Loewen`s Argument Question 1



InLoewen’s article discussing America as a land of opportunity, hismain points are middle class learners are not aware of how theAmerican class structure works, or how it has diversified over time.Appeal that he makes based on ethos is that he establishes goodjudgment and tries to show that he is fair in his thought and has thereader’s interest at heart because he tries revealing whathistorical books do not. While appealing to pathos, Loewen usesexamples that bring out emotions, where the reader sees the sense ofthe state of unequal distribution of resources in America. He trieshis best to ensure that the reader agrees with him. Appeal made byLoewen on logos is that he states the premises of his argument. Hebegins by stating the state of inequality in America. He alsodemonstrates that his conclusion is after the premise, in that afterthe state of inequality in America then there exists socialclassification. The appeals are obvious and Loewen combines them.


Theclaim of his argument is that textbooks of ancient history do notanalyze the aspect of social class. The high school American historytextbooks examined by Loewen contain no information on social class,social stratification, and inequality or class structure. The booksdo not list the upper class or working class. They only mention themiddle class, probably as an assurance to American high schoolstudents that America is a middle class country. These textbooksexplain emergence of middle class suburbs especially after World WarII. However, in conclusion, the fact is that America practices socialstratification and there are three outstanding social classes, whichare upper class comprising of the president and other nobles, themiddle class and the working class comprising of slaves and servants.I therefore agree with his gist and main examples.


Loewen,J. (2007). Landof Opportunity: Lies my teacher told me. Everything your Americanhistory textbook got wrong,204-218.