Stepsof converting database tables

Justas the process of coming up with the optimal database, so, too, isthe procedure of normalization. At the lowest one may requirenormalizing to the third standard. In a rare occasion, normalizingtakes places to fourth and fifth form. The steps are as follows.

FirstNormal Form: Removing Repeating Groups

Thefist normal form (1NF) comprises the elimination of the recurrentgroups. For in this instance, every cyclic group one comes across,the chronic group is taken to a different table. At this point, onegets new two tables that keep category and contact data. The outlineof the new formed entities and structure includes Customer Tablewhich has a client name, customer ID and finally Customer type.Secondly is Contact Table that has customer ID, Contact ID, andlastly contact name. Lastly is Category Table that has Customer ID,Category Name and finally is Category ID (Peterson, 2016).

SecondNormal form: Removing repeating data

Tomanage in entering information in the second standard form, one mustanalyze the fields and contact with the primary key. The categoryand Contact tables’ main key is a malt valued key as such onecannot look at a single area that is different from others henceidentifying the contact. In category table, there is a combination ofCustomer ID together with Category ID. A client can never appear morethan twice in one category. Different customers can use (Peterson,2016).

Thirdnormal form: removing columns that do not depend on keys

Customertable needs more tables to attain this form. The new structure willhave the following: ID of the Client, Name of the Customer, City,State and Zip Code. The outline includes: State table encompassesname of the state, City table has City ID and City name and lastlyCity Zip table that contains ZIP Code State/City ID (Peterson, 2016).


can be used in the college setup to help keep a record of allstudents together with the choices of units it offers. In this case,a student will take several units, but teachers will supervisevarious courses. It is noticeable that, particular data repeatsitself (for instance student number, the name of students, year ofbirth, attendance date, and gender). Different courses have differentnumbers of scholars (System Development, 2016).

Exampleof the table to illustrate

Table2 extracted from System Development, 2016.

Whento conduct denormalization

Beforecarrying out denormalization, you ought to be confident about theprofit of implementing the process outweighs losses and also thereasons as to use denormalization. The following are situations toconsider before denormalization. How you will enhance response queryfrom your clients, and this can be improved by multiple tables thathelp people to respond and ask questions. Second, one must confirm ifthe process will speed up a generation of reports since people needparticular statistics frequently. And lastly how it will computevalues quickly hence saving time (Drkušić, 2016).

Exampleof denormalizing a table

Table2 extracted from Microsoft, 2016

Mannerin which business rule impact normalization denormalization

Businesslaws can change both denormalization and standardization bycomplicating the meaning of appropriate terminologies implemented inthe database of the laws of companies composed of two sides of thefigures one must ascertain that the regulations are not in aconfusing language because by doing so, it may be difficult for somepeople to comprehend. When coming up with business rules in thecontext of denormalized engine one must ascertain his/her test andmake it clear for what one has done (SystemDevelopment, 2016).


Drkušić,E. (2016, March 17). Denormalization:When, Why, and How.Retrieved from Vertabelo:

Microsoft.(2016, 14 January). Optimizingthe Database Design by Denormalizing.Retrieved from Developer Network:

Peterson,J. (2016). Stepsto Normalize Your Data Model.Retrieved from Absolute Beginner`s Guide to Database :

SystemDevelopment . (2016). PerformStructure Analysis.Retrieved from Normalisation Example: