Evidencepresented by the case study suggests that Ms. A is suffering from atype of anemia associated with the deficiency of Iron (IronDeficiency Anemia). The patient also shows a lack of Folate and B12.The fact that the patient is young and healthy leads to the rulingout of other types of anemia. Additionally, it is evident that thesymptoms presented in this kind of anemia worsen during the menstrualperiod. Therefore, this leads us to the assumption that the patientis losing vital minerals and vitamins during the blood loss therebyresulting in a decrease in iron, folate, and B12 in their bloodstream (Camaschella,C.2015).The patient also suffers from dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia a problemwhich she has experienced for 12 years which confirms that hermenstrual period is associated with significant blood loss.
Irondeficiency anemia is a condition related to a decrease in red bloodcells as well as hemoglobin. The fall in hemoglobin levels in theblood leads to a reduction in the blood`s ability to store andtransport oxygen to various body parts. Iron plays a vital role inthe generation of red blood cells. The symptoms presented by thepatient are those associated with iron deficiency anemia whichincludes lack of energy and tiredness, noticeable heartbeats, andshortness of breath. Anemia gets diagnosed by determining thehemoglobin levels. If the levels are between 9.5-11 g/dl it isclassified as mild, hemoglobin 8-9.5 g/dl is moderate, and hemoglobin< 8 g/dl is severe anemia (Domino, Baldor, & Golding, 2013).Ms. A`s hemoglobin levels were found to be 8 g/dl which means thatthe anemia can fall in the class of moderate iron deficiency anemiawhich has various symptoms and requires timely management to avertthe occurrence of long-term complications.
Thefatigue and weakness experienced by the individual can be associatedwith menorrhagia due to the significant blood loss experienced duringmenses this also results to low energy levels during and after themenstrual due to the loss of red blood cells which requiresignificant time to be replaced. Dysmenorrhea and menorrhagia aretypes of menstrual disorders (Domino et al., 2013). Menorrhagia is aform of heavy or excessive bleeding associated with prolongedmenstrual periods. Dysmenorrhea is painful cramps experienced duringmenstruation usually caused by the menstrual process itself or resultfrom other conditions such as uterine fibroids or endometriosis(Camaschella,C.2015).This explains why the patient had to take 1,000 mg of aspirin duringthe menstruation period to relieve the pain.
Ahematocrit blood test was carried on the patient to find out thenumber of red blood cells in her blood, and it is usually recommendedfor people who have shown signs of anemia. The average count forfemales is 36.1% to 44.3% (Domino et al,2013). The patient in thisstudy had a reading of 32% which is less than normal which shows adecreased number of red blood cells due to anemia, minimal iron,folate or B12, and excessive bleeding during the menses.
Conclusively,people who participate in any form of endurance training like Ms. Awho is a young female are more likely to suffer from iron deficiencyanemia despite being not predisposed to anemia. The decreasedreticulocyte content of her hemoglobin confirms the presence of irondeficiency anemia. The increased heart and respiratory rates combinedwith low blood pressure as well as an increase in body temperatureare linked to the struggle the body is going through to improve theflow of oxygen to the cells.
Domino,F., Baldor, R., & Golding, J. (2013). The 5-Minute ClinicalConsult 2014. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Camaschella,C. (2015). Iron-deficiency anemia. NEngl J Med, 2015(372),1832-1843.