MENTAL HEALTH 6 1
1.What are the causes of schizophrenia or psychotic behavior?
Schizophreniais caused by some factors such as dopamine chemicals that carrymessages between brain cells and drug abuse may cause developedsymptoms of schizophrenia.
2.Whatis the common age of onset of schizophrenia?
Thecommon average age of the onset of schizophrenia is 18 in men and 25in women.
3.Is the diagnosis of schizophrenia a big problem in the USA?
Diagnosisof schizophrenia has shown a big challenge in the USA, in that itshould not be done to young children until after the age seven sothat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, with violenttendencies, may be ruled out. Similarly, schizophrenia is problematicwhen manifestations interface with interpersonal relationships,personal care and ability to work.
4.Explain the reasons that people with schizonphrenia might have aco-occuring substsnce disorder.
Peoplewith schizophrenia are especially susceptible to the adversepsychosocial effects of substance use such as alcohol and otherdrugs. It is commonly referred to as co-occurring disorders that areassociated with people suffering from schizophrenia syndrome. Itproduces impaired judgment and poor impulse control (Stuart et al,2013). Similarly, poverty, dysphonia of mental illness, limitedopportunities and boredom facilitate co-occurring substancedisorders. Finally, underlying neuropathological abnormalities ofschizophrenia in the brain are also a reason for positivereinforcement of substance use.
5.Define the positive and negative symptoms and list three examples ofeach.
Thepositive symptoms are the signs that are unique and easily recognizedwhile negative symptoms are the typical obvious signs and are hard totreat as compared to positive symptoms.
ThePositive symptoms include hallucinations, reductions and behaviorsuch as walking backward constantly. The negative symptoms are lackof motivation in activities, lack of drive and emotional apathy.
6.What is the meaning of the word “A” effect e.g. anergia, alogiaand apraxia?
Agnosiais a rare disorder characterized by inability to identify objects,apraxia is speech disorder.
7.Define the cognitive symptoms and give two examples.
Cognitivesymptoms are the problems associated with thinking difficulties hencethe client cannot live independently. They can interface with allareas of person’s life such as work and relationships in that,problem-solving, and excellent thinking is highly reduced. Thecognitive symptoms include memory loss, inability to make decisionsand negative or distorted thinking.
8.Identify two delusions that you are not aware of and give an example
Thedilutions that are new include Grandeur, for instance, one believesthat she or he is all-powerful and talented like no other. Secondly,dilution of being controlled where one believes that an externalforce is controlling him or her. On the other hand, idea of referenceanother dilution think that others are talking about him hencemisconstrues trivial events.
9.What might cause someone to have a brief psychotic episode andschizoaffective disorder?
Thebrief psychotic episode occurs shortly after trauma or major stresssuch as an accident, assault or natural disaster. It is usually areaction to a very disturbing occasion. On the other hand,schizoaffective disorder is believed to have a genetic association,environmental factors and exposure to toxins while in the womb,therefore, change in genes and chemical in the brain may be thecause.
10.What is the role of nurses when working with someone withschizophrenia and approach to this patient?
Thenurse collaborates with the client to use symptom management methodsto cope with depressive symptoms and anxiety and provide teachingsregarding medications. The nurse approaches the client by askingdirectly about hallucinations and should not argue with the client’sdilutions.
11. What are the additional alterations in perception that a person withpsychosis night have?
Someadditional alterations include mood-congruent dilutions such asdepression and mania where a person with psychosis think that he orshe is a celebrity and strangers hate him.
12.Describe some of the social issues that a person with schizophreniahave and effects to the family
Thesocial issues include emotional impacts such as feeling grief andworry, where limited social and coping capabilities contribute tosubjective burden to the family.
13.Do you think their mortality and morbidity rates are higher?
Schizophreniais life-threating disease associated with morbidity and mortalityrates that are higher in a general population.
14.Explain what part dopamine has on a schizophrenic brain and why isthis important to know?
Dopamineinhibits the mesolimbic, prefrontal and substantial nigra brainregions and it is necessary for diagnosis and treatment ofschizophrenia.
15.What is the goal of patient with psychosis acute phase, maintenancephase and recovery phase?
Thegoal for the acute phase is reducing the severity of psychoticthoughts and behavior. Also, the maintained phase is to minimizesymptoms and impairments as well as avoiding relapses. Finally,recovery phase focuses on effective treatment from the first episode.
16.What are some of the important teachings points to preventreadmission of psychotic member?
Theclient is advised to abstain from the use of alcohol and other drugsand keeping a log of changes in behavior to assist in monitoringmedication effectiveness.
17.What are some reasons that a schizophrenic might try to commitsuicide? Do they have a high rate?
Delaysin treatment of schizophrenia could contribute to a high number ofsuicides however, they have a low rate of incidences.
18.Identify two strategies that might work when caring for nextpsychotic patient
Thestrategies include administering lowest dosage possible to controlmanifestation and advising the client to observe and notify theprovider if any of the manifestations occur.
19.Identify strategies for working with patient who have hallucinations
Providesafety for clients experiencing command of hallucinations and thenurse should not argue or agree with the patient’s views of thesituation.
20.Schizophrenics symptoms for cognitive therapy you are not familiarwith
Thecognitive behavioral therapy provides additional treatment forresidual symptoms such as depression and anxiety.
21.What are some contributing factors for relapse and can nurse do toprevent readmission?
Thecontributing factors for relapse are hallucinations, aggression andsleep disorders. Nurses should administer antipsychotic medicationsat the earliest stage.
Ch.22a what is the main purpose for typical or conventional antpsychotic meds?
Theconventional drugs mainly block dopamine, histamine andnorepinephrine receptors in the brain and periphery where they treatacute,
B.What symptoms do they treat?
Theytreat chronic psychotic disorders symptoms.
C.What are some side effects of typical anti-psychotic meds?
Theyresult in blurred vision and urinary retention complications.
2A. describe what anticholinergic effects are and nursing innervations
Nursinginterventions are classified care system that describes activitiesthat nurses perform.
B.Describe what EPS are?
ExtrapyramidalSymptoms (EPS) are drug-induced movement disorders that include acuteand tardive symptoms.
C.what are some specific symptoms of EPS and what are some NI?
Thespecific symptoms of EPS include severe spasm of the tongue, back,and neck (Stuart et al, 2013)
D.What is Tardive Dyskinesia TD and what can be done to prevent it?
TardiveDyskinesia is a disorder that results from involuntary movement thatis slow or belated at onset. This disorder can be prevented by theuse of dopamine.
E.What is Neuroleptic malignant syndrome?
Neurolepticmalignant disorder is mostly caused by adverse reaction orantipsychotic medics.
3A. What is the function of these meds?
Atypicalantipsychotics reduce weight gain.
B.What symptoms do they treat?
Thesymptoms they treat are dizziness, sedation and agitation and areless severe.
C.Different between typical and atypical meds
Typicaldrugs are used in treatment of psychosis while atypical have anopposing effect i.e. increase levels of BNDF.
D.What are the side effects of these drugs or less severe than typicalantipsychotic.
Theyinclude dry mouth and muscle stiffness.
E.Types of orally disintegrating or sublingual meds
Theorally disintegrating meds include Aripiprazole (Abilify) while thesublingual tablet is Asenapine.
Stuart,G. (2013). Principles and Practice of Psychiatric Nursing (10th ed.)St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.
RNMental Health Nursing Review Module Edition 9.0