PersonalPerception (Policy Analysis)
Iwould describe policymaking as the systematic process of recognizinga problem and using observations about the problem to generate ideasto be used for decision-making to solve the problem. Policy-making isa responsibility of a select branch of the government. In the UnitedStates, the process of policy-making occurs in the Congress and theHouse of Representatives, because they comprise the legislative armof the government, which is responsible for making laws (Dunn,2015).Policy-making is a process that occurs in a systematic manner.
Thefirst step of policy-making entails identifying the issue or problemthat needs correction. Identification of a problem is often subjectto external forces such as interest groups in the community, themedia, and community-based organizations. A problem ends up on theagenda for consideration if it gains enough attention in the publicdomain and the elected officials. The process of making a policy toprovide a solution to address a certain problem is influenced fromall angles. Polices undergo extensive discussions and amendmentsbefore they can be tabled for agreement. When a policy is passed intolaw, in becomes applicable in the society. This process ends throughthe enactment of the policy and an analysis of its effectiveness insolving the initial problem.
Iwould describe policy analysis as the development of guidance forlegislators. It forms a key component of the government`sdecision-making process. This is because public officials often havenumerous alternatives from which to choose. Therefore, their finaldecisions are often based on expert analysis of those alternatives.Policy analysis is concerned with the best options that can serve thepublic interest in a certain situation and the best ways to executesuch actions in actual institutions.
Theprocess of policy analysis entails identifying the intended objectiveof the policy in question. This is followed by an assessment of itsimplementation and outcomes to evaluate its effectiveness. Through acareful observation on whether past and present policies achievetheir intended goals, experts can gain more knowledge on ways toimprove their effectiveness in the future. The process of policyanalysis provides decision-makers with vital information concerningthe practical functionality of policies and their effects on social,political, economic and environmental factors, among others (Weimer& Vining, 2015).Policy analysis is thus, a critical and sophisticated process becausethe policies often affect many stakeholders. This is the reason whyit is necessary to involve experts in the analysis of policies sothat they can offer their opinion to facilitate informeddecision-making.
Howmy Perceptions Compare with Book Definition
Myperceptions are quite similar to the definitions in the readings.However, the definitions provided in the readings suggest that policyformulation is an evolving process. The changes take place dependingon the new needs and challenges facing a country. Apart from theinvolvement of legislators in policy formulation, the definitions inthe readings bring in the picture the role of the public in policyformulation. However, my perceptions and the definitions in thereadings share many similarities.
Examplesof Criminal Justice Policies
TheUS Drug Policy
TheUS is one of the famous drug destinations in the world. Therefore,the drug policy provides the country with the tools of dealing withthe drug menace through law enforcement and prosecution ofperpetrators. The US drug policy stipulates the nature ofinterventions that the State and Federal government can undertakewhen dealing with drug-related issues. The interventions includereducing the supply-side efforts of drug cartels, domestic lawenforcement, prevention, treatment and harm reduction (Welsh& Harris, 2016).The policy describes the nature of the relationship between lawenforcement and the judicial system in combating a common problem.Moreover, it provides the frameworks within which the United Statescan cooperate with other countries to deal with the issue.
TheUS Antiterrorism policy
TheUS continues to face the threat of terrorism from militant groupssuch as Al-Qaida and IS. Therefore, the antiterrorism policystipulates the framework within which the US government seeks toprotect its citizen in and outside America. The policy specifies therules of engagement on matters such as the use of lethal force inanti-terrorism enforcement (Welsh& Harris, 2016).It also stipulates the nature of the coordination between varioussecurity agencies to ensure the availability of beneficialintelligence. Finally, the anti-terrorism policy highlights thenature of cooperation between the United States and its allies incombating terrorism.
TheDomestic and Sexual Violence Policy
Domesticviolence, especially against women, is regarded as a greatinfringement of human rights. Additionally, sexual violence isdetrimental to victims, and such acts need proper punishments definedin the county’s policies. The domestic and sexual violence policyprovides the framework for addressing domestic violence in America(Welsh& Harris, 2016).The policy defines the need to protect the vulnerable groups such aswomen and girls from barbaric acts of violence. It also defines whatqualifies as domestic violence, and the punishment accorded torespective acts of violence. The US has an effective domesticviolence policy, which has helped to reduce homicide ratesdrastically.
Dunn,W. N. (2015). Publicpolicy analysis.Routledge.
Weimer,D. L., & Vining, A. R. (2015). Policyanalysis: Concepts and practice.Routledge.
Welsh,W. N., & Harris, P. W. (2016). CriminalJustice Policy and Planning: Planned Change.Routledge.