Oceanography

Scientistswere trying to answer the question on how old settlers reached thefar-flung Oceania islands. The islands like Samoa and Tonga are faraway from other land mass, but they have been inhabited forcenturies, which prompted scientists to trace the settlers’ likelyjourneys.

Toarrive at their findings, the researchers gathered detailed data onocean currents, the wind, and climate events to mimic oceanic voyagesthrough computer simulations. They found out that wind was theprinciple means, which facilitated movement of settlers to theOceanic islands. To conclude on their research, the scientists had tomanipulate complex recent wind and rainfall distribution encompassingthe effects of El Nino and La Nina.

Thedata was used as well as computer-generated seafaring simulationswith the results indicating the pioneers arrived from the west to theeast. The simulations were important because they showed thepotential role played by drift voyages by sailing downwind thus,discovering new island groups. In addition, they showed a significantprobability of reaching Easter New Zealand, and Hawaii islands fromMarquesas.

Fromthe map “Synthesis of Results,” it is evident that the easterlytrade winds are strong during La Nina thus, they blow warm water tothe west, as well as allow cold water that is below the surface ofthe ocean to push upwards. On the other hand, the winds are weakduring El Nino. Also, the warm pacific ocean may gain some heat, pusheastward, or become stationary. El Nino and Southern Oscillation inthis context being referred to as ENSO describes a phenomenon ofperiodic fluctuation in sea surface temperature and the air pressureof the overlying atmosphere across the equatorial Pacific Ocean. ElNino and La Nina disrupt normal wind and rainfall patterns indifferent ways and various parts of the world.