying EffectiveCounter-Trafficking Programs and Practices in the US: Legislative,Legal, and Public Opinion Strategies that Work.&nbspUSDepartment of Justice: NCJRS.

Inthis article, the authors assess the effectiveness ofcounter-trafficking efforts in the United States. They argue thatfollowing endless efforts to combat human trafficking in the UnitedStates in the last decade, there is the need to examine theeffectiveness of some of the key strategies employed to fight humantrafficking. In particular, the authors explore the effectiveness ofState legislation to evaluate the provisions that are more effectivein producing the desired effects. Moreover, they explore thecharacteristics of State prosecutions on human trafficking offensesto assess the implementation of State laws. In addition, they explorethe knowledge of the citizens regarding human trafficking, theirbeliefs and their expectations from the government anti-traffickinglegislation. The authors pay special attention to the State ofWashington given that it recently passed legislation to fight humantrafficking.

Farrell,A., Owens, C., &amp McDevitt, J. (2014). New laws but few cases:understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution ofhuman trafficking cases.&nbspCrime,Law and Social Change,&nbsp61(2),139-168.

Thearticle highlights the efforts made by all US States in combatinghuman trafficking. The authors assert that all States and the FederalGovernment have formulated human trafficking laws. The researchersutilize data from 140 cases in 12 US States, interviews with victims,state prosecutors and victims’ service providers to determine theeffectiveness of human trafficking laws. The study finds that locallaw enforcements identify very few human trafficking cases. Itdemonstrated that state prosecutors charge human traffickers withlesser crimes because of the weakness of the laws. The States showedsimilar institutional, legal and attitudinal challenges thatconstrain the prosecution of human traffickers, despite thevariations in the State laws. The research demonstrated thedifficulty of prosecuting human trafficking cases across the country.Prosecutors need to work with law enforcement officers to implementinvestigative strategies that build strong human trafficking casesagainst the major criminal elements. This is a helpful article inanalyzing the effectiveness of human trafficking laws.

Jones,S. V. (2011). Human trafficking victim identification: Should consentmatter.&nbspInd.L. Rev.,&nbsp45,483.

Theauthor highlights the sophisticated nature of human trafficking inthe United States. He says that despite the country’s wealthaugmented by sophisticated paradigms in law enforcement, the countryis the third largest destination for human trafficking. He shedslight on the reasons for the increasing rate of human traffickingssuch as reckless neglect of boys and girls during investigations andreporting. The article highlights various legislative weaknesses suchas the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, which allows corporationsto escape prosecution. He says that one of the primary concerns infighting human trafficking is the US government’s disproportionateattention ion the prosecution of the powerless and poor in thesociety. The dismal results of human trafficking laws enforcementdemonstrate the increasing neglect of victims from ethnic minoritygroups.

Shamir,H. (2012). Labor Paradigm for Human Trafficking, A.&nbspUCLAL. Rev.,&nbsp60,76.

Theauthor asserts that despite gaining condemnation and internationalattention over the past decade, the legal instruments designed tocombat the problem have been largely ineffective. He says thatcurrent legal frameworks enable the protection of only a small numberof people, most of whom do not fall under the magnitude of humantrafficking. Moreover, the value of the assistance provided isquestionable. This article thus calls the United States to shift itsparadigm in anti-trafficking policy. The author argues that it istime to move away from the human rights approach to the laborapproach. This approach should aim at disrupting the structure oflabor markets that rely on exploitative labor practices. The articlecontends that this labor paradigm offers a practical and effectivestrategy for combating human trafficking. Additionally, the authorproposes the mechanism of incorporating paradigm shift into existinganti-trafficking laws. He proposes five measures for effectiveimplementation of anti-trafficking policies based on the laborapproach. For example, he proposes the banning of bindingarrangements, reduction in the power of intermediaries, extend theapplication of labor laws to vulnerable workers and providingguarantees for the right to unionize. This article offers aneffective alternative to the current laws.

Yardley,W. (2012). Washington Passes Law to Curb Sex Trafficking – The New… Retrieved October 28, 2016, fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/02/us/washington-passes-law-to-curb-sex-trafficking.html.

Inthis news article, William Yardley acknowledges the fact that theState of Washington tops the list of the war against humantrafficking. He begins by telling the story of a 15-year-old girl whowas rescued by the police from the world of sex trafficking. He thengives an account of the Washington State bill signed into lawrequiring all sex workers advertised to be above 18 years. This billwas meant to prevent chances of underage trafficking for sex in theState. Some of the people interviewed expressed views such as thebill is of its kind in the country, and it could make a difference inpeople`s lives.

Yesak,A. (2014). Human trafficking: The failure of states to eradicateslavery.

Theauthor conducts a study on the failure of States to end the vice ofhuman trafficking. He presents the findings of his study where heacknowledges the facts that human trafficking is an intricate topicgiven the accuracy and nature of the crime. He notes that humantrafficking is influenced by an assortment of variables includingprostitution, victimization, poverty and illegal immigration amongothers. According to him, the public, particularly in the U.S statesthat have passed anti-trafficking laws, believes that most of theselaws are not effective because the vice continues to rock thecountry. The author proposes that for these laws to take effect, thegovernment both federal and state-level should pay attention to theproblem the same way it does for security threats in the country.

References

Amahazion,F. (2015). Human trafficking: the need for human rights andgovernment effectiveness in enforcing anti-trafficking.&nbspGlobalCrime,&nbsp16(3),167-196.

Bouche,V., Farrell, A., &amp Wittmer, D. (2016). Identifying EffectiveCounter-Trafficking Programs and Practices in the US: Legislative,Legal, and Public Opinion Strategies that Work.&nbspUSDepartment of Justice: NCJRS.

Farrell,A., Owens, C., &amp McDevitt, J. (2014). New laws but few cases:understanding the challenges to the investigation and prosecution ofhuman trafficking cases.&nbspCrime,Law and Social Change,&nbsp61(2),139-168.

Jones,S. V. (2011). Human trafficking victim identification: Should consentmatter.&nbspInd.L. Rev.,&nbsp45,483.

Shamir,H. (2012). Labor Paradigm for Human Trafficking, A.&nbspUCLAL. Rev.,&nbsp60,76.

Yardley,W. (2012). Washington Passes Law to Curb Sex Trafficking – The New… Retrieved October 28, 2016, fromhttp://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/02/us/washington-passes-law-to-curb-sex-trafficking.html.

Yesak,A. (2014). Human trafficking: The failure of states to eradicateslavery.