Discuss a clinical problem related to intimate partner violence or child abuse
Intimatepartner violence (IPV) involves the subjection to physical, sexualand psychological abuse (American College of Obstetricians andGynecologists, 2012). It is mainly a behavioral act that is exhibitedby someone who wishes to have an intimate relationship with an adult.It results when one wants to establish control over the other. Thiskind of behavior has adverse health effects, both psychological andphysical. The victims are mainly women or the inferior groups who maynot have the capability of being authoritative to their partners.Physical abuse can lead to serious injuries or even death. Thepsychological abuse usually involves insults, harassment and namecalling, which can make a woman lose her sense of self-worth(Macmillan & Wathen, 2013). The emotional and behavioral problemsthat are likely to occur due to IPV include substance abuse, mood,anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorders, among others (MacMillan& Wathen, 2013). The clinical problem of interest is thepost-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Post-traumaticdisorder (PTSD) refers to a mental condition that occurs when someoneexperiences or witnesses scary and life-threatening events (NationalInstitute of Mental Health, 2016). PSTD has been a threat to peopleexposed to various forms of insults and violence and thus, it hasbeen labeled as one of the life-threatening disorders in the world(Macmillan & Wathen, 2013). PTSD can either be chronic or acute.The symptoms begin to manifest mostly after three months of theincident, and sometimes years afterward (National Institute of MentalHealth, 2016). For it to be considered as PTSD, the symptoms mustlast for more than a month and should be serious enough to interferewith the relationship of the partners involved. The presence of PTSDis confirmed when an adult has re-experiencing symptoms, avoidance,arousal and cognition and mood symptoms for at least one month(National Institute of Mental Health, 2016).
Describe a current practice based intervention related to the topic
Accordingto Baldwin et al. (2014), PTSD is both preventable and treatable. Itis important to note that PTSD affects people differently, andtherefore the procedures may vary from one person to the other(NationalInstitute of Mental Health, 2016).
Whena traumatic event happens to someone, it is recommended to discuss onhow to prevent the symptoms from occurring, and if confirmed,preventive treatment with propranolol (160 mg/day) should beconsidered (Baldwin et al., 2014). This medication is said to beeffective in the reduction of subsequent post-traumatic symptoms andmental hyperactivity to trauma reminders (Baldwin et al., 2014).Trauma-focused CBT has also proven to be superior in the preventionof chronic post-traumatic symptoms when administered within sixmonths after the trauma (Baldwin et al., 2014).
Thetreatment of post-traumatic stress disorder involves theadministration antidepressants such as paroxetine, sertraline, andvenlafaxine (Baldwin et al., 2014), which help in controlling PTSDsymptoms such as worry, anger, sadness, and feeling of numb inside(NationalInstitute of Mental Health, 2016).Another intervention is psychotherapy. This involves a talk with aprofessional who has the expertise to treat mental illness. The talksare normally conducted in groups or one-on-one. In such instances,the mental health professional tries to understand the patient betterand comfort him/her. Effective therapies are supposed to focus on themain components which include educating the patient about thesymptoms, teaching skills that help in identifying the triggers andskills on how to manage them. The Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT)has proven to be effective (Baldwin et al., 2014). A discussion withthe patient on the available medications is necessary since peoplereact differently to the interventions.
Inconclusion, more evidence-based research studies should be carriedout to establish the strength of the interventions of PTSD. It is nodoubt that the disorder is life threatening and has seriousconsequences which need to be dealt with in a systematic manner.
AmericanCollege of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (2012). Committee onHealthcare for Underserved Women. Intimate Partner Violence.Committee Opinion no. 518. ObstetGynecol,119,412–7.Retrieved November 12, 2016, fromhttp://www.acog.org/Resources-And-Publications/Committee-Opinions/Committee-on-Health-Care-for-Underserved-Women/Intimate-Partner-Violence
Baldwin,D. S., Anderson, I. M., Nutt, D. J., Allgulander, C., Band low, B.,den Boer, J. A., … & Malizia, A. (2014). Evidence-basedpharmacological treatment of anxiety disorders, post-traumatic stressdisorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder: a revision of the 2005guidelines from the British Association for Psychopharmacology.Journalof Psychopharmacology,28(5),403-439. Retrieved November 12, 2016, fromhttp://eprints.soton.ac.uk/367917/1/AnxietyGuidelines2014.pdf
NationalInstitute of Mental Health. (2016, February). Post-Traumatic StressDisorder. Retrieved November 12, 2016, fromhttps://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/post-traumatic-stress-disorder-ptsd/index.shtml
Wathen,C. N., & MacMillan, H. L. (2013). Children`s exposure to intimatepartner violence: Impacts and interventions. Paediatrics& Child Health (1205-7088),18(8).Retrieved November 12, 2016, fromhttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3887080/