Key Arguments Presented about
Thekey arguments in human trafficking revolve around the role of demandin the promotion of human trafficking. These arguments highlight theneed to address the demand side of human trafficking on issues suchas the trafficking of sexual slaves. The reference to “demand”continuous to feature predominantly in discussions touching on thesubject. One of the arguments raised includes the effect of thecriminalization of male purchases of services associated with humantrafficking such as commercial sex. The adoption of the UNTrafficking Protocol relied heavily on the demand side arguments (Choet al., 2013).In 2000, the UN gave clear definitions of the context of “humantrafficking” in international law. The arguments presented include:
Debating in the context of Crime Prevention and MigrationControl
Inthe past, the debate on human trafficking as well as the irregulartransfer of immigrants across international borders was conductedsynonymously. In recent years, governments have increased theirillegal immigration enforcement capabilities, making illegal bordercrossing to be more sophisticated than before. However, the UNTrafficking Protocol sets clear definitions between organized illegalimmigrations and organized human trafficking (Cho,2013).The argument, therefore, is how to differentiate between the two andwhether both aspects of illegal migrations can be addressed usingsimilar measures. In view of the UN Trafficking Protocol, the firststep to deal with the problem is the realization of the fact that itis a border-related crime. The inability to detect human traffickingcases at the borders stems from the fact that it is impossible todetermine whether a journey will end up in a situation of coercedexploitation.
Ending Demand in the Context of Prostitution
TheUN Trafficking Protocol makes significant arguments regarding theneed to include the debate on prostitution in addressing humantrafficking. From the 1980s, women organizations have continuouslyfought to introduce new interpretation frames to address the dangersposed by the rising cases of prostitution. Radical feminists whorallied for the abolition of the distinction between “free”prostitution and “forced” prostitution promoted most of the newdefinitions regarding prostitution (Todres,2011).Consequently, the new definitions direct the attention on menregarding the subject of prostitution. Therefore, prostitution isseen as trade between the prostitution industry and ordinary men,thus placing men at the center of the solution.
HumanTrafficking and Forced Labor
Forcedlabor continues to constitute significant proportions of humantrafficking cases. The arguments, in this case, regard the role oflabor laws in protecting the rights of the underprivileged. Again,the demand side issues regarding forced labor feature prominently inthis debate. Child labor is another special aspect of the forcedlabor debate and human rights activists have continuously sought thedifferentiation between forced labor and child labor.
Assumptions and Premises of the Arguments
Thefirst assumption regarding the arguments is that human trafficking isa national security and criminal justice issue. People assume thatthe two avenues present the best solutions towards the abolition ofthe challenge. However, the fact is that human trafficking is acomplex phenomenon that comprises various issues such as laborrights, human rights and freedoms such as freedom of movement,migration as well as freedom of family reunification (Todres,2011).Secondly, people assume only the humans are affected by acts of humantrafficking since it involves their transfer and exploitation.Therefore, the solutions against human trafficking have concentratedon the aspect of humans beings as the victims. However, the state isan equal victim of human trafficking. The borders of different statesare violated in the process of the commission of human traffickingoffenses. Another assumption is the significance of the demand sideof human trafficking in defining the proposed solutions, especiallyin the UN Trafficking Protocol (Todres,2011).
Anothermajor assumption is that women form a significant proportion of humantrafficking victims. The prostitution industry is an important playerin human trafficking therefore, it is easy to understand why thisassumption exists. However, human trafficking does not only involvethe illegal transfer of women for sexual purposes. There are othervictims such as child laborers and forced laborers. In this regard,men and boys are also victims of human trafficking. The otherassumption is these arguments lies in the feminist definition ofprostitution (Todres,2011).The feminists hold the assumption that all forms of prostitution aredone against the will of the women involved. They also assume thatthe male purchasers of sexual service are acting in their free will,compared to the sex workers who are controlled by industry.
Evidence Supporting the Arguments
Thereis significant evidence supporting the arguments raised on thesubject of human trafficking. Firstly, human trafficking is closelyassociated with criminal gangs and organizations. Human traffickingvictims often come from countries involved in civil conflicts as wellas from developing countries. Therefore, dealing with humantrafficking requires authorities to address the criminal element ofthe challenge. Studies show that human trafficking goes hand in handwith drug trafficking. High cases of human trafficking increase thelevel of crime in a country and limit the safety of women and girls.Additionally, the prevalence of forced labor increases with risingcases of human trafficking. The criminal organizations use similarroutes in the transportation of sex workers and forced laborers.
Secondly,prostitution is a major contributor of human trafficking. Asignificant proportion of human trafficking victims are transportedfor sexual reasons. Most of these women are young and poor and areoften promised good fortunes such as careers in the fashion industry.These facts, therefore, support the argument that there is a need toaddress the role of men in purchasing services offered by traffickedwomen. The feminist proponents are justified to eradicate thedifferentiation between “free” prostitution and “forced”prostitution because of the organized nature of the prostitutionindustry. Most of the trafficked women are controlled by organizedcartels however, the male customers are free elements simply lookingto enjoy their services.
The Quality of the Warrants Presented
Thewarrants presented are of high quality because of the evidenceprovided to back the arguments. The issue of human traffickingtouches on important aspects of global security. For example, thediscussions present evidence regarding the role of human traffickingin crime. Statistics show that the extent of human trafficking isdirectly proportional to the level of crime. Additionally, the UNTrafficking Protocol highlights the devastating effects of humantrafficking on the quality of the lives of the victims. Again, thearguments show clear guidelines regarding the role of demand instimulating human trafficking. The majority of the arguments areconcise and are backed by statistical facts. The backing of argumentswith evidence makes the warrants to be dependable.
Thereare notable fallacies in the arguments presented regarding the issueof human trafficking. To start with, it is often believed thatvictims of human trafficking are individuals brought up in ruralvillages under poverty. It is also believed that sex trafficking isthe only form of human trafficking. However, the reality is thatalthough poverty is a factor in human trafficking, it is not the onlyfactor influencing human trafficking (Smit& van der Laan, 2014).Victims of this vice come from a wide range of income levels, and asignificant proportion of them come from high socioeconomicbackgrounds. Similarly, human trafficking comprises of both sex andlabor trafficking, and it can affect people from different socialclasses, age, and gender.
Moreover,there is an erroneous notion that victims of human trafficking areforeign people or immigrants from other countries. However, thereality is that the federal definition of human traffickingconstitutes both U.S citizens and foreign nationals. The federalgovernment protects both cases, and this law has been working since2000 (Smit& van der Laan, 2014).The government defines victims of human trafficking as individualswho are U.S citizens, visa holders, lawful permanent residents andundocumented workers.
Inaddition, there is a myth that holds human trafficking as a crimethat must involve some form of movement or transportation across thestate or national borders. Nonetheless, transportation is notnecessary for human trafficking to occur. Although movement may beused to keep the victims in unfamiliar places, it is not necessaryfor the definition of human trafficking. This is because humantrafficking is not similar to forced smuggling, which must involvethe crossing of the border.
Giventhe dissident nature of human trafficking, the outcomes of the viceare concealed and hard to see. Individuals who fall victims lacklimited access to basic human needs such as food and clothing.Similarly, they are often confined in enclosures characterized bypoor hygiene, no running water and lack of sleep among others. Thisvice is rooted in the exploitation of individuals against their will.Therefore, all victims are subject to social, physical andpsychological torture. They undergo physical suffering due to theexcessive force used by the traffickers.
Furthermore,as seen in the arguments on human trafficking, the victims arevulnerable to serious health risks such as mental disorders andHIV/AIDS. This is coupled with the trauma of the events, fear,insecurity and anxiety, which can trigger serious outcomes such asPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), cognitive impairment, memoryloss, suicide, or depression (Goodhart,2013).
Therefore,the arguments on human trafficking are drawn on a range of emotionsthat center on the challenges faced by the victims. The emotionsunderlying most arguments are motivated by empathy for the victimsand sympathy for the pain they endure. On a similar point, somearguments are drawn from feeling motivated by prejudice and hatred.For instance, anyone can fall victim of human trafficking to becomeeither a sex worker or a laborer. Therefore, there is no need topoint out that people from certain racial backgrounds ornationalities are more vulnerable to human trafficking than otherpeople is wrong. Human trafficking is a universal problem, and itshould be treated the same.
Cho,S. Y. (2013). Integrating equality: Globalization, women`s rights,and human trafficking. InternationalStudies Quarterly, 57(4),683-697.
Cho,S. Y., Dreher, A., & Neumayer, E. (2013). Does legalizedprostitution increase human trafficking? WorldDevelopment, 41,67-82.
Goodhart,M. (2013). Humanrights: Politics and practice.Oxford University Press.
Smit,M., & van der Laan, P. (2014). Trafficking in Human Beings.In Encyclopediaof Criminology and Criminal Justice (pp.5263-5272). Springer New York.
Todres,J. (2011). Widening our lens: Incorporating essential perspectives inthe fight against human trafficking. MichiganJournal of International Law, 33,53-76.