PolicyDevelopment and Implementation
PolicyDevelopment and Implementation
Policydevelopment is the act of designing guidelines to a particularsubject. Organizations need policies to operate smoothly. Countriesneed the rules to work in harmony. Though development andimplementation may seem simple, it requires many players, like thepolitician, police, and citizens among other potential hurdles.Before the execution of policy, it must be evaluated to identify itsefficiency. Policies may vary from one institution to another.Therefore, the development process may also differ. Nevertheless, astandard guideline must have appropriate elements. As such, thispaper will dwell on the key constituents of a policy construction andimplementation process. In addition to that, it will evaluate themain influences on the criminal justice policy development procedure.
Asstated above, policy formulation has different steps depending on theorganization. In typical institutions, the development phase beginswith problem identification. This entails the establishment of issuesor potential matters that need the guidelines. The problems can beraised by the media, politicians, citizens, and advocacy groups. Inthe criminal justice system, the problems may include prisonovercrowding, rising crime rates, or residency for jailed sexoffenders among others. The policies are established once a need isidentified. For example, they can be dealing with child protectionand position of the government on a certain matter. The second phaseof development entails policy demands. After identifying an issue,queries concerning the weights of the regulations arise. For example,what are the goals and objectives of the law? As such, the intentionof the policy is observed. In this phase, it is crucial to gather allthe information concerning legal duties, comprehension of the same,and guidance to the policy [ CITATION DIY161 l 1033 ].
Thethird step, which is crucial, involves leadership. When designing apolicy, responsibilities have to be delegated to the involvedindividuals, staff members, subcommittee, or working group. Dutiesare shared according to the expertise needed. After allocation oftasks, the policy is then drafted. The process entails providing thelength or complexity of the regulation appropriately. It should coverall aspects that should be employed. In general, the draft shouldconsist of all the constituents such as the child protectionmeasures, consequences, and coverage among others. The rough draftshould be a typical representation of the final document [ CITATION DIY161 l 1033 ].
Thefifth phase entails consultations. Policies are most efficient if theaffected people are consulted. As such, they should be supportive ofthe regulations. The affected individuals must also discuss thepotential implications to act accordingly. Contingent on the purposeof the policies i.e. governing the external positions or internalworking of the institution, it is important to consult the concernedindividuals. For instance, supporters, service users, staffvolunteers, and management committee members. Once the affectedpersons have made their contributions, the next phase involvesfinalization. At this juncture, the policy has to be passed throughthe appropriate body for approval. Whether it is the managementcommittee or the staff members, the policy must be accepted by theresponsible party. For example, in the judiciary system, if thepolicy affects the judges then they must accept the prospectedchange. Within the organizations, the management committee is taskedwith assenting to all the policies and processes [ CITATION DIY161 l 1033 ].
Theseventh component involves implementation. At this juncture, thedraft is documented and enacted accordingly. The phase deals with thecommunication procedures and the support mechanisms needed. It alsodetermines whether training is necessary and the anticipatedoutcomes. This stage is quite challenging but necessary. This isbecause it may require alteration of common procedures to accommodatenew measures. Once the policy is implemented, it must be monitored,reviewed, or revised to ensure it is efficient. In otherorganizations, devising policies follow through four stages, that is,identifying a team, assessing the need, drafting the plan, andbuilding awareness. Though the structure may vary, the reasons fordeveloping policies are primarily the same. As long as the policiesare documented, monitoring and adjusting them is quite simple. Apartfrom the objectives of the policy, it is also important to considerthe cost of implementation [ CITATION DIY161 l 1033 ].
Thecriminal justice policy development and policy-making are influencedby different features like the media, politicians, money, and thecitizens. The media is the main source of public information. Itserves the entire population on different aspects of the policies.According to Christie, a media analyst, nowadays people do notinteract like before to share vital information. There is much socialalienation in the modern globe. As such, people rely on the media forimportant updates and news from local, regional, and internationallevels [ CITATION Art111 l 1033 ].The commercialforces are defining the media`s current portrayal of violence andcrime. Apart from that, the subsequent exposure has played a key partin restructuring public judgment, and eventually, criminal justicepolicy. The information media are not just mirrors reflectingactivities within the society. Rather, their content is molded bymarketing and economic contemplations that often supersede customaryjournalistic principles for newsworthiness. Therefore, the mediainfluences the citizens who impact on the criminal justicedevelopment [ CITATION Hay16 l 1033 ].
Anothermajor influence comes from the political scene. Politics can bedescribed as the procedure of distributing and allocating resources.Even though it does have a direct impact on policies, the nature andculture of the community based on politics affects the same. Forinstance, the form of government i.e. council, city manager, orCommissioners play a vital role. They make a difference in the degreeto which politics shapes are policing. Politics infuses policedivisions in the towns that implement a council kind of government [ CITATION Art111 l 1033 ].On the contrary, an expert city manager makes political interferenceinto policing less probable. Judges arealso placed under significant pressure that may affect theirdecisions. For instance, imposing the death penalty is compounded bysignificant influences from the political side [ CITATION Cli16 l 1033 ].
Thisis notably true since the elected juries impose death penalties atheightened levels as compared to the appointed judges. The electedjudges may fear to be deemed soft on imposing the death penalties. Asa result, they are susceptible to attacks from political frontsespecially opponents who make it hard in the following elections. Thepoliticians may also utilize the criminal system to enhance theirelectability, power, or popularity. Politicization can be seen duringpolitical campaigns that engage the public. Money is also a majorinfluence on the criminal justice development process. It determinesthe structure and composition of the judicial system as well as thedecision-making process [ CITATION Cli16 l 1033 ].
Inconclusion, policy development and implementation is an intricateprocess that involves many parties. Due to the intricacy of theprocess, it must involve all the affected people to be successful. Intypical policy development processes, seven key phases are paramounti.e. problem identification, leadership, draft, consultation,approval, implementation, and review. Even with the vitality of theelements, some aspects still influence the process. For example, inthe criminal justice system, the decision-making process is impactedby the media, politics, and money. Though the influencing facets aremany, media and politics are the most prevalent.
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