TimothyBaycroft conceptualizes a nation as a group of people who share anynumber of perceived or real characteristics. Such individuals mayhave attributes like religion, ancestry, historical traditions,culture, and territory in common. These shared traits bring groupstogether and prompt them to desire to stay as a group and,consequently, form a political unit. Nonetheless, not all countrieshave similar items that identify them. France, for example, can beidentified with language and territory. The country, after the Frenchrevolution, brought to bear significant contributions to modernnationalism. The reinvention of themes such as civil war andconflict, popular culture, religion, civil war, colonialism anddecolonization, and the destruction of war became synonymous withFrance. In the end, the nation-building process, which lasted aperiod of over two hundred years, led to the reconciliation of(regional, cultural, and religious) a nation that had experienceddivision since the French Revolution. , to a greaterextent, changed significantly between the late eighteenth century andthe mid-twentieth century.
JosephSieyes’ writing played a significant role in inspiring the Frenchtoward the French Revolution, and, reinventing the concept ofnationalism. The piece brought to light the plight of the alienatedcitizens of the third estate in France. Previously, the elite rulingclasses were responsible for the maintenance of social order. Sieyeshighlighted the fraudulent nature of the ancient regime of France hecontended that the dated administration victimized and overburdenedthe downcast bourgeoisie. Consequently, the desire to have a countrythat was better than the others changed. The French nationals begandreaming about a Europe that was free and a France whose glory wasrestored. Thus, after the French revolution, the desire to ratify theconstitution and have presidents who were elected to power developed.
Hobsbawmcontended that three factors were critical to the invention of anation with traditions. First, is a historical connection with astate. An economy usually motivates this type of association.Secondly, a well-instituted cultural elite who build a culture, andthen impose it from the top is critical to the development of astate. Finally, the power to conquer where the individuals inauthority are in a position to socialize people into particularsocial frameworks. In essence, traditions are usually built from thetop, but can never be truly understood unless analyzed from thebottom. Concerns such as the interests of the masses, their longings,hopes, and needs, which may not have a public connection, can beexceedingly difficult to discover. After relating Hobswam’sassertions to William II`s era in Germany, one may contend that theking`s aggressive temperament, coupled with his flamboyance, enabledhim to impose his will on the masses. Thus, if he could not containsome the Lords through charisma, his use of force allowed him tocounter the consequences of rebellion.
Groupsare usually bound together by the connections that that tie themembers of social groups to each other and the group collectively.In-groups are perceivable as clusters where the members havepsychological connections to the group, for example, blood tiesbetween family members. Out-groups, conversely, are groups wherepeople have no emotional connection, for instance, belonging to aparticular group by culture, language, or geographical location.These groups can bring to bear a sense of nationalism since thepeople of a nation believe that their sense of shared characteristicsshould be valued and shared.
Baycroft`sconceptualization of a nation as a cluster of individuals that haveany number of perceived or real characteristics in common can becontextualized within Europe as a whole. In France, NapoleoneBonaparte advocated for the development of a constitution thatallowed for a "one-term presidency," free European nations,and restoring France to its former glory. Consequently, the desirefor liberal institutions, which were inspired by the spirit ofnationalism spread throughout Europe. Europe, as a result, developedmeasures to counter the further spread of the French ideals. The lackof cohesion among the revolutionaries led to a failure, on the partof the bourgeoisie. France, Italy, Germany, and the Austrian Empiresupported the revolution. The reason for this support was because theFrench had already imposed liberal policies in these countries andappointed commanding officers from the grassroots. However, theScandinavian countries, Russia, and Spain were against thefreethinking policies that the French revolution advanced becauseRussia and Spain were monarchs while the Scandinavian countries werearistocrats.The 1848 period was critical to the spread of nationalismbecause of three factors: the beginning of the European revolution,it was spring time, and because the modern states had begun assertingthemselves. in Italy and Germany was one of unification,which made it unique. These countries witnessed the coming togetherof lands that were divided politically, but whose culture wassimilar thus, sparking a nationalist feeling that was inspired byland. The developments in Europe in the Napoleonic era lead to therealization that nationalism is invented, not real. The basis forthis plausibility is that the nationalist sentiment is genuine, butdevelopment is usually fabricated.
Andersonalso contends that three historical factors resulted in thedevelopment of nations. The circumstances are, the Latin language,the realization that monarchies have less power, and theinterrelation between the histories of people. The advancement ofthese factors brought the concepts of language and capitalism tobeing. Consequently, the integrated fields of exchange weredeveloped. Berge posits that the social inclination of humans isdependent on biological relatedness, which results in nepotism. Thus,cooperation can only be realized if all parties profit from atransaction.
Anational language is important since it improves competitiveness andintegration. Countries that have a common means of communication areusually more competitive and have a spirit of nationalism. In thenineteenth century, states began forming national languages afternations started competing. Also, since a sense of tension andresentment was experienced in Europe, the development of regionaldialects became the solution to fostering nationalism and propergovernance. Political integration is perceivable as the processunifying, uniting, and organizing two or more entities in a cluster.The process is usually based on the establishment of a unified lawframe, the creation of joint institutions, the development of adecision-making center, and the projection of identity. Ethnicity canbe viewed as the racial background of an individual while nationalismis a person`s country of origin. The two concepts are related interms of patriotism. Ethnicity provokes the thought of nationalismwhile nationalism causes patriotism.
Marxisminterprets history through a system that examines societal conflictand class relations through a materialist understanding of historicalgrowth and a language view of cultural interpretation. ,on the other hand, studies the feelings that are shared by the peoplethat belong to a particular geographical location such a groupusually struggles to secure the independence of its ethnicity orculture. Marxists believe that nations come into being through classstruggle. In particular, this end is achieved through the attempts ofthe capitalists to bring down the institutions that were establishedby the previous regime, in a bid to develop the social, economic andpolitical conditions that suit their needs. Thus, Marxists believethat nationalism is premised on the presence of sovereignty, socialequality, and self-determination. Marxist socialism and Marxistnationalism are incompatible because socialism advocates that theworking class should be separated from the nation because they areall united by their class. , conversely, supports thenotion that the people that belong to a particular country shouldhave a strong identity with the political entity that is in power.
led to a significant political transformation in most of thecountries that were involved in the WW I conflict. The majority ofthese countries (Germany, Turkey, and the United Kingdom) evolvedinto electoral democracies this led to universal suffrage for thefirst time. Fascism, to some degree, resulted in the development of anew type of nationalism. Although fascists believe in the right-wingideology, they developed economic policies that werebusiness-friendly.
Stackelbergcontends that the function of ideology is to provide a system ofvalues, ideas, and beliefs with the intention of shaping viewpoint ofsociety, a person, or a group in a manner that offers the supporterssatisfaction or comfort. The Nazi ideology differentiated itself byadopting a far-right position. It was based on the Nazi philosophyand an ethnic underpinning that designated "non-Aryas."Vulgar idealism can be associated with the origins of Nazism, whereits enthusiasts believe in the perceptions that promote racism,anti-Marxism, anti-Semitism, and anti-liberalism. Consequently,anti-Semitism resulted in the polarization and radicalization of theGerman society. The volkish ideology is connected to the populist ororganic association. This type of philosophy is usually developed ina unified community, as opposed to the sophisticated societies thatare underpinned by conflicting concerns.
Nazismis associated with the right-wing devotees. This ideology supportsnationalism socialism, authoritarianism, the prosperity of the state,and the imprisonment, murder, or even exile of the persons that failto fulfill their obligations. The Sonderweg thesis advances the ideathat the German-speaking states followed a different course of actionthan other European countries this development was one that movesfrom aristocracy to democracy. Historians contend that the theory isflawed since Germany did not follow a unique path, compared to theEuropean states. Fascism is connected to conservatism since bothideological standpoints adopt a pessimistic understanding of thehuman nature. By extension, Nazism is linked to nationalism sinceboth premises assert that the nation is without flaw. The complexsocial challenges that were present in the 20thcentury led to the rise of fascism the economies of the majority ofcountries faced harsh economic difficulties and widespread unrest.
TheThird Reich economic policies were characterized by Nazism, forcedlabor, and wartime production. The Fuhrer myth was the product ofpropaganda. The Nazi party uses propaganda to drive its agenda. Also,the use of the military was applied, and people were given what theywanted to win their allegiance. Education was also used to advancethe Nazi ideology. A case in point was during the Enlightenment whenthe intellectual movement dominated the world of ideas in Europe.
OperationBarbarossa was critical to Germany since it was a major determinantin the manner in which the Second World War would end. Nonetheless,Hitler`s invasion failed since he went against a two-front coalitionthat was significantly superior and more resourceful, compared to theGerman army. The international interpretation of the Holocaustreveals that Hitler was a relatively stable dictator however, thestructuralist perspective asserts that his inability to prevent theHolocaust proves that he was a weak dictator.
Browningnoticed the few soldiers that left because Corporal Schwartz wastheir leader. However, about four soldiers perceived the Jewishkillings as dirty, and, therefore, did not take part in the murders.Thus, the soldiers ignored executive orders. They were also tooscared to shoot the infants they only issued warnings. The men inthe Jozefow always followed orders, when compared to theircounterparts who viewed the orders that were issued to them asshocking. The soldiers were also sent on partisan actions withoutbeing punished. The episode on the Holocaust perpetrators wasexceedingly instructive because the perpetrators were desensitizedand were under the influence of alcohol. Also, the military hadcompletely brainwashed the executors of the crimes to the extent thatthey only followed the particularized structure. In other words,these persons were only concerned with following orders.