NORTH AMERICAN ODYSSEY 1
TheSettling and Resettling of Native Americans, Early European Arrivalsand Africans
The author reveals in-depth analysis offers a variety of informationon the geographical developments and advancements of the UnitedStates. The article encompasses a large volume of informationregarding the migration of the Europeans to the United States, thesettlement and resettlement of the Native Americans in the North. TheAfricans continued the role in the agrarian revolution in thecountry. The scholarly work highlights five critical themes of thegreat American history. Reconfiguration of Native Americans in theUnited States is essential in the book. The author offers a freshhistorical perspective and rather more thematic understanding of theregional political set up. The most significant theme that is veryrelevant to understanding the American Society is the settling andresettling of Native Americans, Africans, and European arrivals. Ithas been noted globally that the rise of the United States isattributed to several undertakings. The challenge that the countryfaces is so severe that the developments are the result of somecritical decision making and influence of the decisive politicalleaders (Bryson et.al., 2013).
The author begins with clear information of need of the research onthe historical geography. The purpose depicts itself from thepowerful message in the introduction sentence. "We can hardlyclaim to be getting our intellectual chief stimulus from one anotherby waiting impatiently on the research of colleagues as needed on ourworks: “This provides the exemplary effort and urges by the authorto ensure the themes in the surrounding get addressed appropriately.The issues of land, migration and race relations in the new state arecritical in his scholarly works. The pertinent issue is regarding thesettlement of persons in the America. The process was not simple forthe colonial masters to conquer and rule (Zhai et al., 2011).
TheRationale of the Volume
This work isvery instrumental in enhancing the achievement and advancement of thehistorical perspectives on the geographical and environmental issues. The scholar Craig Colten once set out to address the pertinentissues raised by Carl in the volume by offering several basicperspectives to the subject. The author comprehensively recognizedthe works of Carl as most crucial and necessary discipline in thesociety (Bryson et.al., 2013). The volume is relevant disciplinesince it offers a new approach to the conceptualization of the greatpast historical advances. It sets new light and understanding on theenvironmental setting and the history of the society. The five themesare a manifestation of the research and extent of diverse America.
In the often common identification of the persons that haveparticipated in ensuring comprehensive research on the key topics insociety. Carl Sauer is arguably the most brilliant researcher with akeen interest in the American geography. He is however not referredas the proponent of the historical geography studies since he did notdelve into the causes and expectations of the modern socialimplications. The author participated in research on the past lifeundertakings with an effort to determine the present situation. Hewanted to get answers that could satisfy his assertions at themoment. The author is clear in enhancing consistency in the extent ofthe research base. The study took a prolonged period with the motiveof securing satisfactory answers in the society (Herms et al., 2014).
Settlementof the Americas
The author displays an outstanding show of the settlement of personsin the region. The three major migrations occurred is shown by thegeneric and linguistic data. The advancing groups led to increasingin the population and significantly widespread development to variousparts of the region. The groups of persons living across the countryare of diverse tribes and distinct cultural values. The languagedifferences greatly contribute to the settlement pattern. Accordingto various scholars, the climate of the region was suitable for thesettlement. The Europeans were active in farming and thus found theNorthern region conducive for farming. The process of resettling theNative Americans took significantly long period since it encompassedconstant resentment and dissatisfaction from the natives. The bookprovides a clear understanding of the conflict that led to indigenouspersons being forced to flee to the isolated reserves. On the otherside, the Africans arrived at the South from the West Africannations. The slave trade played a crucial role in ensuring theAfrican reach the America for industrialization. According toresearch, the colonial powers recognized the Africans skills in thepractice of Agriculture. The Africans possessed immense energy in theagricultural farms (Zhai et al., 2011).
Thesettlement of the individuals is discussed in various scholarly andtheoretical perspectives in the article. The qualitative researchundertaking clearly depicts the guidelines and standard procedures inthe data collection. Every subsection of the book illustrates andreinterprets the deep and preceding legacies of the various ethniccommunities. Many geographers in the Americas have greatly gottenknowledge from the anthropologists and geographers who effectivelytrace the irrigation innovation, agricultural patterns, materialculture and pyrogenic landscapes that ensure a consistent supply oflarge amounts of food across the country especially the Northernregion.
The presence of Native Americans in the North America provided thenew entrants with several techniques in the ways of living. Theypossessed effective farming tools. The European settlers, however,brought with them mechanization. They further ensured effective laborforce from the Africa. The need for labor force led to increasing inthe slave trade. The West African community chiefs sold slaves inexchange for the guns, firearms, ammunitions among other valuables.It is prudent to note that the trade later decreased after constantintervention by the Human rights activists (Zhai& Santosh, 2011). The colonial powers recognized the needof undertaking the effective activities of welfare improvement. Theythus facilitated abolishment of the slave trade. The authorhighlights the main cash crops that were grown in the settlementfarms in the states. The coastline and the interior entail theappropriate climate for farming. It is evident that the colonialgroups were interested in farming practices in the region. Theyestablished open range cattle ranches and rice plantations to enhancefood supply across the country.
Since the rice plantations provide the necessities of life forsurvival, the environmentalist played a crucial role in ensuringcontinuous improvement of the surrounding. They facilitatedconservation of the environment fully. The mechanization of farmingwas further enhanced to increase the productivity. The mechanizationpropagated the practice leading to the production of large amounts ofcash crops. These were then exported overseas to the Europeanmarkets. The economic development led to improvement in the livingstandards of the majority of persons in the United States. The needfor the exportation of the crops created demands for several changes((Takaki, R., 2012). Therewas the rise in need of development of the infrastructure in thesociety. The government set aside huge amounts of funds to facilitateinfrastructural developments. The chapter briefly introduces theserampant developments. However, the later sections of the work furtherexplain in detail the specific activities in the infrastructure forinstance, the expansion of the airports, airstrips, and theconstruction of railways (Nies,J.,2012.
Latersections of the book enable the reader to visualize the complexactivities in the United States. He clearly explains how the societytransformed from the technology, transportation and diverse ways ofliving. The author provides an in-depth understanding of how thesociety progressed with time and the cultural change in the societywithin the specified period. He provides mapping for the scholars tocheck the past settlement and the ways of life. The infrastructuraldevelopments have improved about the systematic changes. The imagesare significant aspects since it serves to align the research withthe required historical geography effectively (McWilliamset al.,2016).
The history has been associated with several scholars providing theirassessment and conducting research on the subjects of the presentworld and the past. A significant number of retrospectives addressthe Association of the American Geographers without revealing theeconomic stimulus effects of various activities in the world. Thebook has a detailed interpretation of the community set up. Theproblems and major objectives from the past generations are addressedand major orientation is provided (King,2015). Unlike several other American Geographers, the authorprovides perspectives and thoughts of the indigenous persons,especially the persons that occupied the Americas in the period 14ththrough to the 19th Centuries. The concrete provision of thetraditional arts, folklore, literature, archaeology and other sourcesgreatly increase the understanding of the composition of the society.It further provides an insight into the developments of the diversepersons.
The Native American`s history entails additionally complex society ofdiverse economic, social, political and geographical setting. Thepeoples of the Americas encompass indigenous farmers that practicevarious means practices. It is with these different living stylesthat the natives received the Europeans differently in the country.There are fundamental differences in the way the Spanish, French, andBritish settled in the America. The Native Paleo- Indians valued thegrowing of crops and thus resisted the advancement of these troops(McWilliams et al.,2016).
The researcher effectively provides answers to the crucial issuesthat arise in the society. He provides the old and new information ofthe past groups. The great free- wheeling that is attributed to theurban setup and models in the country. It has been discussed by KahlReitz and John Borchert in the graphical models of diffusion. Thestory of Native American has received great limelight since it bringsout the historical, geographical understanding (Nies,J.,2012.
The book entails repackaged information since it is in the historicalperspective concerning the indigenous people. The majority ofindividuals understand that the Northern America was a greatlyexpansive region for the native farmers. The author, therefore,introduces the emphasis on the issue of cultures that could notsurvive the colonial era. The majority of weak ethnic groups sufferedfrom depressions, psychological torture and isolation thus led todeaths and inferiority complex. The diseases were widespread in theregion and resulted in severe losses in the area. The Spaniards visitto the Florida is briefly discussed in the book. The conquest ofFlorida led to the loss of lives in the region and humiliation to thegroups (King, 2015). Theenmity arose between the Eurasia groups that were looking forsuperiority in the land. Florida is endowed with various resourcesand thus crucial for the superiority.
The sectiondiscusses the impact of the Spanish colonization of Florida. Theintroduction of the article brings about the understanding of theAfrican influence in the region. The Africans had increasedsignificantly in the area as a result of farming practices in thearea. The Spanish took over the region and settled in the area (Zinn,2016). The diverse cultures and religions substantially bring aboutknowledge of the inhabitants of the settlement. The author, however,fails to clarify the power dynamics that contributed in shaping thegeographical setup. The different type of food for the communities inregion identifies the diverse cultures. The African control ofFlorida for the greatest part of the 500 years, it is discouraging tonote that there is less dynamism in the analysis of power. The groupfaces a collection of stagnant power analysis. The author notes thatthe leaders lack innovative objectives to propagate rampantdevelopment.
NumerousPaleoindian cultures actively lived in the Northern America, theGreat Lakes of the United States and Canada, and spread throughoutthe Great fertile plains. They also occupied the regions that areadjacent to the Southwest and West. According to the author, heasserts that the research studies on the migration patterns of thepeople Paleoindians are well documented. Their initial settlement wasthe middle regions of the state before they were forced to occupy thereserves. These communities believe that since creation, theyoccupied the area (Zinn, 2016). According to oral stories, thecultures of the people ought to be maintained in respect with thepast ancestors. Other tribes have crucial facts and evidenceregarding their migration patterns. They provide information thatlinks their migration routes in line with the Mississippi River. Theyclearly showcase the vast tracts of lands that covered places whichwere once their homes. The linguistic and genetic data greatly linkthe indigenous persons with the continent. The key anthropologicalscholars argue that ancient Asians inhabited the Northeast. It is theold Asians that are the source of many important cultures and meansof living/ survival tactics in the region.
Thesubsequent sections entail the author recognizing the rise in thepopulation of the persons in the United States. There rise inpopulations is analyzed in various categories. The Africans andWhites are still ranked as the majority of people in the region.There has been organized political system due to the presence of adecentralized form of governance that entails use of federalgovernment in the state. The author does not adequately address thepopulation and the role of these communities in the world. It isefficient to understand that the population has led to increasing inthe innovative and creativity. There is widespread use of talent inthe region (Takaki, R., 2012).
Even though the scope is vast, there are many constraints in theunderstanding of historical geography. The critics and other scholarsnote the gaps and inefficient orientation of principal subjects. Theresearch questions do not appear but rather the themes have takenover the important research basics. The work does not explicitlyprovide comprehensive and detailed questions to facilitate the study.There is an absolute lack of clarity on the methodology of datacollection. These crucial absences of fundamental requirements arethe great challenge to the work. The historical data is available onvarious sites and can be downloaded at any time convenient to theusers (King, 2015). However,the downloaded documents do not explicitly provide the basicunderstanding of the historical, geographical works.
The work offers fewer techniques on the historical, geographicalworks. It is prudent to note that the researchers and other learnershave realized that the scholar has not adequately addressed thequestions about the agricultural dispersal and origins. However, thedevelopments in the biological grounds have made it easy to bringabout the issue of genetics. The most efficient genome mapping hasprovided significant knowledge and significantly answers theintriguing questions on the directions of the dispersals andagricultural origins. Carl Sauer and his students failed terribly toexplain the GIS mapping in understanding the history of the country.Several other historical geographers are dissatisfied with theincomplete and less detailed works of Carl. The volume does notinterest the present persons in the society. It has been arguedseverally that it could have been adequate to address the problemsfaced by the past historical geographers about the current socialdynamics (King, 2015). Theseshortcomings affect the significant population from further acceptingthe interpretation of the themes by the scholar. This prompts thelearners to participate in a different set of activities trying toassess the research methodologies that can efficiently promote thehistorical geography. The ancient geographers are not onlysignificant contributors of the volumes but also key persons inhighlighting the development, changes and origins of various thingsin the surrounding (King, 2015).
Conclusion:Major Contributions and Current State of the Art
Nevertheless, every individual has to agree with the scholar onvarious topics. The themes provide insight on the challenges in thesociety. It is also evident that Carl and his students well relay theorigin, dispersals, and advancements in the history of persons. Hebrings the historical geography into the global perspective. Hefurther ensures that the historical geography sets the pace for thesocietal development. It is in these volumes that every scholar notesthe need for critical themes that may lead to inefficiency in thesociety. The topics are crucial in the current set up (McWilliamset al.,2016).
The familiar themes spearheaded by the scholar keep asking thefundamental questions of whether the current generation willguarantee the development of the subject in the society. One has toagree with the author that the themes in society are very crucial andthe answers to the challenges lie within the people’s mandates(Zinn, 2016). The subject will enjoy massive approval by scholars ifonly the current generation will conduct critical research on the keyissues. It has been argued that the future decades are thedeterminants of the scholarly works of enlightening the society ongeography. The volume has been regular series in understanding thesocial arena. Therefore, there is need to analyze the work in thecontemporary set up critically. The geographical scholarship isessential in ensuring the sustainability of the work. Someindividuals have agreed with the historical geographers that thefuture resolutions on the themes challenges lie with the geographers.
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Herms, D. A., & McCullough, D.G. (2014). Emerald ash borer invasion of North America: history,biology, ecology, impacts, and management. Annualreview of Entomology, 59,13-30.
King, P. B. (2015). Evolutionof North America.Princeton University Press.
McWilliams, C., Meier, M. S., &García, A. M. (2016). Northfrom Mexico: The Spanish-Speaking People of the United States: TheSpanish-Speaking People of the United States.ABC-CLIO.
Zhai, M. G., & Santosh, M.(2011). The early Precambrian Odyssey of the North China Craton: asynoptic overview. GondwanaResearch, 20(1),6-25.
Zinn, H. (2016). People`shistory of the United States.Boxtree.
Takaki, R. (2012). Adifferent mirror: A history of multicultural America (RevisedEdition). eBookIt. com.
Nies, J. (2012). NativeAmerican History.Ballantine Books.