Hypothyroidism

Thethyroid gland is tiny bowtie wrapped around the windpipe in the neckjust below the Adam’s apple area. It takes in the iodine andcombines it with amino acid tyrosine. It also produces and storestriiodothyronine and thyroxine hormones, and later releases them intothe bloodstream. They then initiate the process of converting oxygenand calories into energy. The occurrence of a thyroid disease isdepicted by the presence of low levels or high levels of hormonesbeing produced by the gland. Primary hypothyroidism is due toinsufficient production of thyroid hormones from the thyroid gland(Lowrance, 2012). It occurs as a result of excess exposure toChernobyl nuclear plant radiation, use of isoflavone-intensive soyproducts like powder, capsules, and protein and drugs like Cordaronethat are used for heart complications. Secondary hypothyroidismoccurs when thyroid gland is normal, but because of low thyrotropinsecretion, it does not receive sufficient stimulation. On the otherhand, tertiary hypothyroidism occurs when there is inadequate thyroidstimulation and thyrotropin-releasing hormone secretion, andinsufficient release of thyroid-stimulating hormone.

Pathophysiology

Someof the common causes of hypothyroidism are surgical removal of thethyroid, radiation treatment, and autoimmune disease. is as a result of insufficient production of thyroid hormones by thethyroid gland. The effects of hypothyroidism could develop further ifleft untreated resulting in long-term complications(Copstead-Kirkhorn and Banasik, 2014). Thyroid hormones are arequirement for brain development and pregnant women who do notreceive treatment are at a higher risk of their child developingcongenital disabilities. Furthermore, a deficiency of thyroidhormones can affect ovulation in women thus leading to infertility.Insufficient thyroid secretions may also have an impact on apatient’s physical appearance as a goiter often characterized by abulge in the neck. The primary cause is the overexertion of thethyroid gland, and it can lead to complication of the victim’sability to breathe or swallow.

Inaddition, hypothyroidism leads to an increase in total cholesterolputting a person at risk of atherosclerosis. The hardened arteriesfurther cause low blood pressure and decreased heart rate. Further,deficient thyroid secretions affect the functionality of the pancreasand thus blood sugar levels. With a defective thyroid, blood sugarcontrol becomes an uphill task, and the rate at which sugarabsorption occurs in the stomach is lowered manifested by fatigue.

Treatment

Syntheticthyroid hormone levothyroxine such as synthroid and levothroid aresome of the drugs used to treat hypothyroidism. They work byrestoring hormones levels, as well as reversing hypothyroidism signsand symptoms. In most cases, symptoms of the condition start toimprove in the first week after the onset of treatment. It is a puresynthetic form of medication that consists T4 manufactured in thelaboratory to replaces the one produced by the human thyroid gland.Other anti-thyroid drugs include iodide salts, radioactive iodine,thioamides, and anion inhibitors. This condition can also be reducedthrough non-pharmacological means such as dietary restrictions andexercise (Willington, 2014). Cutting the intake of processed food isa step in the right direction since these foods contain a lot of soy.Thyroid function is affected by soy intake by destabilizing hormones.Soy has also been shown to cause goiters in previously healthyindividuals meaning it disrupts iodine usage. Furthermore, it isadvisable for people to eat a natural diet to help the body healitself.

References

Copstead-Kirkhorn, L.-E. C., &amp Banasik, J. L. (2014). Pathophysiology. Chicago: Elsevier Health Sciences.

Lowrance, J. M. (2012). The Best Darn Thyroid Disease Book!: Studies on the Metabolic Butterfly. Newyork: James Lowrance.

Willington, A. K. (2014). Natural Treatment for : That Your Doctor Never Tell You. Sanfrancisco: Booktango.