Human Trafficking

HumanTrafficking

  1. Key Arguments Presented about

Thekey arguments in human trafficking revolve around the role of demandin the promotion of human trafficking. These arguments highlight theneed to address the demand side of human trafficking on issues suchas the trafficking of sexual slaves. The reference to “demand”continuous to feature predominantly in discussions touching on thesubject. One of the arguments raised includes the effect of thecriminalization of male purchases of services associated with humantrafficking such as commercial sex. The adoption of the UNTrafficking Protocol relied heavily on the demand side arguments (Choet al., 2013).In 2000, the UN gave clear definitions of the context of “humantrafficking” in international law. The arguments presented include:

Debating in the context of Crime Prevention and MigrationControl

Inthe past, the debate on human trafficking as well as the irregulartransfer of immigrants across international borders was conductedsynonymously. In recent years, governments have increased theirillegal immigration enforcement capabilities, making illegal bordercrossing to be more sophisticated than before. However, the UNTrafficking Protocol sets clear definitions between organized illegalimmigrations and organized human trafficking (Cho,2013).The argument, therefore, is how to differentiate between the two andwhether both aspects of illegal migrations can be addressed usingsimilar measures. In view of the UN Trafficking Protocol, the firststep to deal with the problem is the realization of the fact that itis a border-related crime. The inability to detect human traffickingcases at the borders stems from the fact that it is impossible todetermine whether a journey will end up in a situation of coercedexploitation.

Ending Demand in the Context of Prostitution

TheUN Trafficking Protocol makes significant arguments regarding theneed to include the debate on prostitution in addressing humantrafficking. From the 1980s, women organizations have continuouslyfought to introduce new interpretation frames to address the dangersposed by the rising cases of prostitution. Radical feminists whorallied for the abolition of the distinction between “free”prostitution and “forced” prostitution promoted most of the newdefinitions regarding prostitution (Todres,2011).Consequently, the new definitions direct the attention on menregarding the subject of prostitution. Therefore, prostitution isseen as trade between the prostitution industry and ordinary men,thus placing men at the center of the solution.

HumanTrafficking and Forced Labor

Forcedlabor continues to constitute significant proportions of humantrafficking cases. The arguments, in this case, regard the role oflabor laws in protecting the rights of the underprivileged. Again,the demand side issues regarding forced labor feature prominently inthis debate. Child labor is another special aspect of the forcedlabor debate and human rights activists have continuously sought thedifferentiation between forced labor and child labor.

  1. Assumptions and Premises of the Arguments

Thefirst assumption regarding the arguments is that human trafficking isa national security and criminal justice issue. People assume thatthe two avenues present the best solutions towards the abolition ofthe challenge. However, the fact is that human trafficking is acomplex phenomenon that comprises various issues such as laborrights, human rights and freedoms such as freedom of movement,migration as well as freedom of family reunification (Todres,2011).Secondly, people assume only the humans are affected by acts of humantrafficking since it involves their transfer and exploitation.Therefore, the solutions against human trafficking have concentratedon the aspect of humans beings as the victims. However, the state isan equal victim of human trafficking. The borders of different statesare violated in the process of the commission of human traffickingoffenses. Another assumption is the significance of the demand sideof human trafficking in defining the proposed solutions, especiallyin the UN Trafficking Protocol (Todres,2011).

Anothermajor assumption is that women form a significant proportion of humantrafficking victims. The prostitution industry is an important playerin human trafficking therefore, it is easy to understand why thisassumption exists. However, human trafficking does not only involvethe illegal transfer of women for sexual purposes. There are othervictims such as child laborers and forced laborers. In this regard,men and boys are also victims of human trafficking. The otherassumption is these arguments lies in the feminist definition ofprostitution (Todres,2011).The feminists hold the assumption that all forms of prostitution aredone against the will of the women involved. They also assume thatthe male purchasers of sexual service are acting in their free will,compared to the sex workers who are controlled by industry.

  1. Evidence Supporting the Arguments

Thereis significant evidence supporting the arguments raised on thesubject of human trafficking. Firstly, human trafficking is closelyassociated with criminal gangs and organizations. Human traffickingvictims often come from countries involved in civil conflicts as wellas from developing countries. Therefore, dealing with humantrafficking requires authorities to address the criminal element ofthe challenge. Studies show that human trafficking goes hand in handwith drug trafficking. High cases of human trafficking increase thelevel of crime in a country and limit the safety of women and girls.Additionally, the prevalence of forced labor increases with risingcases of human trafficking. The criminal organizations use similarroutes in the transportation of sex workers and forced laborers.

Secondly,prostitution is a major contributor of human trafficking. Asignificant proportion of human trafficking victims are transportedfor sexual reasons. Most of these women are young and poor and areoften promised good fortunes such as careers in the fashion industry.These facts, therefore, support the argument that there is a need toaddress the role of men in purchasing services offered by traffickedwomen. The feminist proponents are justified to eradicate thedifferentiation between “free” prostitution and “forced”prostitution because of the organized nature of the prostitutionindustry. Most of the trafficked women are controlled by organizedcartels however, the male customers are free elements simply lookingto enjoy their services.

  1. The Quality of the Warrants Presented

Thewarrants presented are of high quality because of the evidenceprovided to back the arguments. The issue of human traffickingtouches on important aspects of global security. For example, thediscussions present evidence regarding the role of human traffickingin crime. Statistics show that the extent of human trafficking isdirectly proportional to the level of crime. Additionally, the UNTrafficking Protocol highlights the devastating effects of humantrafficking on the quality of the lives of the victims. Again, thearguments show clear guidelines regarding the role of demand instimulating human trafficking. The majority of the arguments areconcise and are backed by statistical facts. The backing of argumentswith evidence makes the warrants to be dependable.

  1. Possible Fallacies

Thereare notable fallacies in the arguments presented regarding the issueof human trafficking. To start with, it is often believed thatvictims of human trafficking are individuals brought up in ruralvillages under poverty. It is also believed that sex trafficking isthe only form of human trafficking. However, the reality is thatalthough poverty is a factor in human trafficking, it is not the onlyfactor influencing human trafficking (Smit&amp van der Laan, 2014).Victims of this vice come from a wide range of income levels, and asignificant proportion of them come from high socioeconomicbackgrounds. Similarly, human trafficking comprises of both sex andlabor trafficking, and it can affect people from different socialclasses, age, and gender.

Moreover,there is an erroneous notion that victims of human trafficking areforeign people or immigrants from other countries. However, thereality is that the federal definition of human traffickingconstitutes both U.S citizens and foreign nationals. The federalgovernment protects both cases, and this law has been working since2000 (Smit&amp van der Laan, 2014).The government defines victims of human trafficking as individualswho are U.S citizens, visa holders, lawful permanent residents andundocumented workers.

Inaddition, there is a myth that holds human trafficking as a crimethat must involve some form of movement or transportation across thestate or national borders. Nonetheless, transportation is notnecessary for human trafficking to occur. Although movement may beused to keep the victims in unfamiliar places, it is not necessaryfor the definition of human trafficking. This is because humantrafficking is not similar to forced smuggling, which must involvethe crossing of the border.

Giventhe dissident nature of human trafficking, the outcomes of the viceare concealed and hard to see. Individuals who fall victims lacklimited access to basic human needs such as food and clothing.Similarly, they are often confined in enclosures characterized bypoor hygiene, no running water and lack of sleep among others. Thisvice is rooted in the exploitation of individuals against their will.Therefore, all victims are subject to social, physical andpsychological torture. They undergo physical suffering due to theexcessive force used by the traffickers.

Furthermore,as seen in the arguments on human trafficking, the victims arevulnerable to serious health risks such as mental disorders andHIV/AIDS. This is coupled with the trauma of the events, fear,insecurity and anxiety, which can trigger serious outcomes such asPost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), cognitive impairment, memoryloss, suicide, or depression (Goodhart,2013).

Therefore,the arguments on human trafficking are drawn on a range of emotionsthat center on the challenges faced by the victims. The emotionsunderlying most arguments are motivated by empathy for the victimsand sympathy for the pain they endure. On a similar point, somearguments are drawn from feeling motivated by prejudice and hatred.For instance, anyone can fall victim of human trafficking to becomeeither a sex worker or a laborer. Therefore, there is no need topoint out that people from certain racial backgrounds ornationalities are more vulnerable to human trafficking than otherpeople is wrong. Human trafficking is a universal problem, and itshould be treated the same.

References

Cho,S. Y. (2013). Integrating equality: Globalization, women`s rights,and human trafficking.&nbspInternationalStudies Quarterly,&nbsp57(4),683-697.

Cho,S. Y., Dreher, A., &amp Neumayer, E. (2013). Does legalizedprostitution increase human trafficking?&nbspWorldDevelopment,&nbsp41,67-82.

Goodhart,M. (2013).&nbspHumanrights: Politics and practice.Oxford University Press.

Smit,M., &amp van der Laan, P. (2014). Trafficking in Human Beings.In&nbspEncyclopediaof Criminology and Criminal Justice&nbsp(pp.5263-5272). Springer New York.

Todres,J. (2011). Widening our lens: Incorporating essential perspectives inthe fight against human trafficking.&nbspMichiganJournal of International Law,&nbsp33,53-76.

Human Trafficking

HumanTrafficking

Humantrafficking is a case that has been ongoing for decades. By the onsetof civilization, it is expected that this would have been a thing ofthe past. Nonetheless, it is such a surprise to note that this is notthe case. Even in the twenty-first century, human trafficking isstill ongoing and unfortunately, it is on the rise. Human traffickingoccurs for different reasons: slavery, or sex. It is furtherdiscouraging that the rate of slavery in the twenty-first century ishigher than it was in the nineteenth century (Kristof 237). It is myobligation in the next pages to explain why human trafficking is notreducing in the twenty-first century.

Sextrafficking is a problem faced by most women in the world today.These women are abducted from their homes and sold to work inbrothels, and other inconvenient rooms. Their rights are neglectedand they are abused regardless of what they want. Individuals, on theother hand, are fully aware of what goes on, but are unable to changeit. The challenge as seen, is being unable to face up to these womenlocked up in brothels, or the young teenage girls locked up inisolated huts (Kristoff 233).

Whereas,it is expected that during this age, all people will be equallytreated, it is quite visible that women issues are marginalized(Kristof 234). There are very many humanitarians in this period, andas such, sex trafficking should not be viewed as females’ issue,just like slavery should not have been an African issue (234).

Forthe most of history, slavery has been viewed and accepted as the sad,but the unfortunate is an inevitable thing (Kristof 234). From asfar as Jesus and the philosophers, slavery has been a non-issue.Jesus did not, in the gospels address the issue (234). The disciples,on the other hand, accepted it and some theologians believed in mercyfor the slaves (234). Evidently, this is visible in today’s world.People are always told about job opportunities abroad, but on gettingthere, they get stranded and with no way out and end up being slaves.This is an indeed difficult thing to curb, considering theunemployment rates, especially in Africa and other third worldcountries.

Additionally,there is also an issue of punishing the wrong parties. Accordingly,this may as well as a result of improper laws. Taking an example from(Kristof 248), girls are sold openly by pimps in the cities. However,when the police come to arrest the offenders, they arrest the youngteenage girls, instead of taking in the pimps. Supposedly, if a manhas sex with a young underage girl, he should be arrested, and thegirl gets counseling. However, for this pimp, who has beaten up andabused the girl, he gets off with a minor fine, and the teenager isarrested. It leaves the question of, who is wrong among them.

Besides,human trafficking is also on the rise due to lack of proper education(Kristoff 246). Poverty being the primary reason for the lack ofeducation, goes on to be a factor. When the people are deprived, theylook forward to getting help from others. As a result, this opens upa channel for human traffickers to come in. Mostly, they come asdonors wanting to help out, while they actually take people out to beslaves and sex workers. Conversely, if these individuals have noeducation, then they will not be in a position to differentiatebetween the people out to help and those available to abuse theirrights.

Thereis also an issue of people not having a voice when it comes to issuesaffecting them. Individuals do not know who to turn to. After a rapecase, you find that the girl is not in a position to talk to eventhose closest to her this becomes a huge issue as the offender hasmore ground to stand upon.

Povertycould also have another effect on human trafficking. As seen (Kristof245), the women in India are now more aware of the issues affectingthem, as they can access television. Here, they see how women theirage or younger can fend for themselves and get motivated to be likethem. Likewise, they get to realize the modern way of women beingtreated as human beings. Essentially, this helps them since in mostcountries, women are seen as objects for play, and hence, the ease oftrafficking them out of the nations with no hindrances at all. Seeingother women succeeding could be a real motivator for them to work andescape being bullied. The issue now comes in where most of thesewomen cannot access the television, thus cannot fight for theirrights.

Povertyalso aids in human trafficking in yet another issue. You will findthat most young women will go into the streets to be red-light girlsjust for them to earn money for their survival (Kristof 57). Here,they are vulnerable to abuse and most of them are, eventually takenin by pimps, and later sold to other countries.

Inconclusion, we see that human trafficking is mostly done for sex orslavery. The major factor for this is poverty. It is also affected byilliteracy where persons do not know how to differentiate between awell-wisher and a human trafficker. The women and girls should,therefore receive enough education, and empowerment to enable themfree from issues that can make them enslaved.

WorksCited

Kristof,Nicholas D. and Sheryl WuDunn. Halfthe Sky: How to Change the World.London: Virago, 2010. Print.