Prostate Cancer, Article Summary

ProstateCancer, Article Summary

ProstateCancer, Article Summary

Accordingto Torre et al. (2015), prostate cancer persists as the second mostprevalent cancer in men around the world, with about 17% of theglobe’s populace suffering from the infection. Its diagnosis amongmen in the established countries is very frequent, with incidencesvarying by more than 25-fold worldwide. The cases of prostate cancerare highest in the regions of North America, Middle Africa,Australia, Eastern/Western Europe, and the Caribbean and lower Asianareas (Torre et al., 2015). Therefore, this research paper aims todetermine the prevalence of prostate cancer among the populations ofmale individuals. It summarizes the two articles by Ikuerowo et al.2013 and Scher et al. (2015) to determine the incidences of prostatecancer in Nigeria and the United States respectively.

ArticleSummary and Analysis

ArticleOne, Ikuerowo et al. 2013

Ikuerowoet al. (2013) observed that prostate cancer is the top frequentlydetected infection among the men of Nigeria, but the screening of thedisease is not practiced fully in the country. In an attempt todetermine the rate of prostate cancer in Nigeria, Ikuerowo et al.(2013) conducted a study in the Lagos with the support of the LagosState Ministry of Health. Hence, a total of 20 local government areaswere identified for the research, and male subjects aged 40 years andabove subjected to digital rectal examination (DRE) and serum totalPSA (tPSA) test. Additionally, those who had unusual DRE or tPSAabove the ninety-fifth percentile of the subjects under scrutiny werechosen for prostate biopsy-TRPB. In the examination, a cohort of 4172men underwent the screening process, with a total of 4110 of theparticipants successfully completing the assessment. Also, theaverage age of the subjects was 60.8. The number of men with DREabnormality was 410, a figure that was highly correlated with theparticipant’s age and tPSA, with a p value of less than 0.001. When341 men were subjected to TRBP, 43 were positive regarding thehistological diagnosis of prostate cancer. That signified aprevalence rate of 1046 per 100,000 males aged 40 and above inNigeria. Consequently, Ikuerowo et al. (2013) concluded that prostatecancer’s prevalence is very high in Nigeria, one of Africa’smajor economies. The findings were in line with the statisticsprovided by Torre et al. (2015), which maps North Africa as one ofthe leading areas in the continent concerning prostate cancerincidences among men aged 50 and above (10.6% occurrence rate).

ArticleTwo, Scher et al. 2015

Cancerof the prostate is the most frequently established disease and thesecond most source of mortality among the male populations of theUnited States. According to Scher et al. (2015), the infection had anapproximated occurrence of 29,480 mortalities and 233,000 new casesby the fall of 2014. In an attempt to find out the prevalence ofprostate cancer in the U.S, Scher et al. (2015) used a dynamicprogression model to estimate death and infection rates of thedisease. They derived simulations from the 1990 data, progression anddeath incidences from meta-analyses, clinical trials, andobservations. Hence, the resulting model estimates of prostate cancershowed that 2,219,280 men suffered from the infection in the year2009 and that by 2020, the number shall have increased to 3,072,480.Similarly, an estimated 168,290 males died in 2009, and by 2020, thetotal mortality will be 219,360. Nevertheless, Scher et al. (2015)concluded that the prevalence of prostate cancer in the U.S remainssignificantly high, and the trend is expected to rise in the future.That echoed the statistical report by Torre et al. (2015), whichindicated that the prevalence rate of the infection averages 28.01%in America, and with mortality incidences of 9.8% annually.

Conclusion

Fromthe above considerations, prostate cancer remains an area of globalconcern in the field of healthcare and medicine. That relates to thehigh prevalence rates of new infections and mortalities regarding thedisease.

References

Ikuerowo,S. O., Omisanjo, O. A., Bioku, M. J., Ajala, M. O., Mordi, V. P. N.,&amp Esho, J. O. (2013). Prevalence and characteristics of prostatecancer among participants of a communitybased screening in Nigeriausing serum prostate specific antigen and digital rectalexamination.&nbspPanAfrican Medical Journal,&nbsp15(1).

Scher,H. I., Solo, K., Valant, J., Todd, M. B., &amp Mehra, M. (2015).Prevalence of prostate cancer clinical states and mortality in theUnited States: Estimates using a dynamic progression model.&nbspPloSone,&nbsp10(10),e0139440.

Torre,L. A., Bray, F., Siegel, R. L., Ferlay, J., Lortet‐Tieulent,J., &amp Jemal, A. (2015). Global cancer statistics, 2012.&nbspCA:a cancer journal for clinicians,&nbsp65(2),87-108.