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ChronicKidney Disease

Kidneyfailure is the medical condition where the kidneys fail to filter themetabolic wastes from the blood sufficiently. In that regard, chronickidney disease (CKD) also regarded as chronic renal disease entailsthe progressive loss of kidney functionality over several months oryears. It is a long-term condition that is sometimes related to oldage. This paper will discuss the different types of dialyses and themost effective one in the management of this disease. The extent ofthe ailment is determined by the symptoms that can be severe. Some ofthem include tiredness, swollen hands, feet, or ankles, blood inurine, and shortness of breath. Before discussing the different typesof dialyses, it is important to comprehend the stages, causes, andsymptoms of the disease.

Symptoms,Causes, Tests, and Treatment of CKD

Inthe early stages, CKD is rarely detected. This is because the bodycan cope with the considerable reduction in the functions of thekidney. It can only be noticed through regular checks. However,during the later stages, a victim may experience reduced appetitethat leads to weight loss, swollen hands, feet, and ankles,tiredness, and shortness of breath. The patient also suffers fromitchy skin, headaches, muscle cramps, insomnia, increased rates ofurination, and blood in urine. It also leads to erectile dysfunctionin males. At this stage, the ailment is regarded as kidney failureand may require transplantation or dialysis [CITATION NHS16 p 1 l 1033 ].

Thecauses of CKD are varying and can be a combination of severalproblems. It can be due to high blood pressure, diabetes, highcholesterol, infections, glomerulonephritis, regular usage of somemedicines, obstructions of urine flow, and polycystic kidney ailmentthat can be inheritable. As such, the illness can be avoided througha healthy lifestyle. The common diagnosis mechanisms include urineand blood tests [CITATION NHS16 p 1 l 1033 ].The examinations are used to identify if certain substances arehighly concentrated in the kidney. Presently, CKD has no cure.However, some treatment methods can be utilized to relieve or stopthe symptoms. The type of therapy is dependent on the severity of theailment. The core management practices include alteration of thelifestyle, medications to control issues like high cholesterol orhigh blood pressure, kidney transplant, and dialysis. Dialysis is themechanism where kidney functions are replicated in the body[CITATION NHS16 p 1 l 1033 ].

Stagesof Chronic Kidney Disease

Phase1-2 (early stage). Some individuals at this stage show no symptoms.As such, management mainly targets controlling the blood pressure aswell as healthy lifestyles. The middle stage (phase 3-4) entails thediscovery of the ailment. This is because of the increase of wastesin the blood. Control at this step focuses on slowing down theprogress of the illness to lessen other complications. Stage 5 isregarded as the end phase, and the only remedy is a kidney transplantor dialysis [CITATION Web161 p 1 l 1033 ].

ChronicKidney Disease Dialysis

Dialysisis the process of removing waste products as well as excessive fluidsfrom the blood during kidney failures. The procedure is instigatedwhen the kidneys cease working properly. It often entails divertingblood to a device that cleans it. Therefore, it operates like akidney to filter the blood and remove hazardous wastes as well asexcessive fluids that are passed out of the body as urine [CITATION Med162 p 1 l 1033 ].The procedure can be temporal or eternal depending on the severity ofthe ailment. In other words, when a patient is awaiting transplant,dialysis is done. On the other hand, if the patient cannot undergo anoperation, he/she needs the procedure for eternity. However, in someinstances, patients suffer temporal kidney issues and once they arehealed the process is stopped. There are two common types of dialysisi.e. hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis[CITATION Med162 p 1 l 1033 ].

Hemodialysis

Inthis procedure, a physician creates an entry into one of the bloodvessels to join the body to a filtering machine. This is known asvascular access. At this part, blood can be removed and returned withease. The method entails driving the victim’s blood via anarrangement of semipermeable tissues i.e. “artificial kidney”that divides the blood from the dialysate. This is a solution ofcrystalloids such as calcium, bicarbonate buffer, and sodium [CITATION Kid161 p 15 l 1033 ].Osmotic interchange across the tissues permits the extraction ofphosphate, creatinine, and urea among other uremic metabolites. Itallows for the modification of electrolyte and acidosisabnormalities. Regulation of the pressure variances through themembrane permits convective water loss as well as the dissolvedsolutes coming from the blood section. This necessitates the volumeoverload corrections. The management needs sufficient entree to theperson’s circulation, normally through the creation of anartificial graft or arteriovenous fistula. Theprocess may temporarily enter by the Hickman catheter or subclavian.These accessing elements are referred to as the victim’s“lifeline.” Hemodialysis normally happens for three times a week,with each session lasting from 3 to 6 hours depending on thepatient’s size and compliance to dietary. Some patients withrecurring renal failure operation are managed twice a weekeffectively, although it does not work for the majority [CITATION Kid161 p 16 l 1033 ].

ComplicationsRelated to Hemodialysis

FluidImbalance

Duringrenal failure, the capacity to defecate liquid loads is absent orreduced in the patient. Fluid equilibrium is controlled throughextraction of the same in dialysis together with water and sodiumrestriction. Non-acquiescence with any can result in volume overloadthat acts the same manner as a heart failure, with pulmonary andperipheral edema. Fluid exhaustion is not common but might betriggered by over-vigorous extraction of fluid in dialysis. It mayalso emanate from vomiting or intercurrent diarrhea [CITATION Kid161 p 22 l 1033 ].

Anemia

ThoughErythropoietin shortage is the main reason, in hemodialysis aperson’s iron insufficiency can contribute because of constant lossof small amounts of blood in the dialyzer. Oral Iron enhancementsare, therefore, necessary. Apart from that, they can be offeredintravenously during dialysis. During this procedure, a patient maylose some folic acid contributing to anemia. However, this is onlyprevalent in patients who have dietary issues. After hematinicshortage is corrected and the other reasons for anemia are removed,treatment is achieved via subcutaneous epoetin. It can also be giventhrough darbepoetin, which is long acting [CITATION Kid161 p 23 l 1033 ].

Hypertension

Bloodpressure remains high in some patients in spite of sufficient fluidextraction. These patient need antihypertensive treatment.Hyperkalemia can grow because of the destruction ofaldosterone-reliant colonic emission of potassium via ACE inhibitors.Other complications include vascular calcification, neuropathy, bone,joint, and cardiac diseases [CITATION Kid161 p 24 l 1033 ].

PeritonealDialysis

Asoft tube, known as a catheter, is put inside the belly. Theprocedure is done surgically, and the catheter enables the connectionto a distinct tubing which permits two to three quarts of a purgativefluid to drift into the belly [CITATION Kid16 p 15 l 1033 ].The cleansing fluid is referred to as the dialysate. This fluid cantake roughly 10 minutes to feel the stomach. Once the filling iscomplete, the catheter must be capped to ensure it does not leak. Theperitoneal membrane works as a natural filter. It allows the surplusfluids in the blood to flow through to the cleansing sample. Also,the lining prevents the vital aspects such as the nutrients and redblood cells from flowing out[CITATION Kid16 p 15 l 1033 ].

Forthe task to be completed efficiently, the dialysate has to remain inthe stomach for more than two hours contingent to the body size andthe waste to be extracted. When the dialysate is within theperitoneal cavity, it performs the task of a reservoir containing thedialysis solution [CITATION Kid16 p 17 l 1033 ].The waste materials move from the bloodstream through the peritonealtissues and into the dialysate. When the time is up, the dialysateused together with the blood impurities are drained from the cavityand substituted by fresh solutions[CITATION Kid16 p 17 l 1033 ].

Thecentral PD sequence involves drain, fill, and dwell. An exchangeoccurs every time the sequence is repeated. In the first phase,drain the tube is connected to the PD set while the old dialysate isremoved. These happen within four to eight hours [CITATION Kid16 p 19 l 1033 ].The next step is fill a fresh dialysate is placed in the peritonealcavity. The third stage is dwell, where the bags and tubing aredisconnected. The dialysate stays in the cavity for a certain amountof time. During this phase, extra fluids and wastes are extractedfrom the blood vessels through the peritoneal membrane. At thebeginning of the exchanges, the catheter must be connected to atubing set. Only a small extension of the tube and the catheter arevisible during the exchanges. The set is placed on the tummy. Thereare two types of PD i.e. Continuous Ambulatory Peritoneal andAutomated Peritoneal[CITATION Kid16 p 20 l 1033 ].

Effectsof PD on the Body

ThroughoutPD process, a typical adult easily holds two to three liters ofdialysis solution within the peritoneal cavity. Though it appears tobe a significant amount, there is little to no discomfort to thepatient. While the fluid penetrates through the membrane, the waistswells slightly [CITATION Nat15 p 1 l 1033 ].Though a patient may feel the change, it diminishes with time.However, the amount is much smaller for the children. As such, itmust be tailored to their sizes. The peritoneal catheter is about30cm long and stays permanently on the body. The exit point which isthe area where the peritoneal catheter leaves the abdomen must alwaysbe cleaned to avoid infections. This mechanism heightens the chancesto get infections along the lining of the belly. Apart from that, theprocess may be tedious to some patients[CITATION Nat15 p 1 l 1033 ].

Conclusion

Choosingbetween the two types is rather intricate since each one of them hasits own merits and demerits. Nonetheless, major variances occur whenselecting between a home based procedure and an in-center dialysis.Making the right choice is dependent on the severity of the ailment.However, the home-based peritoneal dialysis is the most suitable forthe majority of the patients. In this method, the patient needs tovisit the health care facility twice a month for laboratory work. Itis much better than the in-center type, where a patient has to visitthe facility thrice a week. PD is also convenient since it can bedone at home while traveling, or at work. As such, the patient can betaught how to use the equipment and serve themselves. It reduces theamount of time required to visit the facilities.

WorksCited

Kidney Health Australia. &quotAn Introduction to Haemodialysis.&quot (2016): 1-29. Document.

Kidney Health Australia. &quotAn Introduction to Peritoneal Dialysis.&quot (2016): 1-23. Document.

MedicineNet.com. &quotDialysis.&quot 2016. http://www.medicinenet.com/dialysis/page4.htm. 9 November 2016.

National Health Service. &quotChronic kidney disease.&quot 2016. 9 November 2016. &lthttp://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Kidney-disease-chronic/Pages/Introduction.aspx&gt.

National Kidney Foundation. &quotPeritoneal Dialysis: What You Need to Know.&quot (2015): 1-24. Document.

WebMD. &quotKidney Dialysis.&quot 2016. 9 November 2016.

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RacialInequality

Eversince independence, the United States of America has been havingelections. These polls have always resulted in a white president.Obama has been the only head of state of non-White origin since timein memorial. It is, however, toxic to encourage the white identity asa supremacy towards the voting patterns of the United States. DonaldTrump, a republican and the democrat candidate Hillary Clinton arethe frontrunners to the November 8th elections. Donald Trump hasfirmly been basing his campaign ideologies on the interests of thewhite people and has been quite vocal about immigrants and nonwhiteAmericans. This paper will analyze two articles to illustrate racialinequality within the United States.

Duringthe presidents Bush and Reagan administration, both of whom wereRepublicans, white parents advised their kids categorically that noone in America should be judged by their skin color. This was meantto bring racial integration to a popular program then called TheCosby Show. Hence, one of the lessons learned entails unity i.e.everyone is important despite their skin intonations. Although it wasa bold step towards the fight against racism and the improvement ofracial relations, the minority groups thought that more could be done[CITATION Con15 p 2 l 1033 ].

Eventhough ethnic identity and recognition are vital to the currentworld, it should only be used for the positive policy making andother avenues to improve the interrelation awareness and interactionbetween the various races in America. White people are currently themost visual and conscious of their race as compared to other racesincluding Hispanics, blacks, Asians and Latin Americans. This isbecause they consider themselves as the most privileged by their skincolor. Much more should be done to create the awareness and criticalunderstanding of racial injustices, solutions to these crimes, racismas a whole and the appreciation of the diversity America and itscitizens are privileged to have [CITATION Con15 p 2 l 1033 ].

Thereexist two schools of thoughts to the concept of Colorblindness. Thereare adherents of color blindness and critics of the same. Followersunderestimate the power and identity of race. The truth is, race hasbeen the center of mistreatment of the minority over the years andtoday more has to be done to prevent the spillover to the next fewyears. Nevertheless, currently, there is a school of thought mainlyadherents of color blindness that engages the white people to havecontinuous reflection, thoughts, and identification as white people.This is a good move however, it creates a loophole for whitesupremacists to think of the privileges and the pleasure of beingwhite as supreme. It is very unfortunate for the white populace tocenter their identity and individualism on the color of the skin andassociate with their ideologies. This is because it gives room forpolitical retractions like which billionaire Donald Trump is basinghis campaign agendas on. This is the most racial thing because it hasbeen cited and reported widely that though not quoted, Trump is morethan willing to speak solely for the interests of the white peopleand catapult the deportation of the immigrants from the United Statesof America [CITATION Con15 p 4 l 1033 ].

Itis widely thought that the Native Americans, white Americansupremacists have always wanted a flag bearer to speak for theinterests of the self-proclaimed American White nationalists. In thatregard, Donald Trump presents the best candidate to push theideologies of White racial awareness, through previously despised asa Jew sympathizer. Richard Spenser, a white promoter of the whiteknowledge, articulated that the Republican presidential candidate hadenlightened and refreshed the campaigns. He further says thatDonald’s ideologies are a conscious plan to tell and reawaken thewhite grandchildren identity whose self-consciousness has diminishedand hatred grew in their own land and country [CITATION Con15 p 5 l 1033 ].

Onthe contrary, a white website came up with a suggestion that thereason the borders are porous is due to the Republicans cheap laborin the country. Even though this was majorly a mockery of theRepublicans, Donald Trump had led the American businessmen to defyodds and stand up to speak their mind without being punished. So itis evident that as much as we push for the sole purpose of race-Identification, it comes with a price. We do not expect the whitecommunity to proudly identify the race they belong to and fail toacknowledge the interests and privileges it tags along, especiallythe white supremacy in America. Surely this approach to race as theidentity will not work as long as the status as a community tagsalong the vice called racism. Therefore, it is evident that a newapproach has to be taken to bring up race neutralism. In theoutgoing political scene whereby Barack Obama, a minority Presidentwas elected by both blacks and nonblacks should serve as an exampleof precedence to nonracial ideologies. However, challenges have neverbeen eluded since examples of several instances of white policeofficers have been killing innocently unarmed black citizens. Whiteconsciousness agents calling for terrorism against an outspoken andhistorically black church and the rise of a Republican candidateDonald Trump who believes that nonwhites should be deported includingthe outgoing president [CITATION Pat15 p 5 l 1033 ].

Historicalbooks dictate that the majority of Americans are immigrants. The onlydifference is the time they came to America. The white Americans areknown to have originated from an area in Europe while the blacks fromWest Africa. The Hispanics, Asians, and Mexicans from theirrespective backgrounds at different times and reasons. It is believedthat America was previously inhabited by Latin Americans and the RedIndians. This should clearly point out the fact that no one is moreAmerican than the other, as long as one is rightfully in America andis also a legal citizen. Our diversity is our culture. As such, it isour belonging, but it should not bring about superiority from thevarious groups. This because all Americans share the same emblem inthe Constitution, American flag, the presidency and the language [CITATION Pat151 p 55 l 1033 ].

Onthe other front, the United States of America has invested so much onthe unprecedented South Korea border, Asian waters, Afghanistan,China Sea and the Baltic states to protect the face of America.However all these investments and allocations, the real danger lieswith our porous border of Mexico. Immigrants have been flowing intoAmerica for the last three decades, yet it carries more peril thanwhat the government has been placing their awareness. It has beenquoted that over 11 million people are in America illegally, yetawkwardly the government does little on the bleeding American-Mexicoborder. Other authors and researchers cite the immigrants at almost30 million. With the leadership having probabilities for Amnesty forthe illegal immigrants, it will keep igniting new invasions to apromised land for the immigrants and leaving the nativesdisadvantaged. As much as diversity calls for acceptance of differentways of living, it is notable that almost 80 to 90 percent of the newimmigrants are from the underdeveloped or emerging countries bringingalong third world problems like illiteracy, unwanted social lives,high crime rates and absconding tax payments [CITATION Pat15 p 4 l 1033 ].

Inaddition to that, once they come to America, they spoil therelationship between the white natives and the original and legalresident nonwhite Americans. Currently, the Hispanics and the Asiansheighten the American population. Even though racial diversity is asgood as ethnic, religious and opinion diversity, it brings along ahurdle that must be tackled with professionalism and law. Recentexamples show the effect of unmanaged racial diversity the SovietUnion tore into independent states, evacuation of Han Chinese fromeastern China to western China and Tibet, killing of Hutus and Tutsisin Rwanda and recent political turmoil in Burundi due to racialdiversity. Various examples of diversity like racial, tribal andworship have led to massacres, violence, and evacuation of peopleforcefully. This pops the question writer Coulter asked, &quotShouldwe be more diverse with the disintegrating world due to our variousbeliefs, culture, religion, tribe and race?&quot

Theoutstanding and adverse truth is that the incoming leadership shouldenact the law regarding immigration, strengthen our porous bordersand provide no amnesty whatsoever to illegal immigrants. The problemshould, therefore, be identified not as the dilemma diversity bringsbut the government failure and leadership mismanagement of illegalimmigrants and their impact on the culture, social life and economyof America. Hence, America can continue to be diverse as it currentlyis without easing immigration policies and amnesty. This would remainintegral in maintaining the value and pride of being an Americancitizen as a whole and not the different races within the supremacybattles in the country [CITATION Pat151 p 7 l 1033 ].

Inconclusion, therefore, it is evident that even though the realproblem starts with the implementation of immigration laws, aliensshould not be allowed into the country. In addition to that whiteAmericans should not focus on their whiteness as other legallyresiding citizens in America are non-white. A different approach tohumanity, colorblindness, and respect to one another should be takenas ways to appreciate our diversity without bringing in racial abuseto other citizens of this great nation.

WorksCited

Buchanan, Patrick J. The Greatest Comeback: How Richard Nixon Rose from Defeat to Create the New Majority. Crown Forum, 2015.

Buchanan, Patrick. &quotThe Dangers of Diversity.&quot (2015): 1-7.

Friedersdorf, Conor. &quotThe Left`s Attack on Color-Blindness Goes Too Far.&quot (2015): 1-6.

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GroupInfluence

Groupsinfluence personal decision-making procedures in numerous ways likede-individuation, shift, and thinking. In groupthink, the desire foruniformity overrides the realistic choice of alternatives. Peoplealso tend to lose self-awareness in this setup. As such, this paperwill explain how mass influence can alter the decision-makingprocess. The most concerned age group is the adolescents. At thisstage, teens tend to make choices relying on peers. Membershipsatisfies the needs of an individual. It can provide survival, power,control, achievement, companionship, affiliation status, andsecurity. As such, when people are in a multitude, they tend to becomplete (Nielsen 67).

Somecommon aspects primarily champion group influence. The requirementsthat contribute to the identification include interdependence, socialinteraction, commonality, perceptions, and favoritism. In otherwords, members of the same unit have these standard behaviors thathelp them to relate. They must all be willing to depend on oneanother, accomplish similar goals, and tend to be biased towardsother crowds. Evidently, belonging to a particular group influencesan individual’s behavior in several ways. They can be eitherpositive or negative depending on the members. For instance, it canbe useful in the context of work, political activism, and teamsports. Such fields require uniformity to prevail. Other negativeaspects include robbery and gangs. Though there are many ways ofeffecting behavior, the most common one entails groupthink,de-individuation, and group-shift. De-individuation occurs when anindividual loses his/her self-consciousness and control due to theother fellows, normally with undesirable results. As for thegroup-shift, the initial choices of each person are exaggeratedtowards another ultimate choice. As such, people change their choicesdue to the impact of the other members. In groupthink, individualsbelonging to the same unit make a smooth and quick decision ignoringother probable options. In this mechanism, they may ignore the bestchoices (Nielsen 80).

WorksCited

Nielsen,H.J. &quotAmbiguities in Attitudes towards Interest GroupInfluence.&quot ScandinavianPolitical Studies.8 (2016): 65-84. Print.

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FilmEvaluation

Thelast King of Scotland is an action movie revealing past deeds ofUgandan dictator Idi Amin. The film typically fits its genre, and onegets what is expected of it. However, it has one of the mostmisguiding titles in accordance with the content of the film. Thedetails of the movie do not exactly conform to the title itself,though it is believed Amin used to describe himself as the last kingof Scotland among other names. As such, this paper will evaluate thismovie in different aspects. However, it is vital to comprehend theplot.

Thefilm depicts Idi Amin’s dictatorship that lasted between 1971 and1979. During this period scores were killed, roughly between 80,000and 500,000. The movie is based on actual happenings as Idi Aminkilled anyone resisting his rule. The lead character NicholasGarrigan is a Scottish doctor who comes to the aid of Amin when thelatter is involved in an accident. From that moment, Nicholas isappointed a personal physician to Amin. At first, the doctordescribes Amin as a generous, thoughtful leader with the zeal togovern his countrymen [ CITATION Jam06 l 1033 ].

Nicholaswould learn later that no one was safe in Amin’s administration,especially him, since he had an affair with the president’s thirdwife. Each day, Amin tends to rely more on soldiers than non-militaryadvisors, leading to mysterious disappearances of enemies. Thepresident even kills his wife accusing her of infidelity, yet she wasneglected. Nicholas is caught in the middle of these events and hismotives to go against Amin do not go down well with the president. Heeven tries to fly out of the country but is captured and torturedwithin the airport. However, with the help of a Ugandan doctor,Nicholas can escape and fly out of the country. He then reveals thehappenings within Amin’s administration who is later dethroned [ CITATION Jam06 l 1033 ].

Thefilm is rightly edited to portray the actual events and thesurroundings within Uganda. The scenes are also well balanced, withgruesome images depicting torturous events well outlined. The soundeffects are also well balanced to fit the various happenings. Forinstance, celebrations are marked with African culture music,incorporating drums and dances. Sound effects during torturous eventsare also well choreographed. The sound effects were effectivelybrought out to match the various scenes [CITATION Nus07 p 1 l 1033 ].

Asper the cinematography aspects, it effectively suits the mode of thefilm. With the varying moods i.e. celebratory mood during ceremonieswhen Nicholas was yet to discover Amin’s undertakings or torturousevents to anyone betraying Amin, cinematography facets fitappropriately. The setting is also quite replicative of the Ugandanculture. It captures the social aspects of the Ugandan culture aswell as the illustrating the western missionaries’ impact withinthe country [CITATION The11 p 1 l 1033 ].

Thefilm draws several meanings depending on the knowledge one has on theUgandan culture or rather history. However, the main idea behind itentails dictatorship during Amin’s rule. It also depicts amaster-servant relationship. For instance, it is vital to note thatWestern powers were involved in installing Admin as the ruler.However, after Amin became more influential trying to outshine themasters, it was met with resistance. Another relationship thatelaborates the same is Nicholas and Amin’s. The two livedharmoniously until Nicholas tried to outshine Amin. Nicholas becameinfluential and powerful, and Amin retaliated by torturing himportraying him as a betrayer. In other words, the film tries toillustrate that when one becomes too influential or powerful, expectthe masters to take measures to limit the influence. The two exhibitcunningness lies, and deceits among other strategies to keep living[CITATION The11 p 1 l 1033 ].

Personally,Forest Whitaker’s acting skills are quite enticing in this film asAmin. Though opinions could be swayed by the fact that he is in thismovie, reviews from other rating sites tend to concur. The film isquite captivating. Forest Whitaker’s scene-stealing antics arequite effective. He balances passion, monstrosity, and charisma todepict the Ugandan leader. He can inspire lots of love as well asgreat terror all in one. These aspects make the film quitecaptivating. From the onset of this movie, one could feel Amin washighly feared. He commands fearful respect. Anyone found tocontravene his ideologies is deemed a traitor and hence, murdered.All the aspects of love, betrayal, and redemption among others vitalin an action film are entailed within this movie making it enjoyable.For instance, the relationship between Nicholas and Amin’s thirdwife. Though she was somehow neglected, the act in itself symbolizesbetrayal as per Amin. A viewer is left to guess on the repercussionsof this intimate relationship since Nicholas was somehow close toAmin. One would think that maybe he would be forgiven, but it is notthe case [ CITATION Jam06 l 1033 ].

Inconclusion, the movie is quite enjoyable with an effective mixture ofcinematography and sound effects that are choreographed to theconformity of the events. In that regard, I would recommend it to anyenthusiast of action movies. Additionally, anyone interested inknowing Amin’s kind of rule will be well suited to watch this film.A 4 out of 5 is appropriate for this movie.

WorksCited

Bradshaw, Peter. &quotThe last King of Scotland.&quot 12 January 2011. The Guardian. 7 November 2016. &lthttps://www.theguardian.com/film/2007/jan/12/thriller.jamesmcavoy&gt.

Last King of Scotland. Dir. Kevin Macdonald. 2006. &lthttp://www.reelviews.net/reelviews/last-king-of-scotland-the&gt.

The Sanity Clause. &quotThe Last King of Scotland.&quot 2011. 7 November 2016.

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Ethicaland Legal Issues in an Organization

Ethicsare mechanisms that defend, systematize as well as recommendconceptions of right or wrong. Many organizations develop moral codesto ensure staff and employers understand the difference in doing goodor evil. In that respect, principles are an essential aspect of thesuccessful running of any organization or government. They ensureworkers` productivity levels are up to the required standards. Theyalso assist them to know their rights and responsibilities.Additionally, managers, as well as any persons in administration, arecontrolled by them to ensure they render transparent leadership.Standards also outline how customers should be handled. Ethical codesgovern the relationship between customers and an organization. On theother hand, legal codes are guidelines that assist in various aspectsof employment and association between corporations. However, in thecurrent global administrations face numerous ethical and legalchallenges during the daily undertakings. As such, this paper willdwell on some of the moral and legitimate problems and how they areprevented within an organization.

EthicalIssues

Themost predominant moral issue revolves around corruption. This entailsembezzlement of funds allocated for certain tasks. For instance,considering a nonprofit organization, some individuals indulge inunethical activities that siphon cash. Nonprofit agencies primarilyrely on donations. The amounts given are directed to various aspectsthat benefit the society. A good example involves providing shelterto street children and drug abusers. Cash donated towards such nobleacts tend to be unaccounted for especially when it comes to the laststep whereby the patients are supposed to fit back into society. Asentailed in many companies, the victims are given a certain amount ofcash to help them fit in the society. However, due to corruption,such amounts are mishandled to benefit a few [CITATION Tri11 p 6 l 1033 ].

Performanceappraisal is another moral problem faced by organizations, especiallythe HR managers. Principles should be the foundation of performanceassessment. Highly honest performance evaluation requires an accuratevaluation. Nevertheless, HR managers, occasionally, face the problemof allocating higher rates to workers who do not deserve the same.Employment issues such as fake educational credentials and pressureto hire friends or relatives are quite common. In the contemporaryglobe, cases of HR managers employing their families and friends arecommon. Regardless of the qualifications, it is unethical to hire aperson by acquaintance. Favoritism is also evident while givingcontracts. For example, when institutions advertise tenders, thoughvarious companies apply for the same, only the chosen ones are given.In that regard, the panelists may grant a particular organization dueto favoritism [CITATION Emm14 p 59 l 1033 ].

Organizationsalso face ethical issues when it comes to social responsibility. Asstipulated within the code of ethics, public mindedness, service aswell as responsibility are essential aspects within the institutions.However, many corporations indulge in the misuse of public money tobenefit selfish interests. In the perspectives of nongovernmentagencies, donor funds are rarely accounted. Likewise, governmentfunds are regularly misappropriated. Misuse of public money isconsidered as contravening the organization’s code of conduct.Institutions whether public or private must act in the best interestof the general public. It should provide a caring attitude by dealingwith societal issues appropriately. Any acts that disturb thefinances can result in violence. In some countries, misappropriationof funds can lead to in-fights that spread to the general public. Itinterferes with peaceful coexistence of people living in the society.It is immoral that organizations meant to fight for citizen rightsand proper use of resources are involved in contravening these acts.Evidently, for peace to exist, there must be justice. In thatrespect, such irresponsible actions can cause outbursts that may bedetrimental to the society and country at large [CITATION The122 p 216 l 1033 ].

Religiousfreedom is another ethical issue within the organization. Inaccordance with the human rights, each individual has a freedom ofreligion, conscience, and thought. An individual can indulge in anyreligion of his/her choice as long as it is acceptable within thesociety. However, employees are not afforded liberty to worship bytheir beliefs. In the current globe, much effort it driven towardssuccess in terms of financial gain. In that respect, people who havefaith in religion find it hard to operate in some institutions. It isone of the most contravened human right in the contemporary world [CITATION The122 p 207 l 1033 ].

LegalIssues

Legalaspects surrounding organizations are quite many. Some of the legalmatters include employing people with disabilities, agediscriminations, equal pay, and harassment among others. Anorganization must meet the set standards to operate with ease.However, they face challenges when it comes to hiring people withdisabilities. According to the American with Disabilities Act, (ADA),individuals are prohibited from discriminating people withdisabilities in communications, governmental activities, publicaccommodation, transportation, and employment. According to the Act,any employer having 15 workers and above must grant any qualifiedperson with disabilities similar opportunities available to the rest.In other words, a person with a disability should take full advantageof any employment-related chances. For instance, it proscribesdiscrimination in training, promotions, hiring, recruitment, socialactivities, and payment among other privileges. The act prohibitsqueries of an applicant’s disability during recruitment. Anemployer must provide appropriate accommodation to the known mentaland physical limitations of the qualified persons with disabilities,except it leads to undue hardships. For instance, a person with thedisability is prevented from getting a job, yet he has all thenecessary qualifications. He/she has all the academic requirementsand excels in the interview only to be disqualified due to a hearingproblem [CITATION USD112 p 1 l 1033 ].

Discernmentagainst age is another common issue. As such, the Age Discriminationin Employment Act (ADEA) is established to protect persons who arevictimized due to their oldness. It prevents service discriminationsagainst individuals who are 40 years and above. In addition to that,it is illegal for an employment body to refuse to refer for service,or else to discriminate against, a person due to age or to give orclassify for employment an individual based on his/her age. Anotherproblem involves harassment. Pestering an individual due to his/herage is illegitimate. It can involve, for instance, offensive commentsabout a person`s age. Though the act does not forbid offhandcomments, simple teasing, or isolated cases that are not severe,aggravation is proscribed when it is frequently used to develop anoffensive or hostile working environment. In addition to that, theact can lead to adverse decisions like demotion or firing of thevictim. The harassers include the victim`s supervisor, a fellowworker, supervisor from another sections, customer, or client. Theabove aspects can be contravened whether unknowingly or knowingly.The most common discrimination comes from supervisors and clients. Acustomer opts to abuse a worker based on his age if he/she does notreceive service as fast as anticipated. For instance, if the serviceis slow, the client uses a slur to discriminate against the employee.Sometimes the delay in service does not emanate from the worker. Asupervisor can also demote an employee because of his/her age.Employees also abuse each other based on age. Such occurrences aredetrimental to the organization. Therefore, the act was adopted tolimit or rather prevent such discriminations [CITATION USD112 p 1 l 1033 ].

Mitigation/Improvement Measures

Thehuman resource department faces numerous ethical and legal issues ona daily basis. The issues can involve corruption, favoritism, agediscrimination, and harassment among others. Nonetheless, some employmeasures to curb the same. A common approach used to mitigate legalissues entails supervision from the appropriate bodies. For instance,in the United Sates, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commissionenforces acts against workplace discriminations. The bodyinvestigates complaints regarding sex, gender identity, disability,race, religion, origin, and color among others. The body mandatesemployers to inform the workers about their rights. Apart from thatemployees have a duty to seek for their rights. In that respect,harmony between the employees and their employers is achieved, andthe productivity levels are heightened [CITATION 11Gl p 200 l 1033 ].

Digitizationof the whole processes within an organization can be used to curbcorruption, favoritism, and dishonesty. The system can be used tohire qualified staff without worrying about bias. People tend to takeadvantage of keeping records manually since they can be easilyaltered. However, by using systems in which monitoring is made easiercan help alleviate the norms of corruption. Accountability is alsoimportant. This involves each person associated with the organizationto account for his/her actions. Whenever transactions are made, theyshould provide adequate details of the same to prevent siphoning ofcash. A motivated employee is quite productive in any organization.Employees are motivated by the kind of treatment they get from acompany. Apart from ensuring remunerations are up to the requiredstandards, the corporations must acknowledge the dangers faced in theline of duty [CITATION 11Gl p 222 l 1033 ].

Inconclusion, the ethical and legal problems surrounding organizationsare quite vast in the current globe. They may affect the standard andquality of service among other aspects. Additionally, it has personaleffects that can demoralize workers. However, mitigating the same ispossible through transparency, instating bodies that govern theworkforce among others. With the successful implementation of thesame, most of these effects can be prevented.

WorksCited

Emmens, Potter. &quotAuditing the People in Aid code.&quot A tool for Human Resource Management. Accountability forum (2014): 1-108.

Schutter. &quotThe role of human rights in shaping international regulatory regimes.&quot (2012): 201-218. Document.

Trivunovic, Marijana. &quotCountering NGO corruption.&quot (2011): 1-15. Document.

Twiss, Sumner. &quotGlobal Ethics and Human rights.&quot Global Ethics and Human rights (2011): 193-390.

U.S. Department of Labor. &quotThe Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, As Amended.&quot 2011. Document.

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Postcolonialtheory Literary Analysis of &quotOppression

Post-colonialcriticism is a study similar to that of cultural studies. However, ittakes a much more unique perspective with regard to literature andpolitics, facilitating a separate discussion. Particularly,post-colonial analysts are concerned with articles and literarymaterials produced either by the colonial powers or by those who wereaffected or colonized. The postcolonial theory can also beillustrated by the political and cultural tensions from colonizersand the colonized states. The approach indicates that values andstandards were not universal [ CITATION Car11 l 1033 ].On the contrary, similar historical events can be differentiated ina radical manner depending on one’s perspective, values, norms andaccepted actions. This paper looks at the postcolonial theoryliterary analysis based on the Epic of Gilgamesh by Herbert Mason andThe Tempest by William Shakespeare, showing the element of oppressionin the post-colonial period, and its effects.

Bycritically looking at The Tempest by William Shakespeare, examininghow Caliban’ culture is represented is the key to understandingoppression, particularly in Western Discourse. The ideology points atthe colonial endeavors that played a major role in the progress ofoppression. A relevant example is in Chapter 1 where Caliban isportrayed as inhuman with a great sense of racism. The author seemsto legitimize the colonial attempts. This is mainly becauseindividuals like Caliban were significantly looked down upon,deprived of the humanity aspect, lacking culture and hence not havingany rational right for sovereignty. Prospero and Ariel describe himas an unfriendly “freckled whelp hag-born—not honour`d with ahuman shape.”2 (Act I, scene 3). As such, Caliban isrepresentative of the exploited victims and the narration goes on todescribe that by being a human being, it is only natural to resistcolonization through engaging in active and sometimes violenthostility (Shakespeare 12).

Apparently,the resistance can lead to entrapment, which is seen when Calibanbecomes ensnared into Prospero’s system. The colonial situationcreates a certain gap between the involved groups. Elements ofmimicry and hybridity also become highly illuminated in manner thatelucidates the colonizers’ emphasis on the belief that theirculture is the best and also the standard. As a result the colonized(Caliban) is forced by all means necessary to imitate and later on beassimilated into the colonizers culture hence becoming part andparcel of that system. The gap created between the two individuals(Caliban and Prospero) crushes the oppressed greatly. Shakespeare’sTempest is characterized by a natural distance between westerncolonizers and the colonized. It is clear that there is a completelack of equality. Just like Caliban, the colonized are regarded aspeople who have no claim to autonomy, possibly due to their color,shape, and lack of civilization (Shakespeare 28).

Inthe postcolonial period, the urge to wield power against slaves andother people of lower social class was prominent, particularly thosewho were being colonized. It was not uncommon for people to relentand try as much as possible to retain the power they had on otherindividuals. The hate and unfriendliness is seen by the naming ofCaliban. The name tends to sound like cannibal, suggesting a savage,a monster and a being that lacks education. It is thus the colonizerwho takes an active part in the process of shaping them. There isalso an element of dehumanization and Shakespeare uses an obviousmethod by describing him as ugly, evil and unwanted henceilluminating a biased state of the colonized that arouses negation.As such Prospero calls him “Thou poisonous slave, got by the devilhimself” 28. Furthermore, there is much more speculation concerningthe colonized. Apparently, Caliban is not inhuman as exemplified ashe takes the new visitors by surprise when he speaks their language.Also by portraying several human capabilities, the Caliban seems notto be an animal but rather a human being yet with primitive humanity.The colonized is also deprived of basic rights including marriageinteraction and copulation. Despite Miranda and Caliban havingfeelings towards each other, Pros confronts him “In mine own cell,till thou didst seek to violate the honor of my child.”28Therefore, the character of Caliban tends to symbolize two facetsthe colonization of a victim of physical psychological and culturaloppression, and dehumanization of a savage.

Oppressionis also evident in the Eurocentric perspective by the process ofentrapment especially through fear. Violence and torture are themethods used to instill fear and in the process, Caliban attempts toresist. This is a vivid reflection of the prominent disregard forindependence and autonomy of the original inhabitants of the regions.The colonizers use the colonized for their benefits as Pros puts it“We cannot miss him: he does make our fire, Fetch in our wood, andserves in offices that profit us”.7. One theory brought forward byscholars’ purports that the colonized cannot accept dominancewithout resistance, torture and violence. It is thus uncommon formost people to defend their autonomy to a considerable extent. Thismeans that post colonialism has a deep founded effect on both thecolonizers and colonized. In the Tempest, Prospero and the intrudersare quite dominant, exerting physical and psychological force. Theirlanguage and expression says it all “Cal. As wicked dew as e`er mymother brush`d With raven`s feather from unwholesome fen Drop on youboth! a south-west blow on ye And blister you all o`er!”(Shakespeare 9). However, despite the resistance, Caliban eventuallyrelents due to desperation. Although there is a hint of anger andresistance, the colonized eventually have to yield to the oppression.Caliban says and I quote: “Thou strok`st me, and made much of mewouldst give me Water with berries in`t and teach me how To name thebigger light, and how the less,That burn by day and night: and then Ilov`d thee, And show`d thee all die qualities o` th` isle,The freshsprings, brine-pits, barren place and fertile” (Shakespeare 12).

Theepic of Gilgamesh is a story that is linked to the post-colonialtheory in several ways. Power oppression and identity are the mainthemes. The king of Uruk used his power and position to press thosewho were his subjects, he did not bother to change his ways. It isfor this reason that champions of freedom such as Enkidu came tofight and conquer his Kingdom. Contrary to the expectations, the twobecome friends. The two journey to battle and become even closeralthough Enkidu dies during the fight. As Gilgamesh revels on hisadventure and strong friendship, he is compelled within himself tochange for the better.

Thiswork is a classic example of literature mediation and it gives themuch needed insight concerning the post-colonial theory especiallyregarding power, oppression, gender, identity and class. As such,uncivilized societies are depicted as savages. The idea offacilitating civilization is necessary and is not only a pastoccurrence but also a present one. There is a strong sentiment thatpost-colonialism has led to the participation of self-proclaimedcivilized individuals as mediators. Behind the mediation process is asinister project that resembles the friendship that developed betweenEnkidu and Gilgamesh. Gilgamesh seems to be more civilized thanEnkidu and he is described as surpassingall kings, for his stature renowned Heroic offspring of Uruk, acharging wild bull, He leads the way in the vanguard He marches atthe rear, defender of his comrades. Mighty food wall, protector ofhis troops, and so on (Mason 21). His nature of oppression. Just likein the case of the Tempest, the oppressor is capable of misusing hispower and thereafter influence the position of others who may bewilling to assist the suffering individuals. All these can be done inthe name of peace, yet the underlying reason is to create an alliancethat can forge forward and colonize other regions, the same wayHumbaba was attacked by these two people (Ziolkowski).

Conclusion

Post-colonialtheory delves into the issues revolving around power, economics,politics, religion and culture, as well as how these aspects relatetowards colonial hegemony. Historically, western colonizers werecontrolling to the colonies. This theory came into being in thetwentieth century, specifically the second part. As states andcitizens ruled as colonies for instance India, Britons, and theFrench, struggled for achievement of political independence. Theeffects of colonial rule have been analyzed by scholars as well asexploitation on the subjects and culture. In the end, the main aim ofcombating harmful costs of oppression was realized together with theoverflow into the post-colonial period. Such literary sources can beused to further elaborate on the specific issues embedded inpost-colonialism.

WorksCited

Mason, Herbert. Gilgamesh. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, n.d.

Nayar, Pramod K. Postcolonialism: A Guide for the Perplexed, The Guides for the Perplexed Series . London: Continuum, 2011.

Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. New York: Dover Publications, 1999.

Theodore Ziolkowski. Gilgamesh among Us: Modern Encounters with the Ancient Epic. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2012.

Watt, Carey Anthony. Introduction: The Relevance and Complexity of Civilizing Mission. London: Anthem Press, 2011.

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Effectsof the Parenting styles

Parentingis one of the most challenging responsibilities as it involves childdevelopment. It entails bringing up a mature, successful, healthy andindependent young adult. This is quite demanding. As such, parentshave a huge role to play to bring up a self-reliant person. Theinteractions between the children and their guardians have asignificant influence towards their personality. Many people oftenthink that it is the role of educators to nurture children however,this is not the case. Parents are the ones who mold the child into aunique individual with a set of rights and wrongs. The abilities,attitudes, behavior, academic excellence and career choice of a youngperson largely depend on his/her interaction with the parents. When aparenting style is optimal, it will yield a significant positiveinfluence towards the schooling achievements, self-esteem, thebehavior and cognitive development of the child. This paper focuseson the forms of upbringing and the impacts on children regardingeducational achievement, behavior, and career paths.

ParentingStyles

Parentingmethods focus on how guardians act and react to their children. Also,it can be shown by how the parents make their decisions. It involvesthe expectations, values, and beliefs that surround parents’involvement with regards to supporting and punishing their children.There are four popular parenting styles which are, the authoritative,permissive, authoritarian and uninvolved parenting forms. Theauthoritative, permissive and authoritarian styles fall under thehelicopter parenting philosophy as it involves a high level of parentinvolvement towards the child development. These forms of parentingoften aim to guide a child into developing particular habits that theparents consider to be right. Guardians are highly involved indisciplining, inspiring or both control and encourage the child intoadopting specific traits. The parents are seen as being the ones whoknow what is best for the child. Regardless of the identifiedparenting styles, most parents are often not aware of the parentingstyle attributed to them[CITATION Dee16 p 80 l 1033 ].

AuthoritativeParents

Theauthoritative mode of parenting is seen as the most successful styleof bringing up a child. It is a helicopter model that requires lotsof involvement by the parents. It calls for a balance betweenparental participation and control. Parents who adopt this stylenormally set the most realistic expectations for their children.Other than the consistent limits laid down for the children, theyoften give advice on the consequences of particular actions that theyopt to take. The parents often present the natural consequences whichare as a result of a particular trait. These parents often createrules and boundaries that children are required to adhere.Furthermore, they explain the reasons why the rules have been set.Moreover, they are flexible enough as in they make exceptionstemporal mainly due to some circumstances. For example, they are thekind of parents who have bedtime rules, but during special eventssuch as vacations, they can make some exceptions [ CITATION Bou161 l 1033 ].

Authoritativeparents as such can positively support child development. This isbecause they tend to be warm, affectionate, they are willing to lettheir children express their views and space to grow independently.Since this type of parenting promotes strict and highly controllingparents in their interaction with children, it has been observed thatit yields positive outcomes as the children grow to have a healthysocial development with regards to interaction with colleagues andoften exhibit self-control [ CITATION Bou161 l 1033 ].

AuthoritarianParents

Thisis a parenting style which involves very strict parents. Such kindof parents often requires high levels of obedience and conformity. They exhibit low warmth towards their children as they are too harshto allow them to express their selves. As such, they are very strictparents who act as tough monitors towards their children. Apart fromexhibiting high levels of control over their children’s behaviorand decisions, they also set very rigid and tough rules. The outcomesof not adhering to these rules are often dire that the children aremore afraid rather than respectful towards the parents. Those kidswho have been raised by authoritarian parents are usually andwithdrawn or at worst suffer from problems regarding personalself-confidence and esteem [CITATION Ris10 p 76 l 1033 ].

Themale children from such families normally express anger managementproblems while the female child will be seen to depend on otherpeople for approval. Moreover, these children often perform poorlyin their educational studies while tending to be unstable in theircareers as they come from a stressing background. Despite theirparents’ attitude, they do not display any antisocial tendenciessince they are afraid of their parent’s reactions. Unlike theauthoritative parents, the authoritarian parents do not makeexceptions, and they are too rigid to give special allowances totheir children. However, due to cultural differences, differentchildren from different regions will react differently towards thisparenting philosophy [ CITATION Ris10 l 1033 ].

PermissiveParents

Inthis mechanism, parenting is typified by low demands with very highreceptiveness. The parents have the propensity to show love and careto their kids. Nevertheless, they provide several rules andguidelines. The parents do not presume their children to behavematurely. Instead, they expect them to know their boundaries andtreat one another more like friends. As such, they are like friendsrather than parental figures. Due to the few conventions, kidsbrought up in this system tend to lack self-control andself-regulation [ CITATION Bou161 l 1033 ].

Permissiveparenting is among the novel approaches defined by Baumrind. It isalso regarded as permissive parenting. Parents who show this methodhave limited demands on their kids. Since these guardians have littleanticipations on maturity and self-control, they infrequentlydiscipline their children. As per Baumrind, the indulgent parents arefar more responsive than what they demand. Moreover, this kind ofparenting is lenient and non-traditional. Self-regulation andavoidance of confrontations are considerable. According to currentresearch, indulgent parenting is linked to underage alcohol use. Thestudy asserted that kids raised in this form were three times morelikely to indulge in alcohol than the rest. In addition, scholarsimply that this form is associated with risky conducts like drugsamong others [CITATION Ris10 p 87 l 1033 ].

Sincethis approach entails minimizing demands as well as expectations,kids tend to develop without necessarily having a sense ofself-discipline. This lack of restrictions at home may be carried tothe institutions. As such, the kids become unruly. Apart from that,they have demotivated academically. Furthermore, the teenagers do nothave sufficient skills within the social context such as sharing.

UninvolvedParents

Inthis method, parents do not give their children sufficient physicalor emotional needs. The children do not get the vital elements suchas essentials such as health care, academic support, food, shelter,and childhood play. An uninvolved parent does not have sufficientemotional attachment with their kids. Though they may offer the basicneeds such as food and shelter, these parents do not show concern fortheir teen`s lives. Nevertheless, the involvement level mightfluctuate considerably. Some parents exercise the hands-offmechanism, while others set limits like curfews. Others may becompletely negligent or even renounce their kids outright [CITATION Ken16 p 38 l 1033 ].

Scholarslink the parenting forms to a broad range of results such as academicperformance and social skills. Evidently, children nurtured in thismechanism perform poorly in almost all the aspects of life. They canshow deficits in attachment, cognition, social and emotional skills.Because of limited emotional responsiveness as well as love, the kidsmight find it hard to form attachments. Furthermore, they are morelikely to misbehave due to the lack of boundaries. In most cases,guardians who practice this type of parenthood suffered the samewhile in their childhood. They repeat the similar patterns they wereraised. Some parents are forced by events as they are too busy toinstill discipline in their children. They get involved in othermatters to the extent that they do not realize their negligence [CITATION Dee16 p 29 l 1033 ].

Conclusion

Thoughevery parenting technique affects the kids` development, theauthoritative one tends to be more fruitful. This method has morepositive outcomes than the others, but they are still dependent onculture. Children manage to develop appropriately under a solidframework with supportive and loving guidance. The children are wellnourished within this form due to the set boundaries. Even thoughthese parents exert control over the kids, the mechanism encouragesdemocracy. Sometimes, it is child-centered, and the kids are allowedto make their autonomous decisions. As such, children raised in thissystem tend to be healthy regarding social development and emotionalcontrol. The kids can interact with peers and adults in favorablemanners. This form creates a well-nourished individual with a certainset of morals.

Apartfrom the authoritative form, uninvolved, authoritarian, andpermissive tend to be less positive. As a matter of fact, they may bequite detrimental to the child`s morality. However, this does notinfer that every kid nurtured in this approach lacks morals. Instead,these approaches may not be as successful as the authoritative type.As such, they may not have the best developmental outcomes ascompared to the authoritative form. Authoritarian guardians mayencourage skills like self-regulation via their high anticipationsfor obedience, yet they will not primarily offer the kids withopportunities to create the self-impression. Contrary to thismechanism, indulgent guardians might provide great chances regardingself-expression, yet lack the rule-focused structure to developemotional regulation and control. Kids with uninvolved guardians mayhurt developmentally due to the lack attention, interest, or warmth[ CITATION Bou161 l 1033 ].

Inthat regard, parents play a significant role in child rearing. Evenwith the different styles, the same results can be achieved dependingon the culture. In other words, the background in which children areraised determines the behavior of the kids, academic achievement aswell as the career path. Parents have a vital responsibility knowingthe kids` talents and guiding them. Therefore, mutual comprehensionand close relations between the children and their parents arecrucial. Parents must familiarize with their kids to ensure properupbringing.

WorksCited

Awasthi, Deeksha. &quotHow Does Uninvolved Parenting Affect Your Child?&quot 21 October 2016. 4 November 2016.

Axelrod, B. and Cooper, R. The St.Martin`s Guide To Writing. Bedford/St. Martin`s, 2010.

Boundless.com. &quotThere are four main parenting styles.&quot 2016. 4 November 2016.

Cherry, Kendra. &quotWhat Is Uninvolved Parenting?&quot 9 May 2016. November 4 2016.

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TheIsland of Dr. Moreau

TheIsland of Dr. Moreau has been delivered in various versions andplatforms. The two most significant presentations are the novel byH.G. Wells and the movie produced in 1996. In both exhibitions, thereare some significant differences as well as similarities that arise.However, the main themes revolve around evolution, human interferencewith nature, and the obsession with science. The movie is based onthe characters Marlon Brando, Kilmer, David, and Ron among manyothers. Marlon plays Brando, and he uses DNA technologies to developsome creatures. Only one successful transformation takes place, andthe other creatures have to be drugged to prevent regression. Assuch, the movie deviates significantly from the narration in terms ofcharacter depiction, plot and the general setting.

Moreauis depicted in the movie as a strange and creepy individual, adescription that is entirely different from the novel. Similarly,unlike the book, when Douglass and Aissa have been captured thenreturned to the Doctor, he is described as being intolerant to thesun. There is no such connection with the novel regarding thisillustration. In this film, there is an emphasis concerning conflictand the law against meat-eating. Initially, the rule was applicablefor animal/man beings (TheIsland of Dr. Moreau n.p.).Additionally, Montgomery’s character is not tormented as much whilehe uses an amulet to inflict pain on the creatures. However, when theHyena Man finds a way to remove the gadget, he refuses injections.Another significant departure from the movie is when Montgomeryoffers a joint of smoke to Douglass as a means of helping him tounderstand the exact happenings on the island. As the film proceeds,the audience is treated to the way in which Hyena Man reverts the lawto allow walking on all fours (TheIsland of Dr. Moreau n.p.).This, in turn, triggers an uprising leading to the killing of Moreau.The Doctor’s death is much more gruesome than that depicted by thebook. Apparently, he is ripped by the hyena while Douglass escapes.

Ina nutshell, an in-depth analysis indicates that the plot movie hasdeteriorated significantly from the original narration. Other filmshave been produced that seem to be closely related to the story.However, the 1996 film is so much altered that it may not be easy forone to compare it to the original novel. One of the appallingattributes of the story is the description of the characters (Wells91). For instance, the protagonist, although wealthy, educated, andtalented with unique abilities concerning scientific research, hefinds himself in a hopeless situation of the island and itssurroundings. The island society is made up of genetically modifiedorganisms under the power of a dictator by the name Moreau and hisassistant Montgomery. Apparently, the film is much more complex withturns and twists that diverges its plot from the original work. Thisis evident especially as the movie winds up. It is displayed thatthere is grotesque killings as well as the upgraded creatures formingtheir alliance and leadership. They seem to follow the hard and cruelrule that Moreau applied albeit with a different motive. On thecontrary, the novel ends on a much lighter note where Edward Prendickobtains a boat that ground ashore and uses it to leave the island.Meanwhile, the creatures regress to their natural state and beginhunting in the wild.

Allin all. Both the novel and the film have a familiar concept whichshows the danger of progress in scientific discovery. The lack ofcompassion, infliction of pain and even death are all fuelled by theincentive of more and more scientific achievements, even if it meansgoing against nature. Ultimately, such actions are shown to yieldresults that do not favor both the supporters of such oppressing andtorture acts and the victims.

WorksCited

The Island of Dr. Moreau. Dir. John Frankenheimer. 1996. DVD.

Wells, H. G. The Island of Dr. Moreau. Bantam Classics, 1994.

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SmartDrugs

Peopleuse coffee to remain awake, quality food and nutrition to stay alertand healthy. However, what if there is a drug to make someonesmarter, provide assistance in learning, and enhanced focus, is itworth using it? It is a question that is drawn from the smart drugdebate. There has been a debate in recent years if college studentsshould use smart drugs to enhance their performances. According tothe proponents, smart drugs improve the brains thus benefitting thepeople. The drugs open limitless opportunities to the users i.e.attention, focus, and memory retention. As such, they improve thegeneral functionality of the brain thereby improving the user. On theother hand, opponents believe the effectiveness of the drugs cannotbe established. It is hard to know whether they heightenself-efficacy or indeed make people “smarter.” Apart from that,drugs and catastrophe tend to go hand-in-hand. As such, they may bedetrimental to the health of the people whether short or long-term. Ibelieve the usage of drugs in college to enhance the brains isunethical. Therefore, this paper will oppose the notion of utilizingsmart drugs in colleges to enhance the brain`s capabilities.

Narration

Thechallenges compounding people across the globe are quite vast.However, most of the challenges could be eliminated if people wereintelligent. As such, proponents of the smart drugs imply that usingthem will benefit the entire society. Additionally, it should be leftto the students to choose whether to use them or not. Some of thecognitive enhancers include Modafinil and Ritalin. Some of the drugsare used by people suffering from disorders like Parkinson’sdisease. As such, the drugs are readily available, and whether theyare permitted or not, it is likely that students are already usingthem. Nevertheless, utilization of these drugs apart from ailmentcontrol can pose significant threats to the normal operations of thesociety. Besides the health concerns, the drugs are unethical. Someresearchers even imply that the drugs may not be improving cognitiondirectly instead, they enhance the person’s state of mind [CITATION Mar141 p 1 l 1033 ].

Thesmart drugs have detrimental social effects, hence, should not beallowed. Imagine a person using the drugs to get ahead of the rest.It will implore others to use the same mechanisms to keep up. Thedrugs will set new standards that will compel the society to utilizethem to stay competitive. Ultimately the competitive nature will beheightened, and people will have little time to relax with familiesor friends. As such, students will be compelled to use the drugs evenmore to increase performance in class and even in their occupations.Apart from that, the achievement gap will be widened. This is becausethose who can afford the drugs will continue to gain in class,occupationally, and economically. The less fortunate in the societywill continue to dwell in poverty since they cannot afford the drugs.Therefore, the gap between the wealthy and poor will continue towiden [CITATION Mar141 p 1 l 1033 ].

Usingsmart drugs primarily defies the code of ethics. They can be likenedto performance enhancement drugs that are banned in athletics. It ismorally unjust to boost the brains using scientifically modifiedtechniques so as to stay competitive or perform better in studies.Just like the athletics body prohibits the use of performanceenhancement drugs in competition, smart drugs should not be allowedto take over the classrooms. Athletes` doping is forbidden not justfor welfare motives but because people want the sport to entailparticular things, such as magnificently muscular humans and theirinspirational accomplishments. It should not be about technologicaland scientific races. Values determine how people conduct themselvesin sport. Every person is talented in his/her way. While competing,people like athletes are required to stay in their natural state andavoid mechanisms that could boost their physical attributes. Cases ofathletes being banned from the tracks for years have been rising overthe years as the body champions originality. When a person uses thedrug, it is not him/her competing. Instead, they compete according tothe strength of the drugs. Such behaviors defy the human nature andseemingly champions scientific modifications over humanity. This ismorally wrong [CITATION Mar141 p 1 l 1033 ].

Thesmart drugs could pose significant health threats. Evidently, drugsand catastrophe are never apart, whether in real life orlaboratories. Improving attention or focus using the drugs has itsrepercussions in terms of health. According to experts, &quotSmartdrugs&quot that may enhance brain performances in the short-termseem to have long-term impacts on developing brains. It makes thebrain less adaptable for organizing, planning ahead, andmultitasking. According to Dr. Wen-Jun Gao, who is a neuroscientistat the Drexel University College of Medicine in Philadelphia, thehuman brain continues to develop into an individual’s 20s and 30s,especially the prefrontal cortex. This area, as the doctor implies,is responsible for planning as well as the decision-making process.The brain-enhancing drugs increase the release of chemicals such asdopamine that can be problematic in the long-term. Research showsthat using these drugs even in low portions can impact on developingbrains causing impairment of the nerve activity. As such, it alsoimpairs the working memory as well as ability to shift between tasks.Exploitation of the drugs can overly stimulate the nervous systemthus injuring or killing the cells. Therefore, the medical impactsemanating from the “smart drugs” implies that they should beavoided [CITATION Stu14 p 1 l 1033 ].

Smartdrugs lead to behavioral changes that may impact negatively on theusers. Using the drugs alters the normal operations of the brain aswell as the body. For instance, one may stay for extended hourswithout resting. Since the students take the drugs to stay alerted,the body does not show when it is tired. However, it reaches a pointwhere the drugs cannot prevent tiredness, and one may start havingheadaches. According to Scott Ahles, a Psychiatrist at the FresnoState Health Center, when utilized to treat attention deficitdisorder, the drugs may result in anxiety and irritability. Thesentiments were echoed by Peggy Gish who stated that they cause highblood pressure, loss of appetite, and insomnia. As a matter of fact,one of the Fresno State students using the drugs stated that the sideeffects continuously worsened as he used them to stay alerted. Hewould get mad easily than before and had a hard time finding sleep.Sometimes he would only sleep for 15 to 20 minutes. Altering thenormal operations of the brain has progressive consequences that canculminate to the acquisition of diseases. Apart from that, it resultsin behavioral changes that may be detrimental to the dailyundertakings [CITATION Leo11 p 1 l 1033 ].

Acknowledgmentand Refutation

Theproponents of “smart drugs” make logical arguments pertainingenhancing self-efficacy and its social benefits. People at the lowerside who lack concentration and working memory can be improved toreach higher levels. As such, it benefits the students who attainlower grades because of lack of concentration or memory retention.Such a move levels the playing field, and all the students canachieve the same things. From the medical perspectives, it has notbeen accurately established whether the drugs have severe healthimpacts. Poor health is blamed on excessive use or lack ofprescriptions. When the students use the drugs outside therecommended dosage, they are bound to suffer consequences in thelong-term. Using the drugs should not be banned. Instead, it ought tobe left to the students to decide whether they can use them or not.According to this views, it is morally wrong to prevent people frommaking their autonomous decision. Currently, no substantial studiesare identifying the long-term impacts of the “smart drugs” onhealthy individuals. The fact that they affect the brains isimportant. However, it does not mean they are detrimental [CITATION Mar141 p 1 l 1033 ].

Eventhough the proponents of the “smart drugs” may have reasonablethoughts, the negative aspects outweigh the benefits. Collegestudents use the drugs to excel in their exams and graduates utilizethem to obtain professional licenses. They can be likened to using acalculator when solving an equation. Is it logical to see a doctorwho used them to pass his exams and still depends on them whilepracticing his profession? The analogy of athletics best explains theethical issues the “smart drugs” bring. People should be left tocompete in their natural form. Adopting the usage of these drugshinders the natural competition. This is because it may result incompetition among companies to produce the most effective enhancers.Diverting from the natural aspects of life, especially pertainingintelligence is morally unjust. The impact may be devastating to thegap between the wealthy and poor. As such, the wealthy will continueto get richer as the poor linger in poverty. The proponents suggestthat available studies are not sufficient to illustrate the impact ofthe drugs on health. However, it is quite evident that drugs andcatastrophe go hand-in-hand. The drugs disturb the normal functioningof the brain and one does not sleep when the body requires rest. Assuch, the long-term repercussions are severe. Though the drugs mayseem to level the playing field, the fact that science replaces thehumanly way of achieving results poses significant ethical andsocietal issues. The proponents argue that the drugs can becontrolled. However, it is worth noting that once a person isinstigated to compete, he/she is uncontrollable. The students willuse all means possible to outweigh one another as others strive tocatch up [CITATION Stu14 p 1 l 1033 ].

Summation

Ingeneral, the limitations of “smart drugs” outweigh theadvantages. There is no legitimate argument to counter the ethicalissues emanating from the drugs. Sports has remained entertainingbecause of the discipline instilled to prevent doping. If the drugswere to be permitted in sports, then the aspects that make itentertaining would diminish. In a similar manner, permitting thedrugs in learning institutions would polarize the system. As much asthe proponents of the drugs feel they can be used in controlledmeasures, it is impossible. Once the aspect of competition isinstilled in people, it is hard to control how they achieve success.It does not require extensive study to note that altering the normalfunctioning of the brain is catastrophic. Everything has its limits.However, the “smart drugs” bring about a false impression of thelimitless functionality of the brain. As such, the society lives in afalsified atmosphere. Therefore, it is unethical, unhealthy, andsocially catastrophic to adopt “smart drugs” in the learninginstitutions.

WorksCited

Kohn, Marek. &quotThe Truth About Smart Drugs.&quot 29 July 2014. http://www.bbc.com/future/story/20140729-the-truth-about-smart-drugs. 27 October 2016.

Lewis, Tanya. &quotStudents Risk Brain Problems from `Smart` Drugs.&quot 14 May 2014. Live Science. http://www.livescience.com/45621-students-risk-brain-problems-from-smart-drugs.html. 27 October 2016.

Valerio, Leonard. &quot‘Smart drugs’ carry dangerous side effects.&quot 6 December 2011. http://collegian.csufresno.edu/2010/12/06/%E2%80%98smart-drugs%E2%80%99-carry-dangerous-side-effects/. 27 October 2016.

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TheBottle Bill

TheHonorable John “Johnny” Isakson

StateSenator, Georgia

Onbehalf of all the cities and towns in Georgia, I recommend theinception of bottle bills in this state. Georgia is an attractivestate surrounded by beautiful landscapes. It is vital to recycle theused cans and bottles to clean and beautify the state’ssurroundings. Bottle bills are a proven, sustainable mechanism ofseizing beverage cans and bottles for recycling. With the risingcalls to conserve the environment and minimize wastages, bottle billscan alleviate this issue within this state. Other states havesuccessfully implemented the project.

Environmentaleffects of these waste containers are quite vast. Energy consumptionis heightened, greenhouse gasses increase, toxins are emitted to theair and water, and wildlife habitat is damaged. When beverage bottlesare misused, they ought to be replaced with fresh cans and bottlesproduced from virgin resources. The production process utilizing theprimary materials is more energy-intensive than the recycledmaterials. Apart from that, it produces more pollutants i.e. toxiceffluents, solid wastes, and airborne emissions from the industrialor mining processing. The environmental impacts of these replacedproductions are mainly done for aluminum bottles [CITATION The161 p 1 l 1033 ].

Themain manufacturing process of aluminum includes strip mining bauxiteore and purifying it utilizing fuel oil among other chemical inputsto form alumina. They are then conveyed to various distances wherethey are smelted into an aluminum ingot. This process uses anenormous amount of electrical power. Considering the entire process,the amount of energy utilized to replace around 134 billion beveragecans represents close to 50 million containers of crude oil. Thisamount can supply the residential areas of Georgia for approximatelyone year. The environmental impact is also evidenced by the amount ofgreenhouse gasses produced while replacing the wasted cans. They alsoincrease toxic emissions and litter. For instance, between 40 to 60percent of roadside litter emanates from beverage containers. Assuch, it poses a danger to both humans and animals [CITATION Con16 p 1 l 1033 ].As such, the bottle bill will minimize the waste disposal costs,reduce litter, create new jobs as well as businesses, conserve energyand the natural resources, supply recyclable materials to thehigh-demanding market, and encourage both consumer and producerresponsibility

Thestate of Georgia can borrow from neighboring states who havesuccessfully implemented the bills. It can create job opportunitiesfor the unemployed. For example, in Michigan which was the firststate to implement the bill, close to 4,888 jobs were created.Another 5,092 jobs have been set up in New York since the inceptionof the law. According to government funded research, the greenhousegasses and amount of litter has significantly reduced in regions thathave implemented the bill. Companies such as Mohawk, which is one thelargest carpet corporations within Georgia purchases close to 30% ofrecycled bottles to make the carpets. It represents close to 215million pounds in a year. As such, with the inception of this bill,it could be much more [CITATION The161 p 1 l 1033 ].

Asa leader, you have the capacity to implement this great bill. It doesnot amount to any tax rather it minimizes the costs directed toroadside pick-up. In other words, instead of paying people to collectthe dumped containers, the money could be channeled into sustenanceof the environment. Sustaining the environment calls for collectiveresponsibility. This bill will enable both the companies and theresidents conserve the environment.

WorksCited

Bottle Bill resource Guide. Bottle Bill Resource Guide. 2016. http://www.bottlebill.org/. 1 November 2016.

Container Recycling Institute. Environmental Consequences of Beverage Container Waste. 2016. http://www.container-recycling.org/index.php/all-about-beverage-container-waste/62-issues/zero-waste/272-environmental-consequences-of-beverage-container-waste. 1 November 2016.

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Changesin Units of International Organizations

Changesin units of international organizations are evident across the globe.Focus has primarily shifted from global establishments to none stateactors. The change in organization can be seen on terror groups andother forms of criminal activities. As such, these paper will dwellon new terrorism, cyber security, international treaties, andsupranational.

NewTerrorism (A Third Wave of Jihadism)

Terrorismis the utilization of violence and intimidation to gain politically.In a broader sense, it is the use of terror or violence to attainreligious, ideological, or political gain. It is mainly carried outby gangs or extremist groups. A gang entails a group of individualswho share a common identity or purpose. The collective identity canbe based on ethnicity, religion, class and culture. Though extremistgroups associated with terrorism have become common in recent years,the gang formations began a while back through gambling and othermeans of extorting money. During the mid-1990s numerous academicreports were published on the considerable shift in terrorism(Kveberg 1).

Accordingto the reports, religion was consistently replacing the conventionalpolitical beliefs of terror groups. New descriptions with fresh termshad to be created to face the new realities. Apart from that,policymakers and intelligence services have to learn the significantchanges within the terrorist groups. New terrorism is founded ondifferent motivations, aims, and approaches. The assertions madeduring that time are rightly depicted in the current globe whereterrorism has shifted from political to a religious context. Thecommonest example is Jihadism. These are Islamic militant movementsthat are deeply rooted in Islam. Jihad is an Islamic word denotingthe ministerial responsibility of the Muslims to preserve andspread-out the religion. However, the exact connotation is notagreed. Some believe it has two meanings i.e. the inner spiritualstruggle and the outer physical fights with the enemies of thereligion. The new terrorism has emerged with a changed organizationalstructure. These aspects have propelled the third wave Jihadism. Assuch, global units are continuously changing even regarding terrorism(Kveberg 1).

Internet/Cyber Security

Ourdaily life, national security, and economic vitality are dependent onstable, resilient, and safe cyberspace. Cyberspace and the majororganization are susceptible to a broad range of dangers emanatingfrom both hazards, physical, and cyber threats. Complex cyber actorsand country-states exploit weaknesses to steal vital info or money.As such, they are continuously creating abilities to threaten,destroy, or disrupt conveyance of necessary services. The Internet isquite hard to secure due to several factors. Firstly, maliciousactors can work from anywhere across the globe. Also, the linkbetween the physical systems and the Internet is significant. Apartfrom that, it is particularly hard to limit susceptibilities and therepercussions within the complex networks. There is also a growingconcern about the cyber threats on critical infrastructure. Asinformation technology continuously integrates with the physicalstructure functionalities, risks of harm or detrimental impacts thatcould disrupt normal services and hinder economic growth are quitevast (Homeland Security 1).

Inthe contemporary world, people are more connected than ever. Thoughit has numerous advantages, the interconnections also carry hugeamounts of threats like abuse, theft, and fraud. As peoplecontinuously rely on technology, they also become susceptible tocyber crimes like social media fraud and security breaches. Theorganizational setting of cyber gangs has changed to take advantageof the growing technologies. Hackers are nowadays stimulated by theact of stealing information from other states. For instance, thedeveloped countries steal information from one another to establishone another’s security systems. As such, a country can know whetherits neighbor is constructing a nuclear weapon. The heightenedmistrust among countries has stimulated cyber wars. However, cybersecurity has also undergone various changes to counter the threats.Cyber security is meant to investigate the broad range of activitieswithin the internet to prevent any malicious undertakings. In theUnited States, elements like the Immigration and Customs Enforcement(ICE) and the Secret Service have dedicated much effort to combatingthe internet crimes (Homeland Security 2).

InternationalTreaties/Agreements

Accordingto the Vienna Convention, a treaty is an agreement between statesthat is in written form and is governed by the international law.Historically, international treaties were used to define theboundaries and means of trade. For example, the colonial nations usedtreaties to define their boundaries and avoid conflicts. Since theinception of treaties, countries have continuously used them toundertake their daily duties. Some of the multilateral treatiesinclude the Hague Apostille Convention, Hague Service Convention,and Hague Adoption Convention among others. The different agreementscover various sections to ensure smooth operation between memberstates. However, in recent years, the agreements are continuouslyignored while some countries opt out. Countries are continuouslyignoring laws dealing with weaponry. The organizational structuregoverning the countries is also continuously changing due toincreasing demands. For instance, countries are continually beingimplored to sign treaties concerning nuclear weapons and otherweaponry [CITATION Ber16 p 1 l 1033 ].

Supranational

Thesupranational is a transnational union or organization that imploresthe member states to have a national boundary or interests to have ajoint decision-making process on matters that affect the group.Common examples include the World Trade Organization and the EuropeanUnion. Each member of the union votes on policies that impact theentire team. Such structures are beneficial when it comes to globalpresence. In other words, it gives the countries a significantpresence on the global stage. One of the crucial elements of becomingsupranational is the region of coverage. The organization musttraverse across multiple nations. In the business perspective,supranational organizations are involved in devising regulations andstandards but cannot enforce authority. Instead, the task is bestowedon individual governments represented in the organization [CITATION Inv16 p 1 l 1033 ].

Theprincipal reason of supranational organizations is to simplify tradebetween the member countries. It is meant to smoothen operations,especially pertaining trade. However, they may have some politicaleffects or requirements. For instance, all the member states may berequired to conduct public elections to choose the leadership. Thesupranational unions also design standards concerning agriculture,fisheries, and foods. They may also be involved in championingenvironment-friendly energy productions. The United Nations is one ofthe most predominant organizations with several branches to cover thevarious activities across the globe. In recent years, supranationalunions have encountered some changes in leadership, performance, andoperations. A good example can be drawn from Britain’s exit fromthe European Union. Citing unfavorable trade that was benefitingthem, the country has moved to exclude itself from the union [CITATION Inv16 p 1 l 1033 ].

Conclusion

Changesin units of international organizations are quite common in thecurrent globe. The changes are mainly driven by the varying needs ofthe countries across the world. Terrorism is continuously changingfocus, cyber security is becoming a necessity, international treatiesare constantly modified, and the supranational unions are alteringtheir mode of operation. All these aspects are done to meet theanticipated targets of the various countries or institutions involvedin the same. It is, therefore, vital to look within theseestablishments as propellers of the changings globe.

WorksCited

Berkeley Law. Treaties and International Agreements. 2016. https://www.law.berkeley.edu/library/dynamic/guide.php?id=65. 1 November 2016.

Homeland Security. https://www.dhs.gov/topic/cybersecurity. 2016. https://www.dhs.gov/topic/cybersecurity. 1 November 2016.

Investopedia. Supranational. 2016. 1 November 2016.

Kveberg, Torbjørn. &quotNew Terrorism’ – Fact or Fiction?: A Descriptive and Quantitative Analysis of Religious Terrorism Since 1985.&quot (2012): 1-129.

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Beautyand Objectivity

Beautyrelates to a blend of qualities such as color, form, or shape, whichplease the aesthetic senses of humans. The nature of beauty ranksamong the most lasting and contentious ideas in philosophy.Traditionally, beauty was treated as one among the ultimate valueswith goodness, truth, and fairness. It was a fundamental theme amongthe ancient Greek, Hellenistic and medieval thinkers and was key tothoughts of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (McMahon26).By the beginning of the 20thcentury, the subject of beauty had declined as a question ofphilosophical inquiry and a primary goal of the arts. This paperfocuses on beauty as a subject from the objective perspective byweighing between whether beauty is objective or subjective.

Oneof the most fundamental issue regarding the subject of beauty iswhether it is subjective (in the eye of the beholder) or whether itis an objective quality of attractive things or places. If beauty isexclusively subjective, then it would imply that the word has nosignificant meaning because it would seem that using the wordbeautiful would just be meant to approve someone`s attitude. On theother hand, it would be pointless to say that beauty is entirelyobjective. That would imply living in a world with no perceiverscould be either beautiful or ugly, or beauty could be detectedthrough scientific means. However, even if that were the case, beautywould still be connected to subjective response.

Mostphilosophical ideologies of beauty treated it as an objective qualityup to the eighteenth century. They defined beauty as the objectitself or in the features of the object in question. This perceptionof beauty is aided by art and design in that individuals who ventureinto the realm of art are guided by metaphysical teachings on theperception of human beings. When they undergo training, most artistsare taught the elements of design, the concept of color, doctrines ofdesign and the rule of thirds among other subjects. These individualsare taught these rules because they are vital in guiding a designerin creating objects that communicate through the visual means(McMahon33).As such, all successful designers possess these rules and utilizethem in their work.

Beautyis not just a primary objective of art rather, it is the mostcritical goal of any piece of art. It serves as both a motivator anda goal of any work of art and design. Artists and designers perceivebeauty and get so excited about it to the extent that they have astrong need to share it with other people. This indicates that thereis an inseparable bond between art and beauty. Therefore, it can besaid that art is a creation of beauty in that it is the ideal waypeople can respond to beauty. Life would not be long and healthy ifbeauty never existed. This is because beauty is important towholesome living just as love and acceptance. People surroundthemselves with beauty because it is a crucial facet of life.

Thesubject of beauty runs deep in the human spirit. According to the18th-centurytheologian Jonathan Edwards, the root of beauty can be traced to thecharacter of God. In this regard, humankind seeks God by chasingbeauty. Therefore, from a Christian outlook, it would be expectedthat beauty is objective because it fits better than the subjectiveview. God gave humans objective ways to evaluate the quality of theirassociation with him (McMahon40).As such, following the notion of beauty from a Christian standpoint,it can be argued that God’s creation is beautiful. Nature, which isthe entirety of God’s creation, is beautiful and appealing to theeye.

Thereis sufficient evidence, therefore, to prove that psychologically,theologically, and artistically, beauty is supported as objective.This objectivity is not an exceptional perspective because even theindividuals with relevant training acknowledge beauty as objective.Only the uneducated and shallow reasoning supports beauty assubjective, which is an unstable and shaky foundation and a greaterproportion of the society holds it.

Itis critical to note that the subjective perspective of beauty impliesthat each has his preference regarding beauty, which often differsfrom other people. However, a perspective cannot be equivalent tobeauty. This is because human beings go through different experiencesin life and these experiences shape individuals’ definition orperception of beauty. Since people do not undergo the same situationsin life, there are different experiences and definitions of beauty.Again, beauty exceeds what people see or perceive as beautiful.(Sircello83).It is neither a socially prescribed occurrence nor a human definedevent. Rather, it exists beyond individual experiences. Just as Godexists outside the human agreement and is supreme, so is beautygreater that the human perception of it.

Accordingto Dr. Zsoter, education in arts is the only way through whichindividuals can see and appreciate others’ perception of beauty(McMahon39).Through artistic education, people rise to a higher levels and theirgain rises. Today, art is poorly valued. This is the reason why thesociety is ingrained in the subjective view of beauty. For instance,when someone lives in a new country amidst people of new culture, hebegins to see and appreciate those peoples’ perception of beauty,and begin understanding ways through which certain objects can betermed as beautiful.

Theancient philosophical personalities, Plato and Aristotle, disagreedon the definition of beauty. Nonetheless, they both regarded beautyas objective in their differing definitions (Sircello83).The classical notion treats beauty as a matter of representing fixedquantities or relations among different parts. For instance, asculpture known as ‘The Canon` created in the fifth BCE by anartist called Polycleitus was acknowledged as an ideal of a pleasantpart that was emulated by students and masters (McMahon26).In this case, beauty could be ideally achieved by replicating itsobjective parts. However, it was conventional in ancient treatmentsof beauty to pay an acknowledgment to the pleasures of beauty oftendescribed using jubilant phrases.

Bythe eighteenth century, for instance, beauty was connected topleasure in a myriad of ways. The pleasure was regarded not as theresult, but as the source of beauty. In the same way, philosophersDavid Hume and Immanuel Kant held that something significant was lostwhen people treated beauty as a subjective state (Sircello83).They noted that arguments often came up on the subject of the beautyof certain objects such as artistic products and creations inliterature. They regarded beauty as relative to individualexperiences, which ceased to be of significant value.

Therefore,despite the existence of countering arguments concerning thesubjectivity or objectivity of beauty, it tends to be more objectivethan subjective. This outlook is supported by a theological, artisticand philosophical points of view and it resonates well with logicalthinking. The subjectivity of beauty rests on the notion that peoplehave their perception concerning beauty. Therefore, if this were tobe regarded as the primary perception of beauty, then it would implythat individuals would regard different objects or places asbeautiful as shaped by their life experiences. Through art, beauty iscreated and conveyed from the artists to other people.

WorksCited

McMahon,Jennifer A.&nbspAestheticsand material Beauty: Aesthetics naturalized.Routledge, 2013.

Sircello,Guy.&nbspNewTheory of Beauty.Princeton University Press, 2015.

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Themeof “Relationship”

Inthe “Rear Window film,” the relationship theme is the mostpredominant. The short film is a reflection of the current societythat is made up of busy individuals. People are so consumed bythemselves as they try to impress others. Most individuals areconcerned only with their own well-being and normally do not keeptheir eyes on others. With the thought of having relationships onlywith people who seem compatible, a person may ignore and fail to seethe good qualities of another. As such, this paper will analyze thistheme as displayed in the film.

Thefilm channels out a theme of the relationship between individuals byslowly revealing information about a temporarily physicallychallenged photographer J.B. Jeffries and his neighbors. In oursocial lives today, people tend to be so shallow when it comes torelationships. Individuals often never stick together after thehoneymoon stage. This is usually because of the reality that checksin after getting to know one another better. People expect perfectionfrom their significant others a trait that is nearly impossible [ CITATION Cin16 l 1033 ].

Thefilm creates a theme of “relationships” as it focuses on partnersrather than single people. At the beginning of the story, we get adejected Jeff who has a broken leg and thus confined to his home. Hehas a relationship with a gorgeous model whom he thinks is notcompatible to his adventurous self. He opts to express his desire tobreak-up with her to his nurse since he sees that his career as aphotographer calls for high adventure which in turn is not acharacter possessed by his girlfriend. The situation depictsblindness and selfishness in the part of the photographer who thinkshe is more adventurous than his girlfriend [ CITATION Kai14 l 1033 ].

Inhis own story, Jeff creates a good relationship with his home carenurse as he can feel free with her. He could even share his thoughtsand get opinions from her. As much as he can notice the goodcharacter of the nurse, he fails to do so with his girlfriend. Hecannot foresee having a healthy future with her and as such opts tointimate his feelings to her as he wants to look for a moreadventurous partner. Similarly, the lovely Miss Torso who is a balletdancer is observed to be having many suitors. She has plenty ofoptions and just like Jeff she feels that none of the suitors isgood enough for her. She dismisses them all but still juggles betweenthem in order to satisfy her selfish nature.

Afurther observation during the night is on “Miss Lonelyhearts”who is so consumed with the idea of being in a relationship withsomeone. She, however, is not successful in love and is noticed to behaving some dinner dates with her imaginary partners. The filmsuccessfully portrays the real life scenarios where some people arestruggling to get out of their current relationships others areworking hard to keep their relationships while other individuals areheavily consumed with the idea of being in a relationship [ CITATION Cin16 l 1033 ].

Duringone of his usual boring days, as Jeff is seating by the windowwatching outside, he takes note of a newlywed couple moving in one ofthe next door apartments. They look happy, and he directly judgesthat they are in their honeymoon phase. However, with time and theunfolding of things, their peaceful home is converted to a war zoneas the marriage deteriorates and only arguments are heard from them.As people get to know each other better, both the good and the badtraits reveal themselves [ CITATION Cin16 l 1033 ].

WhenJeff realizes of the incompatibility between him and his girlfriend,he opts to ask her to leave him. However, she was unwilling to liveand chose to give him a day to make up his mind. Given the curiousnature of Jeff, he creates a scenario which brings out theadventurous nature of his girlfriend. After observing his next doorneighbor a salesman who had a bedridden wife, he comes up with theidea that he might have killed her. This is after noticing someevents that suggested the same [ CITATION Kai14 l 1033 ].

Thisobservation serves to create a bond between Jeff and Lisa that theycome together as a team of investigators with the aim of uncoveringthe murder. Despite the lack of support from the local detectives,the two work together to get enough evidence that would incriminatethe suspect. Lisa who had been thought to be unadventurous becomes sodaring that she sneaks into the house of the suspect for the sake ofher boyfriend. The true nature of Lisa is revealed as she selflesslyrisks it to support her partner in uncovering the truth. Finally, thetruth about the murder is revealed as the couple is able to cornerthe suspect into giving the true information of his wife’swhereabouts [ CITATION Cin16 l 1033 ].Giventhe opportunity that presented itself, the two despite theirdifferences in nature were able to create a great bond between themthat made their relationship stronger.

Conclusion

Thetheme of relationship is the most prominent one in the Rear Windowfilm. Apart from romance that typifies good moments, it incorporatesthe little arguments, solitude, and despair. Murder, which is anessential part of the plot illustrates that bitter relationships canlead to grave consequences. All the characters utilized in the filmare unified by this central relationship theme.

WorksCited

Cinema.com. A student`s guide to the fundamental of film makig. 2016. &lthttp://www.elementsofcinema.com&gt.

McDuffie, Kaitlin. 10 lessons from &quotrear window&quot. 15 September 2014. &lthttp://www.bedlammagazine.com&gt.

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Comparingand Contrasting Edgar Allen Poe and Emily Dickinson

EdgarAllen Poe is regarded as one of the most astounding poets of alltime. His works were compounded with mystery and at times seemedpointless. As such, he was regarded a perfectionist of poetry andprose. All of these aspects recur in most of his works. His poetrydisplays an astounding devotion to detail, often enriched with strictmeters and rhyme schemes. As depicted by most of his poems, they seemto be methodically structured with impressive rhyme. The rhymes areintegrated with powerful sound devices like onomatopoeias andalliterations to convey the atmosphere [ CITATION Gra161 l 1033 ].Emily Dickinson, on the other hand, is regarded as one of thegreatest and original poets in America’s history.To free expressions from their conventional restraints, Dickinsonwould experiment on them. As such, she managed to craft a novel kindof persona for the first person. She developed a uniquely crypticlanguage for showing what could be achieved. In her works, shedescribed meanings without restraining it and made the abstracttangible [ CITATION Poe16 l 1033 ].

Thesis

Thispaper will compare and contrast Dickinson’s and Poe’s thoughts onlife and death, pain, nature and technology, and love. Additionally,it will compare the two authors in terms of the poetic devicesutilized.

Bothauthors dwelled on life and death but with varying perception. WhileDickinson was a bit calmer when speaking about death, Poe was quiteintensive on the topic. For instance, Emily Dickson offered numerousperceptions on life and death all seemingly smooth. In one of hermost prominent poems she expresses the inevitability of death bystating, “Because I could not stop for Death, He kindly stopped forme.” In this sentiment, Emily suggests that death is an unavoidableoccurrence that brings everything to its end. As such, Dickinson wasnot fearful of death [ CITATION Emi99 l 1033 ].In another popular writing, she states “I heard a Fly buzz – whenI died.” In this sentiment, she speaks as if she has already diedand wants the audience to feel the same. She seemed detached from thesurrounding and was not interested on material gains. The subject ofdeath appears in most of her writings probably reflecting thatperiod high mortality rate amongst the young people.

Onthe contrary, Poe was quite obsessed with death. He represented deathin a more intense manner. Most of his poems on life and deathappeared to be much darker than Dickinson’s. He wrote many poems ondeath perhaps because he felt it had robbed him off his loved ones.“An upbringing of death,” “guilt of his death – The BlackCat,” and revenge against the wealthy – “The Masque of the Reddeath” are some of the examples. All these works depicts hisobsession of death [ CITATION POE43 l 1033 ].Life and death to him were drawn from his previous experience as hehad lost most of his loved ones. Evidently,the two writers deferred regarding the matters of life and death.

Thetwo authors also varied regarding their perceptions of pain.Dickinson felt pain was inevitable while Poe believed in pain afterpleasure. According to Dickinson, pain was inevitable and peopleought to learn how to live with it. Moreover, she believed that deathprovided the ultimate relief from pain. She believed that a formalfeeling always followed great pain. In one of her writings, “Aftergreat pain, a formal feeling comes,” Dickinson implies that once aperson overcomes pain, he/she gets a relieving feeling [ CITATION Emi99 l 1033 ].

Incontrast to Dickinson’s views, Poe regularly wrote on pleasureculminating to pain. In the “Fall of Usher’s house,” Poeemphasizes this notion that pain emanated from pleasure. Poe’sdepiction of pain was primarily drawn from his past experience [ CITATION POE43 l 1033 ].After losing most of his loved ones i.e. spouses and parents, he wasforced to believe pain was part of him. Therefore, he expressed painin writing typifying the experience he had gone through.As such the two writers had diverging opinions about pain. Dickinsonperceived pain as inevitable whereas Poe noted that pain alwaysemanated from pleasure.

Bothwriters had some knowledge about science. Over 200 of Dickinson’spoems referenced scientific themes like physics, chemistry, botany,medicine, psychology, geology, astronomy, and physiology. Some of theworks include “Faith is a fine invention,” “Nature, thegentlest mother,” and “A science.” In this works, nature isportrayed as a gentle aspect that is never impatient “Impatient ofno child.” Additionally, the author portrays nature to be one ofthe finest invention [ CITATION Emi99 l 1033 ].“When Gentlemen can see – Microscopes are prudent.”Perhaps she perceives science to be the best thing to have happenedto humans.

Poeis perceived to have foreseen modern physics and cosmology. In hispublication “Eureka,” seems to have predicted the currentadvancements in technology. For instance, he predicted the universewas expanding and could eventually collapse a perception that waslater proved through Einstein’s equation. “The universe is finitein time and space.” In this sentiment, Poe was trying to explainthe notion on why the sky is dark at night [ CITATION POE43 l 1033 ].As such, his passion for science is demonstrated in his most of hisworks. In addition to that, Poe seemed to crack aspects that tookastronomers a significant amount of time. In general, the two poetshad positive perceptions of technology due to their deep belief inthe same.

Perceptionson Love, friendship, and Society

“Loveis all there is.” This is one of the most famous Dickinson’squote implying that love cannot be defined. She portrays love as animportant facet in humans that cannot be entirely comprehended. Inone of her letters to Samuel Bowles, she states that “My Friendsare my estate,” suggesting how important friendship meant to her.Perhaps she had an imagined connotation of the word love rather thanits physical reality. She treasured friendship though from adistance. However, Dickinson portrayed some negative attitude towardsmarriage [ CITATION Emi99 l 1033 ].

Onthe other hand, Poe also treasured love, friendship, and the society.He adored females as exemplified in the black cat “I was happy tofind in my wife a disposition not uncongenial with my own.” Heportrayed love to his wife and the pets. Nevertheless, the fact thathe tittle this work the “black cat” may be symbolic illhappenings [ CITATION POE43 l 1033 ].

Conclusion

Thetwo authors show similarity on the matters they handle in writing.Nevertheless, their perceptions vary on the same matter. Forinstance, they differed on the views on life and death, pain, love,and science. Regardless of the variances, Dickinson and Poe werequite the same. They dwelled on similar subjects during the sameperiod. Nevertheless, their poetic structures varied furtherascertaining the fact that neither author had an effect on the other.

WorksCited

Carey, Douglas. Poe and Dickson. 8 April 2012. Document. 4 October 2016.

Dickinson, Emily. &quotAfter great pain, a formal feeling comes.&quot 1999. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poems/detail/47651. 25 October 2016.

GradeSaver. Poe`s Poetry Summary and Analysis of &quotThe Bells&quot. 2016. http://www.gradesaver.com/poes-poetry/study-guide/summary-the-bells. 4 October 2016.

POE, EDGAR A. &quotTHE BLACK CAT.&quot 19 August 1843. http://www.eapoe.org/works/tales/blcata.htm. 25 October 2016.

Poetry Foundation. Biography: Emily Dickinson. 2016. https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems-and-poets/poets/detail/emily-dickinson. 4 October 2016.

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TheOedipus Cycle

Oedipusis the main character of the play. He is depicted as a great kingwith valuable traits regarding his personality. However, he is alsotragic because of the flaws concerning his moral disposition. Assuch, the drama revolves around his fight with evil among otherstruggles that culminate to the title, “tragic hero.” This paperwill assess the scenes in which the character displays pride and theeffects it has on his life. Apart from that, the paper will identifythe tragic hero between Oedipus and Antigone.

Thevast nous of pride is apparent in much of the drama. Oedipus’ultimate conviction that he could outweigh his fate by his exerciseof free mirrors this pride. The belief in his autonomy and contemptfor its restrictions evidences Oedipus’ pride. He is certain thathis destiny will not be applicable to him. As such, he discardsTiresias’s input and the notion that the expedition to cure thepeople of Thebes would come at a radical cost. “Oedipus disregardsthe seer, stating that he would welcome any truth as long as it freedthe kingdom from the plague.” This sign of ignorance demonstratesOedipus pride [CITATION Sop15 p 15 l 1033 ].At the beginning of the drama, all the people direct their prayers toOedipus. Thisillustrates his pride as a significant power. The fact that thecitizens prayed for assistance directly from him suggests thatOedipus was well respected indicating pride. Oedipus refers to thecitizens as “My Children,” signifying the paternalisticinfluence. He denotes himself as “I, Oedipus, a name that all menknow” a sentiment that illustrates his cognizance of his influenceand repute. His reputation is founded on his defeat of the Sphinx.Apart from that, he had ruled successfully for over 20 years. Thesesentiments demonstrate Oedipus’s pride [CITATION Sop15 p 55 l 1033 ].

Anotherillustration of pride is evidenced by the manner in which he killshis father. The fact that he kills a person who later turns out to behis father over a slight issue on the road demonstrates his sense ofthis pride. “While on the road, Oedipus is offended by a man in achariot. He kills him together with all the servants except one.”For a man to kill a person and all his servants due to a smalloffense illustrates the immense sense of pride. Irrefutably, Oedipusis accountable for some fairly remarkable accomplishments. He isperceived as an influential leader, and by solving the Sphinx riddle,Oedipus has reason to own some pride. The priest even exalts him as aking “Surest in mortal ways and wisest in the ways of God.” Suchsentiments elicited pride [CITATION Sop15 p 26 l 1033 ].

Oedipus’spride is also demonstrated when he asks to be conducted out ofThebes. “Lead me out of Thebes where no man will ever see me.”Due to his pride, Oedipus did not have the courage to face hispeople. He was a respected figure with a good reputation. However,the revelation that he had killed his father and married his motherwas shameful. Full of guilt and shame, he popped out his eyes so thathe would not see what fate had brought. Perhaps, if Oedipus had notmarried an older woman, all of these would not have happened. He wasproud to have evaded fate by living Corinth where an oracle hadpredicted him marrying his mother. In Antigone, Oedipus sons were tooproud to agree on what was best for Thebes. Both fought over thekingship and in the end killed each giving Creon the chance to rule.Antigone also exemplifies pride by declining to follow the laws ofthe land and deciding to bury Polyneices. “Cregon is not strongenough to stand in my way.” Antigone stood for what she believed intypifying her pride. This pride would lead her to death. The factthat she was Oedipus’s daughter heightened her pride to believethat she was above the laws [CITATION Sop15 p 6 l 1033 ].

BothAntigone and Oedipus meet death in tragic circumstances that do nottypify heroes. Oedipus, in this case, is the tragic hero. He wasmorally upright and even strived to avoid the unbearable fate. As atragic character, Oedipus exemplifies fatal flaws due to his prideand arrogance. He assumes too much on his comprehension and influenceover his life. However, he could not control reality, time, fate, andchances. He is a tragic character due to his struggles, pitiable dueto his weaknesses before the forces of fate, and his misfortunerouses fear. As such, man can do his best but has not control overthe inevitable.

WorksCited

Sophocles. The Oedipus Cycle. Harcourt, Brace &amp World, 2002.

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Reasonsbehind Serial Killing

Serialkillers are individuals who murder three or more people in asequential manner that commonly regarded as the cooling off period(Fox and Jack 6). The act takes place under strange circumstances.Understanding serial killers is a hectic practice due to thecomplexity of how they undertake the crime. However, the knowledgeabout the characteristics of serial killers is critical for criminalinvestigators. It is, therefore, vital to comprehend whether it is aninherent or acquired practice. In general, this paper will try toanalyze the mind of a serial killer with the purpose of understandingthem and the acts they commit. This paper will give an in-depthanalysis of the reasons serial killers indulge in the practice.

Inan attempt to develop an elaborate understanding of the underlyingreasons behind serial killings, researchers in this area have sinceemployed several techniques to help develop a solid conclusion in thematter. Some of the techniques include interviewing the monsters,studies of their Deoxyribonucleicacid and their brain stuck slabs on powerful microscope slides(Lester54).Other researchers have even tried following the killers’ historicalbackgrounds including speaking their families. Nevertheless,researchers admit they are still far from understanding whatdifferentiates these monsters from the rest of the people.

Somehave hinted that there exist a close link between serial killing andpsychopathy. However, according to FBI’s statement on serialkillers, the existing relationship is no concrete [CITATION Eli151 p 38 l 1033 ].The argument is that not all psychopaths are serial killers althoughthe murderers have demonstrated many traits connected to psychopathy.In both cases, individuals have been found to possess characteristicssuch as being impulsive, glib and neither empathetic nor remorseful.

Researchersbelieve that one of the reasons that trigger serial killing is achromosomeabnormality. According to Dr. Helen Morrison who is a scientistinvolved in this matter, chromosome abnormality that begins todevelop during puberty is a common cause. Dr. Helen Morrison hasinterviewed over 135 serial killers across the globe with the aim ofestablishing their motives. Serial killers, especially men developand start to show the homicidal tendencies in their adolescence whenthe chromosomal abnormality displays itself. However, researchers donot have the precise gene identity, the fact that most serial killersare men results in this assumption. Research continues to determinewhy and how the gene changes. The reason for this fact that mostserial killers murder their first victim in the puberty stages. Theserial killers appear in this mode due to the lack or change of thesechromosomes [CITATION Abb121 p 46 l 1033 ].

Serialkillers may also develop the attitude of murder at tender ages.Although there is not much evidence backing up this notion, thefinding is, this tendency is deeply ingrained. Being a child, it isimpossible to choose the person to offer care. However, as the babiesdevelop, they acquire an attachment to the primary caregiver (Fox andJack 33). However, serial killers develop a feeling that they areseparate from the world. Therefore, the lack of attachment, which iscentral to mounting a full psychology, is deficient among the serialkillers. It is due to this lack of development that the murders donot empathize with their targets. They may hunt in different wayswithout developing an emotional affection to the targets. Unlike anangry individual who kills his wife`s lover due to jealousy, a serialkiller has no such attachment. To them, the victims are just objectswho do not deserve appreciation for the fear and terror. As such,they do not murder for motives they do it to kill an object [CITATION Abb121 p 46 l 1033 ].

Someof the most gruesome serial killers suffer from undeveloped brains.For instance, back in 2013, Joanna Dennehy who was a mother of twomurdered three males and dumped them. Some days later in broaddaylight, she stabbed a man and then another within nine minutesbefore fleeing with his dog. The killer laughed in the courtroomwhile being queried on the crimes. Another killer Jeffrey Dahmerpromised to continue killing if granted the chance. Israel Keyes alsocracked jokes in the courtroom on the location of the bodies afteradmitting to killing more than ten victims. The lack of remorse hasbeen a common theme among the serial killers. In that regard, asstated by a University of Pennsylvania professor of criminologyAdrian Raine, underdeveloped brains has been attributed to the serialkilling actions. According to the Raine, the serial killers lack thedorsolateral cortex and ventromedial cortex that are central portionsof the brain [CITATION Eli151 p 38 l 1033 ].The former is associated with the abilities to learn from mistakeswhile the latter is involved in the decision-making. As such, thesociety ought to see these people as suffering from mental disorders.

Someserial killers adopt this nature due to social issues. For instance,child abuse, neglect, and bullying result in post-traumatic stressesthat lead to these behaviors. A good example is that of CharlesManson who was a famous serial killer. The lack of supportive familybackgrounds, therefore, can lead to someone developing serial killerinstincts. The serial killers can also live a double life. Most ofthem can afford smiles like rational beings but perform illactivities at odd hours. For instance, Keith Jesperson who killedmore than eight women between 1990 and 1995, particularlyprostitutes. The media even dubbed him “The Happy Face Killer.”Even with his busy schedule as a long-distance truck driver,Jesperson could find time to spend with his children. However, hisdaughter Melissa Moore was shocked to learn that her father was aserial killer. As such, they know how to play around with people’semotions (Brogaard 97).

Furthermore,other studies show fears of rejection perfection and power are amongthe motivations behind the serial killing. Serial killers are bothirrationally scared of rejection and tend to be insecure. They areafraid of being humiliated, abandoned and exposed. As a result, theytry to avoid a sorrowful association with the object of their desire.They resort to killing as a strategy to the avoidance. In thismanner, they achieve the null possibility of rejection.

Serialkillers enjoy a widespread suffering of their victim. This feelinggives them a sense of power over the victim before finally killingthem. According to serial killers, the only power that matters is theauthority to cause pain (Fox and Jack 47). They believe that thosewho cannot kill are subject to those who can. Therefore, to them,killing is a method to achieve empowerment. In serial killing,perfection plays a significant role to some extent. Some serialkillers often see a class of people as unclean. The feeling,therefore, motivates them that the removal of such category is bothan improvement to the world and a way to redeem the victim of theirwrongdoing (Lester 230). For instance, a serial would kill aprostitute to remove uncleanliness from the society.

Serialkillers continually kill because of the feeling they get out of doingso. They justify all aspects and details of their acts such that tothem, there is no reason to stop. Most of them know the crime theycommit, feel guilty and even know how to avoid caught. Some of themas well as psychopaths have the ability to hide their true intentionsbehind the mask of sanity. In most cases, they know the differencebetween right and wrong but are careless about the feeling ofremorse. They treat victims as objects (Newton 24).

Conclusion

Socialproblems and deficiency in development have a connection with theacts of serial killers. Some link social injustices like bullying,child abuse, and neglect as the cause of killing people. However,most researchers believe serial killers have mental challenges thatmakes them have no remorse and lack the sense of attachment.Scientific studies have associated serial killers with the deficiencyof chromosomes that evoke human feelings. Though understanding themmay be quite hectic due sophistications of the act and the killers,most of them are mentally-ill. In other words, they have a mentaldisorder instigated by the environment.

WorksCited

Brogaard, Berit. &quotThe making of a serial killer&quot. Psychology Today, 1991. 26 Oct. 2016. https://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/the-superhuman-mind/201212/the-making-serial-killer.

Lester, David. The Passion to Kill: The Story of Serial Murder. Charles Press Publishers, 1995.

Fox, James Alan, and Jack Levin. Extreme Killing: Understanding Serial and Mass Murder. Sage Publications, 2011.

Nixon, Eli. “10 chilling glimpses into the minds and lives of serial killers.” Crime. Listverse, 23 July 2015. http://listverse.com/2015/07/23/10-chilling-glimpses-into-the-minds-and-lives-of-serial-killers/.

Rogers, Abby. &quotA Terrifying Glimpse Into The Mind Of A Serial Killer.&quot PsycCRITIQUES, vol. 58, no. 49, 2013, pp. 13-27.