Lab 2 Report

Lab2 Report


Genderdevelopment starts immediately at birth. It is so easy to define agirl using pink colors and boys with blue colors. Gender identity hasbeen defined as the sense of feeling feminine or masculine. Genderidentity is socially constructed. The society dictates if one is maleor female by the use of various factors including gender roles.Studies reveal that gender development starts between 18 and 24months by the preverbal measures used for sex knowledge. The measuresinclude gendered visual preferences, metaphoric related to gender andrecognition of labels that are in line with faces.

Genderdevelopment entails various developmental stages. To understand childdevelopment, gender constancy comprehension is crucial. Genderconstancy is associated with a child’s cognitive-developmental roleof learning and is attained through three stages. First, childrenmust identify themselves as either boys or girls. The second stageentails adopting gender stability, understanding that sex remainsstable always. Third, children should understand that no superficialchanges can transform a girl into a boy and vice versa. For instance,even if a boy wears a skirt or plaits his hair, he will still be alad.

Genderdevelopment is done mainly through socialization which starts withparents, peer groups, the media as well as various institutions thatinstill the gender differences into children. Gender development inchildren is among the main causes of female juvenile substance abuseas well as the gender issues that are evident in maternity leavepolicies. The paper explores the gender development in children andtheir relationship to female juvenile substance abuse. Besides,gender issues in maternity leave policies using three peer-reviewedarticles.

SexDifferences in children.

Theauthors of this article post on how boys and girls form friendships.By this article, girls have the tendency to interact in small groups,mostly in pairs while boys are likely to interact in larger groups.Pair friendships among girls mostly alienate or exclude the thirdparty while boys leave the gap to incorporate a third member. Theauthors of this article argue that there are various stereotypes thatare associated with sex differences. Children in most cases areattributed to social interactions. Additionally, the article revealsthat girls and boys differ in the types of social experiences ratherthan the importance of their social interactions.

Thisstudy was conducted on one fifth grade class and four sixth gradeclass children, and data collected at seven different points allthrough the year at an interval of six weeks. From the study, girlsare viewed to have more exclusive as compared to a non-exclusivetrait. The study conducted aimed at examining the sex differencesthat result to the exclusiveness of children’s dyadic friendships.The study was done by comparing the differences that boy and girlshave in the choice of dyad members of a third party at a given timeand how these triadic choices vary over time in children.

Theauthors conclude that, to understand the process of friendshipformation in children it is crucial to carry out more refinedanalysis. They have specifically asserted that girls tend to be moreexclusive in same-sex dyadic friendships as compared to same-sexrelationships in boys. Similarly, the girls’ friendships were foundto remain consistent over their school years.

Thispaper examines sex differences in the exclusiveness of children`sdyadic friendships. First, differences in the frequencies of triadtypes representing exclusive and non-exclusive dyadic friendships arecompared. As expected, girls are found to have a greater frequency ofexclusive triads than boys while boys are found to have a higherpercentage of non-exclusive triads than girls. Girls are also shownto have a higher frequency of exclusive than comparable non-exclusivetriads while no such pattern exists for boys. A second analysisexamines movement across triad types over time it shows that girlstend to return to an isolated dyad while boys tend to expand theirdyadic friendships to include a third person. The implications ofthese results for differential learning of social skills and theexperience of newcomers to a group are discussed.

Thedevelopment and treatment with substance abusing female juvenileoffenders

Womenin juvenile have been involved in substance abuse. A report on thetreatment of juvenile female substance abusers was investigated tofind out the cause of the habit. Also, the report was focused on waysof curbing the vice. The Molidor, Nissen, and Watkins report showsthat over the last decade, the statistical analysis confirms thatjuvenile arrests have decreased drastically. However, it was foundout that the trend on female juvenile arrests has increased over thelast decade[ CITATION Mol02 l 1033 ].To find out the reason behind the increase of the offenders that arearrested, research was conducted. The research focused on threeareas. The first area was substance abuse and the adolescents,substance abuse and juvenile delinquency and finally substance abuseand females. The study found out that the women’s bodies reactdifferently to substances as compared to men. It was noted that thepresence of a higher percentage of fats in women’s body affects theingestion of alcoholic substances. The result is that women becomeeasily addicted, and also their organs become delicate even when asmall amount of substance is consumed. It was stated that substanceabuse has greater effects on women as compared to men.

Itis evident that nowadays most of the treatment programs are notgender specific. To do away with issues of female substance abuse atjuvenile, programs that look onto the needs of the female juvenilemust be put in place. It is important to note that female juvenilesare shy. They do not open up to share the challenges they are facingin life. From the investigation, it was noted that majority of theadolescents are more affected by the behavior. Besides, furtherinvestigations should be done on the pathways that lead to femalejuvenile delinquency. There should be a wide perspective of culturalunderstanding and also programs should be put in place to gather moreinformation on preventive measures and intervention of the femalechild treatment.

Genderissues on maternity leave policies

Areport on Sex discrimination and the rise of maternity leave policiesby Kelly and Dobbin surveys California, New Jersey, and Virginia. Thereport finds out that majority of the employers in these states werenot able to implement this policy until it was covered by media.Civil rights activists fought for the implementation of the maternityleave policy that was to allow pregnant women to be relieved of a jobwhen nearing and after delivery. The research that was conductedfound out that the policy faced a lot of opposition from companiesand other organizations. Some companies went to court to challengethe policy[ CITATION Kel99 l 1033 ].They said the policy was a form of discrimination. They went furtherstating that being pregnant is a choice it is not a disability.Those individuals who will leave the job due to pregnancy were to beheld responsible.

Itwas until 1972 when the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission(EEOC) chipped in and ruled out that denying expectant mothers aleave is going against the law. The Commission stated that as long asthe employees are entitled to disability leaves, they have a right tomaternity leave as well. According to EEOC, failure to do so istermed as sex discrimination which is constitutionalized in the Civilrights Act of 1964. Sex discrimination in most companies was one ofthe driving forces towards this policy.


Inconclusion, this study investigated: 1) gender development inchildren 2) female juvenile substance abuse 3) gender issues inmaternity leave policies. From the research, it is clear that genderdisparity is an issue up to date. Gender issues will come to an endif individuals will stand firm and fight for their rights as statedclearly in the Constitution.


Kelly, E. D. (1999). Civil Rights Law at Work: Sex Discrimination and the Rise of Maternity Leave Policies. American Journal of Sociology, 455-492.

Molidor, B. N. (2002). The Development of Theory and Treatment with Substance Abusing Female Juvenile Offenders. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 19,209-220.