Peer Review



  1. Affordable Care Act

TheAffordable Care Act (ACA) was introduced by the Obama Administration.The aim of ACA is to improve the health care delivery in the UnitedStates. The act ensures that both low and high-income households aregiven the opportunity to access high-quality medical services ataffordable costs. The ACA has generated a lot of politicaldiscussions between Democrats and Republicans in 2017. The Democrats,led by President Obama and presidential candidate Hillary Clinton,support the act because of the benefits it offers to the Americanpopulation. It ensures affordable primary care. Citizens are,therefore, able to access immediate medical services for commonhealth conditions for example, immunizations and obesity care. TheRepublicans, led by presidential candidate Donald Trump, oppose theACA because it will negatively affect the economy. The health act isexpensive to implement because it requires annual monetaryallocations from the federal government.

  1. Drug Prices

TheAmerican health sector has one major challenge of drug access. Thepharmaceutical companies sell the drugs at high prices. Patients,especially from low-income households, get ineffective medicalservices because of the high prices of medications. The workperformance of the physician is hindered by the high cost ofmedication. Effective drugs that enhance the treatment processes areexpensive. The physicians are forced to offer alternative medicationsthat are affordable but less effective. Positive health outcomes likehigh recovery rates cannot be achieved if the physician givesmedications that cannot be accessed by the patients because of highcosts. American pharmaceuticals companies sell drugs at high pricesbecause they operate in a free market economy and they own patentsfor the drug products. Federal government agencies for example, theFood and Drug and Administration (FDA), should develop policies thatcontrol the prices of essential drugs in America.

  1. Reproductive Health

Abortionis a controversial issue in the American society. Religious, legal,political, human rights and health leaders have differentperspectives regarding the issue of abortion. The United Statesexperiences about 700,000 abortion cases annually. Abortion involvesthe voluntary or emergency termination of pregnancy. Women abortbecause of various reasons for example, unwanted pregnancy, rape,medical condition, and incest. Abortion has negative physical andemotional effects for instance, emotional stress and depression,infertility, and costs. Religious leaders and medical professionalsdispute abortion because life begins at conception. They claimabortion involves killing a developing human being. Lawyers, however,claim that people have the right to procure an abortion in amedically sound manner. Many leaders agree that abortion should onlybe procured when the health or life of the woman is threatened.

  1. Health Entitlements

Healthcare trends indicate rising costs. Stakeholders are, therefore,expected to effectively plan and allocate resources for the healthcare of the future generations. The costs rise annually because ofincreasing patient population, rising drug costs because ofinflation, high investments in health research and infrastructure,and government taxes. The federal and state governments should adoptmeasures that reduce the cost of health care. An effective costreduction method is introducing subsidies or reducing taxes in thehealth sector. The government should also introduce price controls onessential medical services and products for example, medication forcancer and HIV/AIDS.

  1. Opioids and Heroin

Drugand substance abuse is a major health and social challenge in theUnited States and globally. Young people are the most affected. Theybecome addicted to drugs because of peer pressure. Pop culture alsoencourages drug abuse because some celebrities publicly consumeillegal drugs or overdose on prescription drugs. Opioid and heroinuse results in substance dependency disorder. Opioids and heroinabuse affect approximately 2 million and 467,000 Americansrespectively. The challenge of drug abuse can be addressed throughguidance and counseling. Young people in schools should bediscouraged from consuming drugs by explaining the negative effects.Addicted individuals should be given free treatment and counseling bygovernment health institutions so as to realize recovery.