Political Research Paper

POLITICAL RESEARCH PAPER 16

PoliticalResearch Paper

PoliticalResearch Paper

Aninsightful understanding of all areas of government and politics iscrucial in ascertaining the truth. Consequently, one cannot fall preyto manipulations and political gimmicks from people who have ulteriormotives. Therefore, discovering credible information is important indifferentiating facts from fallacy. This paper presents 13 sectionsthat analyze various political issues from an opinionated viewpoint.

SectionOne: Controversial Political Issues

  1. Voter ID laws-The law requires that an individual should present some form of identification for them to register as voters or receive a ballot to participate in an election. The laws are established at state levels to govern the form of identification that will be recognized at the polls. Primarily, the law eliminates racial bias but has put an undue burden on privileged elites to choose elected officials.

  2. Agenda 21- This is a nonbinding but voluntary action plan that encourages countries and international organization to participate in environmental sustainability freely. This was established by the United Nations Summit to enhance economic policies that will last. Sustainable development is now emerging as government policy is being implemented around the country.

  3. Mandatory Vaccines- They are the obligated vaccines that every individual in a country or state needs to undertake in a bid to live or work in such states. This helps eradicate the spread of infections such as Diptheria and Pertussis among other diseases . The law varies across different states thus, it is not uniform and depends on the discretion of various regulatory bodies in the states whereby they consider the dangerous diseases depending on the environments. However, adhering to the policy consumes a lot of time, money and energy to maintain and update immunization record for all individuals in the country.

  4. NDAA / Patriot Act- The law allows detention of immigrants that are suspected to be terrorists thus enhances the government to prevent terrorist attacks. Primarily, immigrant terrorism suspects are held until the war on terrorism ends thus, they are detained indefinitely. However, the law allows unlawful imprisonment thus is against the principles of democracy. Moreover, the detention is subjected to immigrants and not American citizens thus, it is discriminative and may not attain its aim of fighting terrorism since perpetrators may be locals.

  5. Gun Regulations-easy access to guns can lead to increased rate of crime thus the need to regulate them, to reduce chances of criminal activities. However, violent crimes may reduce when more citizens have access to guns since they can protect themselves from potential attackers and abate the extent of a criminal attack.

  6. NSA- An intelligence organization mandated with global monitoring, collection, and processing of information for foreign intelligence. The information collected can be utilized to conduct noble research programs although it aids in the violation of privacy to most individuals whereby it can enhance other forms of crimes such as theft. Moreover, the invasion of privacy is considered by most individuals as a violation of their rights.

  7. Drones- They are unmanned aircraft that are remotely controlled and fly with the aid of software control. Primarily, help to reduce risks considering that they are smaller and can fly lower than other planes and thus there is less military hardware. However, drones are at risk of takeover by the enemies and later used to attack the country.

  8. Benghazi- It involved the coordinated attack against two U.S government facilities in Benghazi. The attacks aimed at sending a message to the American government not interfere with other countries affairs and the message was delivered effectively. Nonetheless, there was a loss of life and damage to properties thus, the mode of communication was not effective.

  9. Fast and Furious- This is a series of action films that revolve around illegal street racing. Essentially, this series of film is a source of entertainment to different individuals that watch them.However, it can also lead to the adoption of violent and careless driving among people especially the youths as well as developing a violent behavior.

  10. Common Core- An initiative that outlines the requirements that ought to be taught in the English language and other subjects in the educational curriculum. Developing common core helps individuals to compare their progress favorably to standards of other countries or institutions, thus enhancing benchmarking. However, it is difficult for both teachers and students to adjust due to the ever-changing educational needs.

  11. Iran deal- this deal was meant to keep Iran from producing the nuclear weapon for at least ten years to enhance lifting of economic sanction against the country. On the other hand, this deal does not guarantee that Iran will not support terrorism activities against other countries hence, it may not counter terrorism in any way.

  12. The issue of your Choosing- it offers an individual the freedom of choice, but on the other hand, it may have a negative effect on the rights and freedom of other individuals.

SectionTwo: Theories and Forms of Government

  1. Communism

Thisis a form of government whereby all property within the boundaries ofa nation is jointly owned by the citizens of the country. Accordingto Todorova, Dimou &amp Troebst (2014), communism is the brainchildof the German philosopher, Karl Max. In communism, there is a commonownership and authorities strive to achieve equity among all membersof the society.

  1. Marxist

Thisis a theory of government formulated in Eastern Europe by FriedrichEngels and Karl Marx. Roper (2013) indicated that Marxism originatedin the mid-19thcentury whereby Marx and Engels aimed at transforming the society byminimizing conflicts that arise from class relations. Marxismendeavors to minimize social struggles that arise from capitalism.

  1. Socialism

Thisis a political ideology that advocates social ownership of means ofproduction. Socialism also promotes collective efforts of economicdevelopment in a manner that citizens have the right to give theirinput in the process of stimulating economic development (Cam &ampKayaoglu, 2015).

  1. Monachy

Thisdenotes a form of government in which the head of state has to comefrom a royal family. The member of the royal family who reignsbecomes the king or queen (Wolf, 2015). Examples of Monarchs includeDenmark and Britain whereby the head of state is different from theleader of government (Wolf, 2015). The head of government is electedby the citizens of the monarchy.

  1. Republic

Arepublic is a country in which government power rests in peopleelected by the citizens of the nation. In a republic, all arms ofgovernment have to adhere to the rule of law (Morison, Commager &ampLeuchtenburg, 2011). Therefore, in a republic, the citizens holdpower indirectly since the individuals they elect in politicaloffices have to represent their interests.

  1. Dictator

Thisis a term that refers to a political leader who has unlimited powerover their subjects. A dictator does not leave room for theirsubjects to air out their opinions freely (Frantz &amp Geddes,2016). Instead, his/her decisions are considered final. Therefore, ina dictatorship form of government, a ruler does not tolerateopposition.

  1. Totalitarianism

Thisis a form of government in which all powers are vested in the state(Augusteijn, Dassen &amp Janse, 2013). As such, the governmentcontrols and regulates every aspect of public and private affairstherefore, it runs all sectors of the economy.

  1. Tyranny

Tyrannyis a form of government that subjugates its people. According toThompson (2015), a tyranny abuses power for the sole aim ofbenefiting individuals in authority.

  1. Anarchy

Thisrefers to a state whereby no government control exists (Mearsheimer,2014). In other words, there is the absence of government controlhence, everyone has unrestricted freedom to do whatever they like.

Section3-Historical Documents in the U.S constitution

(a)The U.S. Constitution- the most powerful constitution in the worldwas signed into law on September 17, 1787. The authors of thisconstitution were delegates who had an aim of establishing America’snational government and relevant laws guaranteeing human rights andfreedom to help develop the country. The major aim of the USAConstitution guards the fundamental rights of the American citizens.On the same note, the constitution helps to limit the power of thegovernment by placing them in the hands of the people therebyavoiding instances of oppression. Moreover, it forms a basis ofreference thus, individuals can refer different informationregarding the interpretation of various matters

b) The Articles of Confederation- The articles acted as the firstconstitution of the United States of America and were signed onNovember 15, 1777. The article was authored by the ContinentalCongress and was ratified on March 1, 1981. Primarily, the articleswere aimed at governing the affairs of sovereign states and thecentral government but created a loose confederation of sovereignstates and a weak central government. Consequently, theconstitutional convention was established in 1787 to aid theformation of stronger Federal government.

c)Declaration of Independence- this is a formal statement declaring thefreedom of the thirteen American colonies from the Great Britain andIota. It was documented on July 4, 1776. It was written by ThomasJefferson. The Declaration of Independence was meant to state thesovereignty of the thirteen states that had been under British rule.Moreover, it states that the government exists for the benefit of thepeople simply because all people are equal. As such, it promotesequality among all citizens

d)The Federalist Papers- It is a collection of more than 85 articlesand essays written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jayto promote ratification of the Constitution of the United States.These articles were originally published in 1788 and enhanced theratification of the United States constitution. The papers werewritten with a sole purpose of interpreting the original intent ofthe constitution hence, educated the citizens on the need to ratifythe constitution.

SectionFour

Powerstruggles exist between the American Federal government and stateadministrations. These power struggles are as a result of severalfactors that cause a rift between the interests and objectives ofstate governance and the U.S. Federal command. Kepps et al. (2012)established that this power struggle began during America’sindependence from Britain when federalists under the leadership ofHamilton and Washington advocated a strong national government thatunited all parts of the country. On the other hand, Anti-federalistmovement under the leadership of Thomas Jefferson campaigned forincreased power of states whereby each region would have the powersto make their own laws and enter into international agreements withother countries (Kepps et al., 2012). An example of a power strugglebetween these two forms of government is the controversy thatsurrounds the Affordable Care Act. On one side, state governmentsassert that they should have the power to implement their ownhealthcare plans that best suit the needs of their people.On theother side, the U.S. Federal government under the leadership ofPresident Obama insists that the central government holds theultimate power to ensure all U.S. citizens can equally access qualityhealth care services.

Electedofficials are known to break the law by abusing their positions ofpower. For example, in 2009, South California Governor Sanford Markused a state-owned aeroplane to fly to Argentina to see a woman hehad for a long time had an extramarital affair (Lawyers, 2016). Thisis a clear example of gross misconduct in which an elected publicofficial misuses government resources for personal gain.Consequently, Governor Sanford faced a possible impeachment aftercivil rights activists took to the streets to protest against suchabuse of power. Worse still, Sanford took about four days off withoutnotifying his assistants. As such, several business meetings withinvestors were cancelled at the last minute (Lawyers, 2016). Thismade some investors to lose confidence on the South Carolina stategovernment’s commitment to addressing the needs of the businesscommunity.

SectionFive

  1. The Federal Reserve is the Central Bank of the United states that was created on December 23, 1913, under the foundation of the U.S. Congress. Primarily the Federal reserve is the United State’s core banking system and is headquartered in Washington, D.C. The bank controls the American fiscal and monetary systems and deploys necessary measures to control economic growth (Hansen, 2011).

  2. The term free market denotes a unique economic system in which government restriction and involvement are either limited or entirely absent (Hansen, 2011). In a free market, the prevailing price for commodities is as a result of the interplay between consumers and the market itself. As such, commodity prices are determined by the laws of demand and supply thus, no intervention from any stakeholder is required.

  3. Government spending at times surpasses the revenue generated from taxation and other income generating activities the state engages. As a result, to cover the deficit the need to source for extra fund arises giving rise to debt whereby the government can borrow locally or internationally. Local borrowing is enhanced through the issuance of treasury bills and bonds that are offered by the federal reserve. The current debt amount of the United States Federal Government stands at $19 trillion (Jens, 2016). The debt has reached this amount since the Federal Government has been borrowing internally from local investors and externally from countries such as the People’s Republic of China. A progressive tax structure is the most appropriate system that suits the Americans. The reason for this is that such a structure ensures that citizens pay taxes according to their levels of income. People who have higher incomes pay elevated taxes than those with little earnings. Arguably, individuals who are able to pay taxes but opt not to do so should not receive any benefit of taxes that other people disburse. An exception to this is is street families and other homeless Americans who are not able to raise money to pay taxes. For every dollar that an American earns, they should pay a tenth of it as tax and keep the rest.

  4. Ten aspects that local government spends public funds on include building public utilities, social amenities, health care, elementary education, maintaining roads, paying staff salaries, scholarships, public transportation, local security, and environmental conservation projects.

Tenaspects that state government spends public funds on include healthcare, salaries for staff, environmental programs, education, energy,transportation, infrastructural developments, health care, donationsto charitable organizations, and scientific research.

Tenissues that the Federal government spends public funds on includesalaries for civil servants, grants and donations, equal access tohealth care services, building national highways, scientificresearch, education, foreign military expeditions, providingincentives and subsidies to the business community, law enforcementand diplomatic relations.

SectionSeven

  1. An executive order is a legal directive that the U.S. President issues without any need for approval by the Congress. The executive order is used to direct Federal officials and agencies to execute policies and laws established by the Congress. Through issuing such an order, the President exercises the delegated degree of legislation.

  2. Current U.S. President Barrack Obama has issued and signed 235 orders.

SectionEleven

Inthe United States, political parties have different platforms andopinionated points of view on governance and democracy. Four examplesof political parties are Green Party, Democratic Party, LibertarianParty and the Republican Party. The Democratic Party is thebrainchild of anti-federalist activist Thomas Jefferson. This partyis primarily dominant in the South-Eastern part of the United States(Karl &amp Douglas, 2012). The party’s political ideology is basedon various economic, political, and social pillars. For instance, theparty believes in a universal access to health care, same-sexmarriages, and a progressive tax structure (Karl &amp Douglas,2012). This is the primary reason President Obama signed theAffordable Care legislation into law.

TheRepublican Party has its roots in the anti-slavery movements of the1880s. The party’s political platform leans on conservatism.Members of the Republican Party advocate restrictions on trade unionmovements, capitalism, free business enterprises, and policies thatpropose a reduction in the powers of the federal government(Petersen, 2011). The party’s conservationist policies also opposesame-sex marriages that democrats support.

TheLibertarian party was established in 1971 by Nolan David with thepurpose of promoting civil liberties. According to Libertarian Party(2016), this political party supports a world of unlimited liberty.In other words, the Libertarian Party seeks the sovereignty ofindividuals. Members believe that leaders should strive to make theworld a free place whereby the government should not use any kind offorce on citizens. However, the party’s ideology of liberty insiststhat people have to accept the consequences of unlimited freedom.Libertarians also oppose any censorship on the mass media’s methodsof reporting political, economic, and social occurrences (LibertarianParty, 2016). Another platform for the party is for governmenttransparency and accountability. Party members advocate governmenttransparency in all sectors of the economy but insist that citizenshave the right to privacy in every area of their lives.

TheGreen Party is a political setting founded in 1991 after severalmeetings with green groups. The party’s political ideology is basedon four key platforms. Firstly, the party believes that the Americansneed to use renewable forms of energy. According to Green Party(2016), non-renewable energy forms have a damaging impact on theclimate. Secondly, the party believes that an elected governmentshould do all it can to reduce public expenditure on the U.S.military presence in all parts of the world (Green Party, 2016). Thisideology is motivated by increasing budgetary allocations on the U.S.military presence in the Middle-East and Nothern Africa. Thirdly, theGreen Party supports public funding for open debates that enable theAmericans to identify the best candidates for various politicalpositions (Green Party, 2016). Finally, the party advocates propermanagement of the Federal reserve as a way of controlling risingbills.

SectionTwelve

TidesFoundation

Thisis a not-for-profit organization based in California that providesfunding for causes that aim at bringing social change (TideFoundation, 2016).

MoveOn

Thisis a group that campaigns for an end to political propaganda amongthe political class (MoveOn, 2016).

Centerfor American Progress

Thisis an organization that advocates an improvement in the ideas thataim at improving the living standards of the Americans (Center forAmerican Progress, 2016). This advocacy institution supportsaccountable governance that is dedicated to tackling economicchallenges.

WeatherUnderground

Thisis an independent radical organization that holds left-wing politicalideologies (Weather Underground, 2016). It believes in communism,Leninism, and Marxism. This organization is also known as WeatherUnderground Organization (WUO).

Organizingfor America

Organizingfor America was a project initiated after President Barrack Obama’sinauguration to lobby support for the President’s policies duringhis tenure (Browns, 2015). The project’s support for PresidentObama’s political agenda gained momentum following the change inname to Organizing for Action.

NationalReview

Thiis a magazine established in the mid-1950s to provide insights andpolitical commentary on political developments that hit the headlinesin major media houses.

Centerfor Self Governance

Centerfor Self Governance is an independent educational organization thattrains American citizens on civil matters. This non-profitorganization aims at making Americans revive their place in civilauthority (Center for Self Governance, 2016).

HumanEvents

HumanEvents refers to a website that comprehensively analyses politicalnews and developments in the United States (Human Events, 2016). Thereporters at Human Events use a conservative approach to analyzingpolitical news and developments.

MediaMatters

Thisis an institution that monitors information in media houses. ToAchieve their core objective of correcting possible misinformationfrom media houses, this institution does an elaborate analysis ofinformation that media houses in America disseminate (Media Matters,2016).

FreedomWorks

Thisis an advocacy group that was founded by David Koch and Charles Kochto assist Americans who have a conservative mindset to interact withelected leaders (Freedom Works, 2016).

HeritageFoundation

Thisis an independent conservative research organization that targets todevelop policies that positively influence public policy making inthe United States (Heritage Foundation, 2016). Heritage Foundationalso aims at changing how leaders use their positions of power.

MediaResearch Center

Thisis an institution that analyses political content in the mediathrough scientific means. The sole aim of the organization is toreduce bias in the media (Media Research Center, 2016).

Conclusion

Incompleting this assignment I have learnt that there are variousaspects of government and politics that many people ignore. Suchignorance makes people prone to unending political gimmicks from thepolitical class. Also, having a comprehensive understanding of thehistory of the American state and Federal governments and how theyoperate is useful in appreciating how these administrations functionon a daily basis. Such understanding gives one the impetus tocriticize these governments with facts at hand. Both negative andpositive criticisms are crucial in putting both elected and appointedindividuals in leadership positions on their toes. Through thisassignment, I have learnt that tyranny, totalitarianism, anddictatorship are destructive forms of governance that oppress thecitizens of a country. As a result, one can appreciate that the U.S.is a republic that values public opinion. Arguably, in the UnitedStates, power is vested on the Americans instead of public figures.This is attributable to the reason that the Americans can remove anyelected official from office through the power of the vote. Thisassignment has also shed light on the obligations of the judiciaryaccording to Article 3 of the U.S. Constitution.

References

Augusteijn,J., Dassen, P. G., &amp Janse, M. J. (2013).&nbspPoliticalReligion Beyond Totalitarianism:

TheSacralization of Politics in the Age of Democracy.Palgrave Macmillan.

Çam,T., &amp Kayaoğlu, M. (2015). Marx’s distinction betweensocialism and

communism.&nbspJournalof Human Sciences,&nbsp12(1),385-391.

Frantz,E., &amp Geddes, B. (2016). The Legacy of Dictatorship forDemocratic Parties in Latin

America.&nbspJournalof Politics in Latin America,&nbsp8(1),3-32.

Lawyers(2016). Impeachmentand Censure of Elected Officials. Retrievedfrom http://government.lawyers.com/impeachment-and-censure-of-elected-officials.html.

Mearsheimer,J. (2014). Anarchy and the Struggle for Power.&nbspTheRealism Reader,179.

Morison,S. E., Commager, H. S., &amp Leuchtenburg, W. E. (2011).&nbspThegrowth of the American

republic&nbsp(Vol.2). New York: Oxford University Press.

Roper,B. S. (2013). The history of democracy: A Marxist interpretation.

Thompson,D. F. (2015).&nbspJohnStuart Mill and representative government.Princeton University

Press.

Wolf,S. (2015). Different Approaches, Different Results in Small StateStudies: Complementary

Viewson the Monarchy and Traditional Governance in Liechtenstein.&nbspSwissPolitical Science Review,&nbsp21(2),350-361.

Political Research Paper

PoliticalResearch Paper

Institutionaffiliation:

Section1

a) Voter IDlaws- Voter ID laws guarantee only those bearing the Ids to vote morethan once thus eliminating racial bias, but on the other side, itputs an undue burden on privileged elite to choose electedofficials[ CITATION Web16 l 1033 ].

b) Agenda 21-this is a nonbinding but voluntary action plan that encouragescountries and international organization to participate inenvironmental sustainability freely. However, the government isunable to control their activities since it is nonbinding.

c) MandatoryVaccines – it helps to fight the spread of infections such aspertussis and tetanus, but on the other side, this policy consumes alot of time, money and energy to maintain and update immunizationrecord for all individuals in the country[ CITATION Tim16 l 1033 ].

d) NDAA /Patriot Act – this act helps the government to prevent attacks morequickly through uncovering of malfeasance, but on the other hand, itallows for the existence of unlawful imprisonment which is againstthe principles of democracy.

e) GunRegulations – easy access to guns can lead to increased crime andthus by regulating them, the government reduces chances of criminalactivities. However, violent crimes reduce with more citizens havingaccess to guns because they can protect themselves from potentialattackers[ CITATION Ber15 l 1033 ].

f) NSA- theinformation and data obtained through this program can be used toconduct useful research as well as saving lives, but on the otherhand, there is massive loss of personal privacy of most individualswhich can lead to identity theft.

g) Drones-Drones help to reduce risks considering that they are smaller and canfly lower than other planes and thus there is less military hardware. However, drones are at risk of takeover by the enemies and laterused against the country.

h) Benghazi-these attacks send a message to the America that it should notinterfere with other countries affairs and the message was deliveredeffectively although there was the loss of lives and the channel usedto send the message can be termed as inappropriate. (Broersma, 2012).

I) Fast andFurious- despite the fact that this series of film is a source ofentertainment, it can also lead to the adoption of violent andcareless driving among people especially the youths as well asdeveloping a violent behaviour.

j) Commoncore- developing common core helps individuals to compare theirprogress favourably to standards of other countries or institutions.However, it is difficult for both teachers and students to adjust dueto the ever changing educational needs.

k) Iran deal-this deal was meant to keep Iran from producing enough nuclear weaponfor at least 10 years. On the other hand, the deal does not guaranteethat Iran will not support terrorism activities against othercountries.

l) The issueof your Choosing- it offers an individual the freedom to choose whathe or she wants, but on the other hand, it may have a negative effecton the rights and freedom of other individuals.

Section2

Differentforms of government.

  1. Communism was a form of governance that was aimed at replacing private ownership of property with public ownership of property. The nation’s resources were owned and managed the government. In this form of government, wealth was meant to be allotted to people according to their need. A government of the kind received an intense opposition from various individuals because it acted as a depression to them who were not on the working class. Capitalism is a form of government that was fought for by Karl Marx. The majority of the citizens were living under the poverty line due to capitalism. The majority of the economy of the USA was owned and controlled by individuals who were tycoons. Communism was aimed at eliminating the social classes. The production and distribution of products were to be based on the principle of ability and need. This form of government was opposed to capitalism where individuals competed for profits.

  2. A Marxist government is a government that lives in the theory that the economy of a state will keep on developing on publicizing the property in a state from the owners in private. Marxism philosophy was developed by Karl Marx who was keen on examining the consequences of capitalism on the condition of states.

  3. Socialism was a form of government that was against economic inequality and the depression produced by the capitalist economies in which the rich had political voice over the poor. Socialism should not be confused with communism. The two forms of governments seemed to share common ideas but there a big difference. Socialism was concerned with the welfare of citizens, in general, such as healthcare as well as the education system. It was aimed at equating the equation between the ring and the poor in the society. Also, socialism ensured that all the natural and capital resources were owned by the state. Communism had all these goals in mind, but it was specifically anti-capitalist in nature. From the word go, communism differs from socialism based on where they apply. Socialism applies only in economic aspects while communism applies in both political and economic aspects.

  4. Monarchy is a form of government in which one individual holds the loyal office. The individual can be a king or a queen. The position of the king or queen is inherited. However, the king or the queen does not head the government. Britain among many others is a state where monarchy form of government is practiced.

  5. Republic is a form of government in which the powers of the state are assigned to the people of such a particular state. The people use or apply this powers through electing leaders who represents them. This form of government is exercised in different countries which include Kenya. Kenyans elect members of parliament who represents them in parliament.

  6. A dictatorship is a form of government in which one country or combination of countries is ruled by a few individuals who are not truly elected or were elected but turned out against the will of the citizens who elected them. These individuals manage every entity of the state and oppress anybody who goes opposite to their wish and will

  7. Totalitarianism government is a form of government in which people have little or no say. A dictator heads this form of government. Here people have no freedom. They are subject to the dictator. The government of this kind was administered in Italy around 1920.Benito Mussolini was the dictator of whom people paid tribute. In the states where totalitarianism is practiced, people are more of slaves.

  8. A tyranny government is a government in which governance of the state is vested in the will of the majority. Democracy of the majority of citizens is exercised while that of a few minorities does not see the light of the day.

  9. Anarchy is a form of government in which the government does not exist. Here there is no any law which governs people. Every person struggles for her or his survival. In this form of government, there is no security. Recently there are no countries where there is anarchy, but there are regions in some countries where there is anarchy. The countries include Afghanistan and Somalia.

Section3

i. (a) TheU.S. Constitution- the most powerful constitution in the world wassigned into law on September 17, 1787. (b) It is correct to say thatthe authors of this constitution were delegates who had an aim ofestablishing America’s national government and relevant lawsguaranteeing human rights and freedom to help develop the youngcountry. (c) The major aim of the USA constitution was to protectpersonal freedom and fundamental principles that would later governthe United States. On the same note, the constitution helps to limitthe power of the government by placing them in the hands of thepeople[ CITATION All15 l 1033 ].

ii. (a).Date-The Articles of Confederation- these articles were the firstconstitution of the United States of America and were signed onNovember 15, 1777. (b) John Dickson, the delegate from Delaware isusually credited as the principal author and writer of thesearticles, and through them, the name The United States Of Americacame to existence. (c)The primary purpose of these articles was tounite the individual states and establish the federal government.

iii. (a)Declaration of Independence- this is a formal statement declaring thefreedom of the thirteen American colonies from the Great Britain andIota. It was documented on June 8, 1776. (b) It was written by ThomasJefferson. (c) The Declaration of Independence was meant to statewhat the existence of government means to the people. It states thatthe government exists for the benefit of the people simply becauseall people are equal[ CITATION All15 l 1033 ].

iv. (a) TheFederalist Papers- These articles were written between 1787 and 1788.(b) It is a collection of more than 85 articles and essays written byAlexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay to promoteratification of the Constitution of the United States. (c) The paperswere written with a sole purpose of interpreting the original intentof the constitution[ CITATION Bro12 l 1033 ].

Section4

PowerStruggle between the State and Federal Government

For some reason, the power struggle will always exist between thestates and the federal government. Some policies may be passed by thefederal government, which may be unfavorable for the states. Thepresidency may view such policies to be important, but they getopposed by the states. The Obamacare and its mandates have been oneof the controversies that have received opposition from some states.As seen in the Daily Signal published on January 17, 2011, there is atotal of 27 states that filed lawsuits to oppose the Obamacarepolicy[ CITATION Ste11 l 1033 ]. The states had the aim ofchallenging the constitutionality of the bill as it does not matchwith the state budgets.

There are other instances where the federal government is opposingthe laws that have been adopted by states concerning issues ofimmigration. The states argue that they are helping the government inimplementing the laws, something the federal government thinks is notright. Other states have come up with bills to legalize marijuana,but the federal government is against such. There is always somestruggle between the two parties as they intend to functionindependently.

In one way or the other, elected officials end up abusing theirpowers. President Obama may have abused the Executive power bestowedupon him by signing the Affordable Care Act. The controversy came inwhen the Employer Mandate Delay was put in place. Executive power isone of the many changes that President Obama ordered without priorconsultation and approval of the Congress. It is no doubt that theGay Marriage Act was also passed without the approval of theCongress. One will view this to be an abuse of power when such hugedecisions are based on individual opinions. It becomes the source ofthe power struggle between the federal and state governments.

Section5

  1. Federal Reserve is the central bank of the United States that was created by the Congress to provide the country with a safer, more flexible and more stable monetary and financial system.

  2. A free market system is a system where there is a voluntary exchange that takes place in a given economic environment. In most cases, countries that practice free market allow their citizens to invest any business in any sector as long as is legal.

  3. Just like any country U.S. has estimated $19.5 trillion debts according to the FY18 federal budget. U.S. has accumulated budget crisis thoughts its health care programs, social security programs, defense budget, and international affairs. Given the power to choose the best tax structure, I would choose progressive tax structure to help bring equality in terms of economic status as well as bridging the gap between the rich and the poor[ CITATION Ber15 l 1033 ]. Individuals who do not pay taxes should not benefit from the taxes considering that they did not contribute to the national cake and hence they should not harvest where they did not work.

  4. Things that the state government spend money on include:

i. Health careprograms

ii.Educational programs

iii. Provisionof social amenities

iv. Reduceinequality through a provision of employment

v. Provisionof the public goods such as national defense.

vi. Debtinterest payment

vii. Transport

viii. Militaryspending

ix. Socialprotection

x. Personalsocial services

Things that thelocal government spend money on include:

  1. Transport

  2. Public assistance

  3. Corrections

  4. Medicaid

  5. Education

  6. Defense

  7. Sports and culture

  8. Energy subsidies

  9. Housing

  10. Payment for pensions

Things that the federal government spend money on include

  1. National defense

  2. Social security

  3. Medicare

  4. Transportation projects

  5. Subsidies for local industries

  6. Museums

  7. Flood control

  8. Economic development

  9. Agriculture

  10. Education

e. Personalbudget

Income (Monthly)

Tim

$4800.00

Total Income:

$4800.00

Expenses (Monthly)

Fixed time payments

1st

Rent

$1200.00

1st

Internet

$40.00

5th

Car payment

$260.00

6th

Telephone

$80.00

10th

Cable

$45.00

11th

Car Insurance

$210.00

15th

Gym membership

$75.00

20th

Emergency Fund

$50.00

25th

Debt payoff

$300.00

25th

Retirement Savings

$300.00

28th

Transit pass

$70.00

Irregular payment

&nbsp

Food

$900.00

&nbsp

Gas

$300.00

&nbsp

Day care

$400.00

&nbsp

Childrens music classes

$140.00

&nbsp

Cleaning supplies

$30.00

&nbsp

Total Planned Expenses:

$4400.00

Section6

Governor – JohnBell Edwards – Democratic

Lieutenantgovernor – Billy Nungesser – Republican

Secretary ofstate – Tom Scheduler – Democratic

Attorney General– Jeff Landry- Republican

Treasurer- JohnNeely Kennedy- democratic

Commissioner ofagriculture and forestry – Mike Strain DVM – Republican

Commissioner ofInsurance – James J. Donelon – Republican

Section7

President

  1. Executive Order

The president ofAmerica acts as the head of the Executive Branch. The executiveorders are described as the binding directives that the presidentgives to the administrative agencies at the federal level. Executiveorders are of different levels according to the issues they areconcerned with and the way they are supposed to be solved. Someconcern is the security issues such as declaring the state ofemergency. The president is given the power to order the Congress toestablish laws and policies. Irrespective of the opinions of theCongress, the president, has the final say as he has full powers toimplement. The executive powers have been considered to provide aloophole for power abuse by the presidency.

  1. Executive orders signed by the president

In his two-termtenure as the president of the United States, Obama has managed toissue a total of 195 executive orders. The executive orders have beenaccompanied by a total of 198 memoranda by the president. Thememoranda contain the same information as the executive orders.Compared with President Bush, Obama has done more executive orders ina shorter span. A majority of the orders have received criticism fromthe opposition as well as from some states[ CITATION Amu14 l 1033 ].

  1. The Most Unusual Order

It has does notmake sense why the president signed the order on gay marriages. It isan executive order that has received a lot of criticism, not onlyfrom the Americans but also from the whole world. The order isunusual to the extent that some states are reluctant to adopt it. Itis never for two right-minded male individuals to marry one another.It shows how much the society is rotten. The president only wanted toplease a few individuals at the expense of the many right-mindedAmericans.

Czars

CZAR

Position

Salary ($)

Gary Samore

WMD Policy Czar

Unknown

Ashton Carter

Weapons Czar

Unknown

Adolfo Carrion Jr.

Urban Affairs Czar

158,500

Aneesh Chopra

Technology Czar

Unknown

John Brennan

Terrorism Czar

172,200

Herb Allison

TARP Czar

Unknown

J. Scott Gration

Sudan Czar

unknown

Earl Devaney

Stimulus Accountability Czar

unknown

John Holdren

Science Czar

Cass Sunstein

Regulatory Czar

172200

Kenneth Feinberg

Pay Czar

unknown

George Mitchell

Mideast Peace Czar

unknown

Dennis Blair

Intelligence

unknown

Todd Stern

International Climate

Unknown

VivekKundra

Information

Unknown

Nancy-Ann DeParle

Health

158,500

Daniel Fried

Guantanamo Closure

Unknown

Van Jones

Green Jobs

Unknown

Cameron Davis

Great Lakes

Unknown

Joshua DuBois

Faith Based

98000

Carol Brower

Energy and Environment

172,200

Gil Kerlikowske

Drug Czar

Unknown

Lynn Rosenthal

Domestic Violence Czar

Unknown

Dennis Ross

Central Region Czar

Unknown

Ron Bloom

Car Czar

Unknown

David J. Hayes

California Water Czar

Unknown

Alan Bersin

Border Czar

Unknown

Jeffrey Crowley

AIDS Czar

102000

Ed Montgomery

Auto recovery Czar

unknown

Richard Holbrooke

Afghanistan Czar

259700

  1. How they get their position

Czars are notelected, but they are appointed. The newly elected president has thepowers to appoint his Czars. They form part of his government as theyhelp him in running the government. They are in charge of someimportant aspects of health, domestic violence, energy, and theenvironment. The Congress has no powers to stop the president fromappointing his Czars. The executive powers place the president in aposition to make personal decisions.

Section8

Judgesin the County of Fresno.

1. MarkCullers-not known

2. Heather M.Jones-Republican

3. AdolfoCorona- not known

5. JonKapetan- not known

6. BrantBramer -not known

7. Gary Green-Republican

8. MaryDolas-Democratic

9. BrianArax-Republican

10. BrianAlvarez-Republican

11. JamesKelley-Democratic

12. AlvinHarrell-Republican

13. DennisPeterson- not known

14. DonPenner-Republican

15. EdwardSarkisian-not known

SupremeCourt Judges in California

1. KathrynWerdegar

2. Ming Chin

3. CarolCorrigan

4.TaniCantil-Sakauye

5. Goodwin Liu

6.Mariano-Florentino Cuellar

7. Leondra R.Kruger

Justices of theSupreme Court of America

1. John G.Roberts-republicam party

2. Anthony M.Kennedy –republican party

3. ClarenceThomas-Republican

4. Ruth BaderGinsburg-Democratic

5. Stephen G.Breyer-Democratic

6. SamuelAnthony Alito- Republican

7. SoniaSotomayor- Democratic

8. ElenaKagan-Democratic

Powers of Judges

According toarticle 3, the two leading powers of judges are jurisdiction andprecedent.

Section9

The Public Sectornews media have been in use for a long time, but the Americans have apreference to private sector news media. The Public sector is fundedby the government and has a tendency to give information that favorsthe government. A majority of the private news media are funded byits owners and have no inclination to any political party. The CBSCorporation is the most used source for a television network, radio,and magazines. There is also the Fox News channel that has becomepopular and is owned by the 21st Century Fox Corporation. The WallStreet Journal is an important media source for Americans, with lessbiased information. It is owned by the News Corporation. CNN ispopular and rarely has biased information. It is owned and funded bythe Time Warner Corporation[ CITATION Bro12 l 1033 ]. The ABC Newsis another main provider of television news and is trusted with itsaccurate news and coverage. Many people are inclined to read the NewYork Times as well as the Washington Post, the main newspapers inAmerica.

Section10

How has thegovernment dealt with the issue of affordable healthcare? The economydictates the political stability of a country, what can the nextgovernment do to achieve better economic stability? What has thegovernment done to prevent the possibility of future terroristattacks? Is the government justified to bolster the social securitysystem? The Federal government has been given powers to oversee theState government, are their instances of abuse of power? How can youdescribe the distribution of resources and incomes in America? Whatis being done to deal with hunger and homelessness (refugees)? Whatpolicies do you suggest can help in the reduction of crime andviolence? What is your take on illegal immigration? Drug abuse isbecoming rampant, what measures can be put in place to deal with thisissue?

The abovequestions are the main political issues that are making circles inAmerica as the country approaches the election period. They are themain topics being addressed by the candidates of the two majorparties.

Section11

As the first democratic country in the world, the United States ofAmerica has defined what a political party is. In such a multipartynation, the role and platforms under which the parties conduct theirbusinesses have been greatly refined.

The Republican Party also known as “The GOP” is one of the twomajor parties in America. It styles itself as a bulwark for theAmerican conservative values. Also, it stands for big business, whichhas often been characterized colloquially by competitors as“trickle-down” or “Reaganesque economics.” Also, it callsitself the party of national security. These three issues havegreatly defined what the candidate sponsored by this party have runon in both state and national elections. It has believed ingovernment lowering taxes on the wealthy as a way to stimulateeconomic activity, increasing defense budget to facilitate themilitary spending abroad and opposing laws and regulations that arebelieved to dilute American values such as the sanctity of family,marriage, and separation of church and state.

The Democratic Party sees itself as the liberal party. It stands forliberal values such as gay marriages, the right of a woman toabortion services and social protection for the less fortunate. Theparty has tended to believe that the Constitution is a dynamicdocument which should be interpreted according to the prevailingmodern circumstances. The party is also strongly pro-labour,advocating for equal pay for both men and women, as well as for abasic pay that would enable the worker to meet their normal day today expenses, save and put their kids through school.

The Green Party believes in environmental protection, social equalityand a grass root type of political representation. They believe thatthe through championing leftist values like social justice, politicalresponsibility and state right to legislate on environmental issuesthe right balance between environmental sustainability and humanadvancement can be met.

The Libertarian party stands for everybody’s right toself-determination, in the limited role of government in business andtrade regulation. It believes the state has no role in regulatingpersonal preferences including the right to marriage, abortion, andpersonal relationships. Finally, it believes that America shouldscale down interventionism in foreign matters.

While the different party platforms seem very clearly differentiated,it is common for parties to tone down certain issues traditionally intheir platforms in hotly contested elections. The Republican oftentry to mask their pro-big business ideas to appeal to voters in thelower income brackets while Democrats try to pepper down their lovefor social safety nets to attract big businesses especially politicaldonors.

Section12

The Move on Organization was created to introduce the ordinarycitizens into politics. People are advised to take stands on policyissues and support the right candidates. They are also encouraged toadvocate for campaign finance reforms in the political arena. TheTides Foundation is based in California and was formed to serve as alink between donors and recipients of aid funds. It had theresponsibility of laundering the money before passing it on to thebeneficiaries.

The Center for American Progress is concerned with research. It hasthe role of advocating for public policies and creating awareness ofthe less established truths. It`s progressive ideas result to strongleadership for all Americans. The Media Research Center is anorganization created with the aim of bringing about equality andbalance to the news media. It regulates the type of news that isreleased to the public. The Heritage Foundation is based in thecapital city of America and is concerned with the preservation of theAmerican culture. The Human event is also another conservativeorganization but deal with the conservation of political news andanalysis.

Media Matters for America is an organization that is concerned withinformation research and constantly monitors the activities that aretaking place. In cases of misinformation, the organization works tocorrect the wrong information. The Weather Underground is anorganization that deals with forecasting weather, giving reports onweather and updating on weather conditions in areas all over theworld. Organizing for America is a project of the Democratic NationalCommittee, and its role is to mobilize supporters regarding thelegislative priorities of the party candidate. The Center forSelf-Governance is citizen-oriented and trains one to preserve,rediscover and own civil authority within the American society. TheNational Review is an organization with the task of updatingAmericans on politics, news and the culture.

Americans for aRepublican Majority is an organization that was formed and has theaim of enabling the election of a Republican majority. Democracy forAmerica, on the other hand, deals with the creation of publicawareness campaigns and the training of political activists.

Section13

A bond can be described as a debt investment in which an institutionthat is ready to provide a loan gives the money to an individual ofgovernment. The loan is given for a certain period and may eitherhave a fixed of variable interest. States and governments make use ofbonds in raising funds that are meant to run projects. A prop, on theother hand, stands for the proposition and it entails legislationthat has been proposed to voters for their approval andrecommendation.

An absentee ballot describes a ballot that has been completed andsent in advance before the elections are held. It is meant to be usedby a voter who may not be physically available during the elections.A provisional ballot is a tool used by the electoral commission torecord the concerns of a voter when his eligibility as a voter is indoubt. An office block ballot is a record containing the names of thecandidates listed in alphabetical order, excluding their partydesignation.

Bibliography

Allan, J. (2015). The US constitution in trouble: Lessons from Australia. . Quadrant, 59(9),, 57.

Amuedo-Dorantes, C. (2014). President Obama’s executive order granting temporary reprieve from deportation to millions of undocumented immigrants will reopen the immigration debate. USApp–American Politics and Policy Blog.

Bernardini, M. &amp. (2015). . Private Debt Overhang and the Government Spending Multiplier: Evidence for the United States.

Broersma, M. &amp. (2012). Social media as beat: tweets as a news source during the 2010 British and Dutch elections. Journalism Practice, 6(3),, 403-419.

Stewart, B. (2011, January 17). List of 27 States Suing Over Obamacare. The Daily Signal.

Timothy, C. (2016, November 4). Twitter. Retrieved from #vaccination: https://twitter.com/hashtag/vaccination

Webb, D. (2016, November 4). #voterid. Retrieved from Matters of voter https://twitter.com/hashtag/voterid

Political Research Paper

PoliticalResearch Paper

Institutional

PoliticalResearch Paper

Withthe growing dynamics in the political, social and economic landscape,it’s vital for an individual for being well informed to live aptlyin the society today. From the historical times, much has changedthat has brought forth both positive and negative impacts. Thispolitical research paper aims to ascertain the truth through analysisof multiple sources of political information from varied politicalperspectives.

Section1: Controversial Political Issues

GunControl in the United States

Fora long time, guncontrolhas been an issue of controversy in the U.S as compounded by theincreasing incidences of mass and public shootings. First, there isthe need to have stricter gun control legislation on theconstitution’s second amendment (Haynes,2016).Although the right of the people should not be downplayed in thepresence of a well regulated Militia that work for a free State asstipulated in the second amendment, a citizen’s militia potentialwas an integral provision for the safeguarding of the principles ofthe constitution at a time when the federal government and thesovereign state union were new. However, the experience the state hashad while testing the principles proves that the idea of militia isunwarranted, and that stricter gun legislation should be implemented.Additionally, allowing people to posses more guns would increasehomicide incidences (Haynes,2016).It may be true that countries such as Israel and Switzerland allowmore gun ownerships but record low homicide rates, and as such thelower crime rates are not absolutely the result of intense funcontrol. However, it is imperative to clarify that there is a directrelationship between the prevalence of violent crimes and gunpossession. As has been shown in Australia, reducing the rate of gunownership points to the decreased incidences of homicide therefore,the U.S must endeavor to formulate more policies that would enhancegun control.

VoterID Laws

VoterID laws became controversial for the first time during the electionof a president. Nine additional states are pressing the currentlegislation that necessitates eligible voters to avail agovernment-issued photo ID during polling. Proponents of the lawargue that the not requiring an ID photo increases the chances ofpeople to vote severally or using names that are not theirs, hence,the integrity of democracy is jeopardized. However, the critics ofthe law insist that it will disenfranchise some communities,especially the minorities, the financially unstable, and the elderly(Erikson&amp Minnite, 2009).

Agenda21

Throughthe agenda, some conservatives, or other, critics, are classifying ita secluded conspiracy to form a single world government. But, all thesame, Agenda 21 isn’t a law and thus, not binding. It is aninitiative by the United Nations to spearhead sustainable developmentand environmental integrity in the U.S and the world at large.However, other groups oppose that notion by claiming the agendadenies the private citizens their rights to private property becauseit stresses that public land control is indispensable forsustainability (Lemons&amp Brown, 2013).

NSA

Controversysurrounds the National Security Agency based on their wiretappingactivities. That limits the privacy of citizens, which is a rightwith regards to the constitution. The government, too, requiresinformation to secure its subjects, and wiretapping is one method ofgaining the intelligence (Yoo,2014).

Fastand Furious

Itbecame controversial the moment the case got known to the JusticeDepartment, and that the gun trafficking movement was used to killBrian Terry, a U.S border agent, as opposed to its earlier mandate.Although proponents of the fast and furious view it as an excellentmove to ending illegal firearms acquisitions through drug cartels,the opponents have insisted that it is the basis of unnecessarymurders and aggression, and must be stopped to save people’s lives(Pavlich,2012).

IranDeal

Thedeal explores how the Obama Administration and Ben Rhodes werecapable of selling the Iran nuclear deal to members of the public.Although the proponents to the deal insist that it will aid in thecreation of regional security atmosphere, the critics view the moveto be an avenue for Iran to reach a nuclear threshold and startoperating nuclear weapons, which are serious threats to security(Sebenius,2014).

CommonCore

Controversiesarise on how Common Core connection to accountability and testingendeavors. Some parents question why a complex scientific evaluationshould be introduced to a simple math method like subtractionproblem. Other skeptics to the common core say that the approach wasdeveloped undemocratically as founded by the Foundation of Bill andMelinda Gates. Conversely, the supporters of the method assert thatit is the basis for numeric skills’ growth in students and pupils,and must be practiced at all times (Shanahan,2012).

Benghazi

Thereare lots of queries as to whether the Obama administration gavemisleading information with regards to attacks on Benghazi inSeptember, 2012 explaining the assault as a impulsive act ofviolence which arose from the protest relating to an anti-Islamicvideo. However, the future information showed that Hillary Clinton’sstate department did reject appeals for more security at theconsulate prior to the attacks, and the critics used that as a toolto conclude that the administration was incompetent (Bolenget al., 2014).

Drones

Controversiesarise on the debate to register drones by the owners as directed bythe Federal Aviation Administration in 2016. Although the proponentsperceive this a great achievement that can help in the users ofdrones that go rogue, critics have concluded that registration iscostly, unnecessary, and without results in the long-term. They positthat it is unlikely for rogue drone to register in the same way aresponsible pilot would and, therefore, there is no need to undertakethe hassle of the procedure to register drones (Boussios,2015).

PatrioticAct

Thisis controversial by its indefinite tapping of cell phonecommunication data to protect the U.S from terrorist attack. Theproponents agree that there is no problem associated with suchactions by the federal state as it will help to prevent deadliestattacks on the American soil. However, skeptics argue that the movehas culminated in unlawful retrieval of phone information on millionsof the U.S citizens, most of whom are harmless and deprived of theirrightful privacies by the act (Wralstad&amp Lutz, 2014).

MandatoryVaccines

Thisis geared to eradicate some contagious diseases, for instance, polio,tetanus among other diseases. Persons are not opposed to vaccines,but are unhappy about and reject the medical tyranny manifested bymaking the vaccination mandatory (Lillvis,Kirkland &amp Frick, 2014).

Section2: Forms/ Theories of Government

a.Communism

Itsets out a government system, a political ideology that embracesclassless and stateless community that advocates for a communalownership of property and production means. The system rejectsprivate ownership of goods and calls for a collective bargainingfront where all work proceeds are shared. That is practiced in somenations like China, Vietnam, Cuba, and Laos. Some of the world’sstates that practiced communism have so far been disbanded sinceWorld War II came to a close (Boyd etal., 2015).

b.Marxist

Thisis a social and economic system that is based on the political andeconomic theories of an old economist, Karl Marx. The overridingfactor in this argument is the class struggle in the analysis ofsocial transformation in the societies from the West (Boyd etal., 2015).

c.Socialism

Socialismis the opposite of individualism that came as a countering forceagainst the inadequacies and injustice of capitalism thatincorporated the exploitation of staff by the owners of theproduction systems. The principal aim of socialism is to achieve acollective right to the entire society. It seeks to eliminate privateownership of the production means, but looks forward to a productionsystem that can lead to social equalities (Schumpeter,2013).

d. Monarchy

Itis a form of government in which an individual possesses the innateright to govern as the head of state in his or her entire life. Allthe authority is concentrated only on one person, and he issovereign. The citizens are at the mercy of the ruler, and as such,if he abuses the power, the whole country suffers (Henshall,2014).

e.Republic

Thatis a government system in which the sovereign power is held by theelectorates who are given an opportunity to vote and, therefore,select representatives whom they deem fit to represent them (Ostrom,2015).

f. Dictator

Adictator is an individual who governs a country with absoluteauthority, and in most cases, in a brutal and cruel way (Boyd etal., 2015).

g.Totalitarianism

Thisis a government form that does not allow the freedom of an individualand, therefore, aspires to subordinate the aspects of a person to thegoverning authority. Such a government, headed by a charismaticleader, controls every aspect of political, economic, social, andcultural issues (Boyd etal., 2015).

h.Tyranny

Tyrannyis the excessive exploitation of power beyond the required standards.The individual in authority supersedes the power vested upon him andmaximally utilizes the force that is under his command. Some of therulers who were hungry and showcased tyranny include Julius Caesar,Cleopatra among others (Boyd etal., 2015).

i.Anarchy

Anarchydefines the conduct and life theory in which persons sociallyinteract without interference from the government. It is state ofexistence without a governing institution, and there is no chaos norterrorism. The members of this society live in a harmonious mannerthrough agreements (Boyd etal., 2015).

Section3: Founding documents of America

TheU.S. Constitution

Date(s)of Document:The constitutional settlement in Philadelphia is credited to havetranspired between May 5th, 1787 and September 17th, 1787 (Kitrosser,2015).

Author(s)of Document:The authorship of the US constitution is credited to ThomasJefferson, Thomas Paine, James Madison, and John Adams, theirexcellent work resulted in the documentation of the rule of law(Kitrosser,2015).

Thepurpose, goal or intent:The structure defines the framework for the operation of the federalgovernment. It contains the rule of law on which the country operates(Kitrosser,2015).

TheArticles of Confederation

Date(s)of Document:The dates of the material were 1777-1781.

Author(s)of Document:The chief writer of the document was John Dickison, the Delawaredelegate, and simultaneously named the new nation, the United Statesof America.

Thepurpose, goal or intent:This was United State’s initial constitution, and it stemmed fromthe wartime urgency. It established the roles of the nationalgovernment and the states in service to humanity.

Declarationof Independence

Date(s)of Document:it’s dated back to July 4th, 1776 (Ostrom,2015).

Author(s)of Document:The founding authors to the document were four partners, and theyincluded John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, and BenjaminFranklin (Ostrom,2015).

Purpose,goal or intent:The founding document of America’s political tradition and scoresthe fundamental ideals that form the nation (Ostrom,2015).

TheFederalist Papers

Date(s)of Document:the series of essays were published in the US newspaper in 1787 -1788(Kitrosser,2015).

Author(s)of Document:the chief authors of the report are James Madison, AlexanderHamilton, and John Joy (Kitrosser,2015).

Thepurpose, goal or intent:It was written to enhance ratification of the American Constitution(Kitrosser,2015).

Section4: Power Struggle: State and Federal Government

TheU.S system of governance is based on federalism. It allows each stateto possess its political orientation and power. That implies thatenergy is utilized collectively amongst the state and nationalgovernment. The state has a specified constitution that is similar tothat of the federal government and thus, allows them to enjoy thepleasures of unity and diversity. The state carries out its operationindependent the federal Supreme Court. There are lots of powerstruggle between the two arms of governance due to the classdifference. The national government tends to exercise much authorityto the state governments. The state government, on the other hand,sees themselves as stable powers that are capable of running the owngovernment. The national government offers lots of oversight controlover the state authorities in a manner that is not stipulated in theconstitution (Boyd etal., 2015)

Thefederal government is mandated to provide finances to the state incase they want them to carry out a particular function. It is,therefore, the states mandate to realize the central aims andpolicies. That leads a struggle between the two points of instructionon to what particular extent they should reach in the realization oftheir mandate (Boyd etal., 2015.There is also the conflict of interest in what specific roles thatshould be executed by both authorities. There should be a collectiveway of reasoning to ensure the two governments abide by theconstitution and allow the rule of law to dictate how they operate.

Poweris abused in several ways. That includes warrantless wiretapping,kidnapping, torture and detention, and through political spying.Examples of officials who abused power while in leadership areGovernor Rick Perry who threatened and placed pressure on theDistrict Attorney that he would cut out the state financialallocation to her office. Another official is Governor Mark Sanfordwho faced impeachment for claims of misconduct at the time he was inhis position of authority.

Section5

FederalReserve

TheFederal Reserve, typically known as the central bank in most nations,is a financial, administrative point in the United States and ismandated to regulate policies regarding money and further, supervisesthe country’s banking structures (Boyd etal., 2015).

FreeMarket

Thefree market detonates an economy where the government levies littleor no restriction to buyers and sellers. In the market structure, theplayers of the economy ascertain the products produced, and how, whenand where they are produced. They further determine to whom theyoffer the products and at what cost. These calculations rely on thelaw of supply and demand (Beard,2012).

U.SDebt

TheU.S current debt amount is at $ 16.394 trillion dollars. The U.S hasbecome so far in debt due to the increased government spending onnon-incoming generating projects like infrastructure development andpublic advancements. Also, it rose due to increased borrowing fromother state and world agencies. The debt keeps piling up fromgovernment to government with no promise of reduction (Beard,2012).

IfI were able to decide between progressive, flat and fair taxstructures, I would choose progressive tax structure. This kind ofstructure where an individual’s portion of income that a persondoes remit as tax proportionately increase with an increase inrevenue. That ensures an equitable way of living by the distributionof the income. That enables the state to accumulate more financesthat can, in turn, be used to build the nation (Boyd etal., 2015).

Theindividuals are not paying into the tax structure should be allowedto derive some benefits from taxes. That is a way into the governmentcan support its citizens to better standards of living through theprovision of necessities that are needed for survival. They are notin a position to pay because they have low income and thatnecessitates the need for an extra source of revenue to support theirfamilies. Out of every dollar, I earn I get to keep $ 0.8513 for thefirst $ 150,000, and there is no income tax for those who earn below$ 12,000 (Beard,2012). The progressive tax structure implies that the tax increases asincome rises.

Spending

Thefollowing categories show what the local, state and federalgovernments spend money on as noted by Beard(2012):

LocalGovernment

  • culture and sports

  • health care

  • social welfare

  • housing and utilities

  • maintenance of infrastructure

  • environmental protection

  • education

  • maintenance of law and order

StateGovernment

  • shelter

  • energy

  • industrial sector

  • governance and rule of law

  • education

  • administration and evaluation

  • ports and transportation

  • health and disabilities

  • economic stability

FederalGovernment

  • Social security

  • unemployment and labor

  • Science

  • Energy and the surrounding environment

  • Global affairs

  • Housing and community

  • Transportation

  • Education initiatives

  • Food and agriculture

  • Military services

  • Interest in debt

  • Medicare and health issues

PersonalBudget

Budgetingis a key component during this changing and hard economic period. Thefollowing defines my budget after getting an entry level job upongraduation that pays me $ 13,000.

Grossincome $ 13,000

Tax $ 1900

Netincome $ 11,100

Mortgage $ 650

Rent$ 510

Food $ 400

Carinsurance/phone$ 167

Healthinsurance$ 160

Gas $ 78

Internetprescriptions $ 100

Necessities $ 300

Eatingout $ 130

Rent $ 200

Savings $ 8,405

Section6: Current Office Bearers

Thefollowing are the local, state and federal politicians that arecurrently in office in my local district:

Schoolboard member: Ralph Pacheco

Citycouncil member: Carol Garcia

Janice Hahn

Politicians

Position

Party affiliation

Gavin Newsom

Governor

Democrat

Kamala Harris

Attorney General

Democrat

Hon Alex Padilla

Secretary of State

Democrat

Section7: President

ExecutiveOrder Definition

Executiveorders are presidential legal directives to the federaladministrative units in his functioning capacity as the executivebranch leader. They are primarily used to direct federalinterventions in the implementation of congressionally recognizedlaws (Kitrosser,2015).

Numberof Executive Orders the Current President has Signed

Thecurrent head of state has signed approximately 256 executive ordersin his two terms in office. Out of the two terms, 147 executiveorders were signed during the first tenure, and 109 in the secondongoing term (Kitrosser,2015).

MostUnusual Order

Themost unusual executive order one could find is executive order 10995that permits the state to seize and control communications and mediaplatforms. That implies that the freedom of information and media iscurtailed (Kitrosser,2015).

Czars1.List all of the current Czars,their title and salary (Jefferson,2009)

Current Czar

Salary

  1. Richard Holbrooke

Special representative for Afghanistan and Pakistan

unknown

  1. Jeffrey Crowley

Director of the office of National AIDS Policy

$ 102,000

  1. Ed Montgomery

Director: Recovery for Auto Communities and Workers

unknown

  1. Alan Bersin

Assistant for International Affairs and Special Representative for Border Affairs.

unknown

  1. David J. Hayes

Deputy Interior Secretary

unknown

  1. Ron Bloom

Counselor to the treasury Secretary

unknown

  1. Todd Stern

Special Envoy for Climate Change

unknown

  1. Lynn Rosenthal

White Advisor on Violence against Women

unknown

  1. Gil Kerlikoweske

Director of the office of National Drug Control Policy

unknown

  1. Paul Volcker

Chairperson, Presidential Economic Recovery Advisory Board

Volcker is reportedly not paid for the advices offered.

  1. Carol Browner

Assistant to the President for Energy and Climate Change

$ 172,200

  1. Joshua Dubois

Director, office of the Faith Based and Neighborhood Partnerships

$ 98,000

  1. Jeffrey Zients

Chief Performance Officer

Unknown

  1. Van Jones

Special Advisor for Green Jobs, Enterprise and Innovation at the White House Council on Environmental Quality

unknown

  1. Daniel Fried

Special Envoy to oversee the closure and detention center at Guantanamo Bay

unknown

  1. Nancy Ann DeParie

Councellor to the President and director of the White House of Health reform

$ 158,800

  1. Vivek Kundra

Federal Chief Information Officer

unknown

  1. Dennis Blair

Director of National intelligence

$ 197,700

  1. George Mitchell

Special Envoy for Middle East Peace

unknown

  1. Kenneth R. Feinberg

Special Master on Executive pay

Reportedly not receiving any pay

  1. Cass R. Susstein

Administrator of the White house office information and regulatory affairs

unknown

  1. John Holdren

Assistant to the Science and technology President

White house office of science and technology policy director

Co-chair of the Presidents

Unknown

  1. Earl Deveny

Chair of the Recovery Act Transparency and Accountability Board

unknown

  1. J. Scott Gration

Special Envoy to Sudan

unknown

  1. Herb Allison

Assistant Secretary to the Financial Stability Treasury

unknown

  1. Anneesh Chopra

Chief Technology Officer

unknown

  1. John Brennan

Assistant to the Homeland Security and counterterrorism president

$ 172,200

  1. Adolfo Carrion JR.

White house director of urban affairs

$ 158,500

  1. Ashton Cater

Serves under the secretary of defense for acquisition, technology as well as logistics

unknown

  1. Gary Samore

White house coordinator concerning Mass destruction weaponry, security and control of arms

unknown

  1. Cass R. Sunstein

Deals with the information and regulatory affairs in the white house

unknown

Howthe Czars Obtained the Positions

Czarsare the presidential appointees to occupy various directorialpositions and do not have to undergo Senate vetting for confirmation.Their decisions have a significant on the regime that serves theWhite House (Kitrosser,2015).

Section8: Judges

LocalJudges and Party

Local Judges

Party

Scott Jackson

Neutral Political Stand

Cory Woodward

Neutral

Debra Archuleta

Neutral

Michael Coffino

Neutral

Victor Hwang

Neutral

ByCarpet al. (2016)

CaSupreme Court Judges and their party.

Ca Supreme Court Judge

Party

Associate Justice Goodwin

Selected by Gov. Jerry Brown

Chief Justice Tani Cantil

Selected by Gov Arnold Schwarzenegger

Associate Justice Mariano

Selected by Gov. Jerry Brown

Associate Justice Leondra

Selected by Gov. Jerry Brown

ByCarpet al. (2016)U.S.Supreme Court Judges and their Parties

U.S supreme Court Judges

Party

Elena Kagan

Democratic Party

Sonia Sotomayor

Democratic Party

Samuel Alito

Associate Justice

John Roberts

Republican

Stephen Breyer.

Democratic Party

Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Democratic party

Anthony Kennedy

Republican

ByCarpet al. (2016)Powerof Judges

Asreflected in article 3 of the U.S constitution, the Judges will be inoffice only if they are of good behavior, and are entitled tosalaries (Carpet al., 2016).

Section9: Media News Sources

MediaHouses

  • CBS Corporation.

  • Comcast Corporation.

  • 21st Century Fox.

  • News Corp.

CBSCorporation media house provides the clients with more informationand covers topics of importance. The areas of operation includebroadcasting, television production and publishing. They provide upto date information that easily provokes consumer insight. CBSCorporation is owned by Sumner Redstone, proprietor of NationalAmusements and serves as chairman of the parent company (Goldberg,2014).Comcast Corporation is a solely held subsidiary firm. 21st CenturyFox was founded and owned by Robert Murdoch in 1979 (Croteau&amp Hoynes, 2013).News Corp is the property of Robert Murdoch. News Corp and CBSCorporation donate finances to the Republican as a political party tospearhead their business interests. Fox 21ST Century focus onassisting men, women, and children of quality notwithstanding theirpolitical affiliations (Bagdikian,2014).News Corp is not affiliated with a political party but channels theirfinancial support to particular candidates who have shown thepotential of what they can do for the electorate (Croteau&amp Hoynes, 2013).

Section10: Political Issues’ Polls

Onemethod of assessment by the voters is through questioning. That helpsto ascertain the viability of each candidate depending on how theyrespond to concerns of national outlook. Below is a list of somequestions that a candidate is most likely to be asked (Kitrosser,2015):

1)Is it possible for you to name a task system that you wouldpossibly repeal?

2)Are the inhabitants of our state at liberty to participate in anybusiness that they pick?

3)Do the residents of this state have the right to purchase handgunsand keep machine guns? Validate?

4)Is it possible for the judges tell jurors that they possess theright to choose whether the law in question is constitutional or not?

5)Should it be lawful for the police to search vehicles without alicense?

6)Can a tax amount be so high that it becomes intolerable?

7)Is drug war succeeding? Should all the drugs be made lawful?

8)Whose powers are restricted by the 10th modification?

9)Can you swear an oath to defend the constitution?

10)Can the policymakers ratify legislation for any drive in theinterest of the public?

Thequestions are relevant as they seek an explanation of the keylegislative issues that affect the people. They, therefore, expectthe politicians to help them in finding a solution once elected tooffice. The questions, though straightforward and precise, have deepissues that warrant address in the nation.

Section11: 4 Political Parties

Severalpolitical parties have been in existence since the beginning of thePolitical system of America. A political party is a group of personsthat share common aims and ideals and work in unison to electindividuals into the office to represent them (Kitrosser,2015).

Discussedherein are some of the political parties in the U.S

DemocraticParty

Itis one of the two leading parties in the U.S. and the other being theRepublican Party. Dramatic transformations has been realized in theparty in the last centuries it has existed. The party supportedslavery and highly opposed reforms on civil rights to help Southernvoters. It is reportedly the oldest political party in the U.S andamongst the eldest parties in the world. It traced its roots in 1792(Rosati&amp Scott, 2013).

RepublicanParty

Reportedlyone of the oldest political parties alongside its rival, theDemocratic Party. They stood against the extension of the slave tradeto the nation’s new territories and finally the abolishment of thesame. The Republican term got its adoption in 1972 by ThomasJefferson supporters who were in support of a decentralized system ofgovernance with curtailed powers. The party is still robust andfielding candidates for competitive elective positions (Rosati&amp Scott, 2013).

LibertarianParty

Thepolitical party is dedicated to the philosophies of libertarianism. It vehemently supports the rights of persons to execute total powerover their lives and position itself against any traditional andregulatory powers of the state, federal and local authorities. It wasfounded in Westminster, Colorado in 1972. It has since then fieldedcandidates for elective positions (Rosati&amp Scott, 2013).

GreenParty

Thispolitical party is formally arranged based on the principles of greenpolitics, for instance, social justice, and non-violence. The Greensbelieve that these concerns are inherently connected to each otherand are a great foundation for the peace of the world. That is thefourth largest party in the United States of America and is highlygeared in promoting environmentalism, social justice, genderequality, anti-racism among other determinants (Rosati&amp Scott, 2013).

Section12: Organizations in the USA

a)Move on – an American organization founded in 1998 and works toeducate ordinary persons into politics by having a stance on policyissues and advocates for reforms on financial matters (Cummings&amp Worley, 2014).

b)Media matters- it’s a politically sensitive watchdog andinformation center that expansively monitors, evaluates, monitors andcorrects conservative misinformation (Bagdikian,2014).

c)Tides Foundation- the organization was founded by an activistbased in California called Drummond Pike in 1976. It’s aprogressive mega-firm mandated with designing profoundtransformations to the environmental policy (Cummings&amp Worley, 2014).

d)Weather Underground – the organization was founded in 1969. Itwere an underground, extremist division for the scholars in ademocratic world (Cummings&amp Worley, 2014).

e)Center for American Progress is a reformist public policyinvestigation, formulation, and advocacy organization in the U.S(Cummings&amp Worley, 2014).

f)Organizing for America is a community-based organization of theDemocratic National Committee that was founded after the ushering inof Obama as the succeeding head of state (Lawson&amp Merkl, 2014).

g)Media research center is a conformist content analysis firm thatwas established in 1987 and based in Virginia to assess politicalpositions or popularity of parties and leaders (Lawson&amp Merkl, 2014).

h)Freedom works- this is a grassroots organization that is dedicatedto assisting activists to fight for the reduction of taxes andincreased freedom of the people (Lawson&amp Merkl, 2014).

i)Heritage foundation-this a foundation examination think tank thatis based in Washington Center for Self Governance- this is anon-profit based educational firm that is devoted to educatingcitizens about issues of realistic civics (Lawson&amp Merkl, 2014).

k)Human events- it’s the foremost nation’s conservative voicesince its inception in 1944 (Lawson&amp Merkl, 2014).

l)National Review- the organization provides updated interpretationof politics, culture, and news (Lawson&amp Merkl, 2014).

Otherorganizations in the US include Feeding America and Task Force forGlobal health.

Section13:

a.)A bond is a signed agreement to pay a particular amount offinances, or at the moment the agreement is attained (Alvarez,2014).

b.)Prop is an object that is placed under another to allow it not tofall (Alvarez,2014).

c.)Absentee ballot- this is the case where a registered qualifiedleader does not take their opportunity to vote (Alvarez,2014).

d.)Provisional ballot- this is a ballot when a record a vote atscenarios where we have questions regarding the eligibility of voters(Alvarez,2014).

e.) Office block ballot details the platform where candidates arenamed alphabetically plus or minus their party affiliations (Alvarez,2014).

Aboutthe next ensuing election, California Secretary of State informed theelectorate that they will vote for Marijuana legalization, control ofguns, tobacco taxes, plastic bags, health and drug costs, and thealteration of the death penalty.

Conclusion

Fromthe above discussions, it is envisaged that politics is a dynamicfield that cannot be covered completely in a single research paper.It is a vital part of the State departments, and it helps to shapethe social and economic platforms at the local, regional, national,and international levels. Laws are an essential component of politicsthat inform about the importance of the constitution and the need toobserve the specifications of the bills.

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