Psychology Psychology




“Reviewof ‘Oxytocin Modulate and Social Distances between Males andFemales’”

Variousbehaviors exhibited during first encounters play a huge role inindicating any attraction between opposite sexes. One such behavioris the presence of eye-contact. Also the Personal Space (PS) betweenthe two, where a closer PS would suggest intimacy. But it is thebehavior engaged in approaching the opposite gender (usually by themale) that is important in portraying potential interests,romantically (Scheele et al., 2012). Research has suggested that theprosocial neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) enhances the attraction, (andits related behaviors), between a male and a female. The question ofthe role of OXT in male-female interactions is realis what informed the subject of the experiment. The hypothesis to betested was whether personal traits determined the effects of ‘OXT’on the promptness of male to cosset in approach norms.

Independentvariables were personal features.They included attachmentanxiety,culturalcognitive proficiency, and relationship status. The factors weremeasured usingthe ‘Social Interactions Anxiety Scale’ and the‘Social Phobic Scale’. The dependent variable was Influence of‘OXT’ on approach behavior of male individuals. Intranasal OXTwasadministeredon a group of subjects. The control group of subjects did not receiveany dose of OXT. H0:OXThas no influence on approach behavior of men. H1OXT influences approach behavior of people(Scheele et al., 2012).

Inthe experiment, the PS between men and the experimenter averagedbetween 49.89cm to73.61cm. PS in the control experiment averaged49.33cm to 78.87cm (Scheele et al., 2012). The difference isstatistically significant.

Insummary, this confirms that OXT does determine the approach behaviorof men. It stimulated peopleto keep a relatively closer PS between them and a beautiful woman.However, The PS was larger for men in relationships than single men.Therefore OXT can curb promiscuity in men in relationships.


Scheele,D., Striepens, N., Hurlemann, R., (2012). Oxytocin modulatesSocial Distancebetween Males and Females. TheJournal of Neuroscience, 32(46), 16074-16079.

Psychology Psychology



Humandevelopment is influenced by a number of forces. The biologicalforces, social world and psychology influence development of humans(Salkind, 2002). Biological forces involve the physiologicaldevelopment that models a life up to maturity (McDevitt &amp Ormrod,2002). It involves the genes, nutrition, and hormones that influencedevelopment (Charlesworth, 2010). In this case, the feelings,thoughts, and behaviors of humans are examined from a biologicalpoint of view. Psychological forces involve the emotions, thoughts,and behavioral developments that cause maturity (Charlesworth, 2010).When one grows, he or she gets to understand the complexity of theworld. Learning, choices, and personality are all psychologicalfactors. In many cases, a huge change would occur in childhood, andsome shifts could develop in the course of development. The socialworld also influences the development of humans (Albert, 2014). Theideas, values, and belief of the society influence development in anumber of ways. The morals, practices, and habits of a certainsociety will influence of a child development. To understand howbiology, psychology and social world influence development frominfancy, to adulthood, I report a case of my friend Peter.

Peteris a 32-year-old male about 5.2 inches tall. He has problems buildingrelationships with other people. He is withdrawn and stays away fromsocial places. Peter has had an average performance in school fromkindergarten to university. He is now studying to be the teacher buthas problems with his language. He struggles to pronounce someEnglish syllables. Peter is also an alcoholic. He is addicted toalcohol. Peter thinks his alcohol problem was inherited from hisfather who is an alcoholic.

Peter’sstruggles in life started when he was an infant. His father andmother separated when he was 3 months of age. He was left with hisdad, who moved in with Peter’s step-mother. Peter suffered neglectas his step-mother could lock him up in his room for long hourswithout food. As a result, he developed mistrust due to negativeattachment (Charlesworth, 2010). The mistrust in peter is a conflictthat later made him struggle in creating relationships with otherpeople. He also developed shame and doubt due to mistrust. It is forthis reason that he cannot trust the people around him. This is anexample of how the social world influenced the development of a life.If Peter’s step-mother gave peter a better treatment during theinfancy stage, then Peter would have developed trust instead ofmistrust.

Inchildhood, peter started school like his peers. At this level, heencountered a wider social world. He could perform well in class butbecause of his language problem, his peers made him feel anxious.There are moments when he developed the sense of guilt due to hisirresponsible behavior. Peter’s performance in class was average.This is a clear indication that he got right genes from his parents.His average performance in class despite his language problem showshow biology can shape development.

Peter’salcohol problem started at child hood stage. His father could givehim alcohol and tell him, that all men must take alcohol. Withoutnoticing it, Peter realized that he could not do without alcohol.Through observation learning, Peter learned that taking alcohol wasnormal. The social world here made peter acquire an alcohol problem.Given that Peter’s father was an alcoholic we could say that Peterwas easy to be initiated into alcoholism because the problem waspassed to him through genes. I asked Peter about this and heconfirmed to me that even his grandfather was an alcoholic. In thiscase, both the biology and social world played a role in making Peteran alcoholic.

Asa teenager, Peter’s family moved from America to Rome. The greatestchallenge that peters had was to learn the Latin language. It was anuphill task as he had some language problems already. However, due tohis strong genetic makeup, he was able to learn Latin. The familystayed in Rome for five years. Peter completed his high school degreewhile in Rome. He was not excellent in Latin but could do basiccommunication in Latin. After 5 years in Rome, the family traveledback to America. Peter’s shift from America to Rome affected him agreat deal. His English language grew from bad to worse. The culturein Rome is different from that in America. When in Rome, Peter had toadjust to the new culture and study there. Some of his goals in lifewere shaped there. He developed the need to be a priest while helived in Rome. This is another example how the social world caninfluence development. The culture in Rome made Peter develop thedesire to be a priest.

Peter’sfather was against the idea of priesthood. He wanted his son to be ateacher. As such, he made Peter study an education degree. Peter’sfather influenced the development of his son. The perceptions,values, and morals of his father informed him into forcing Peter totake up teaching as a career. This is another way through which thesocial world influenced development.

Asa young adult, Peter’s struggles in life were shaped by thebiology, social world and psychology. His inability to form uprelationships with other people was shaped by both the social worldand psychology. Even though Peter didn’t develop a positiveattachment in infancy, his emotions, and thoughts contributed to hisbehavior. Objective thoughts towards his childhood could make himbuild safe relationships. Negative thoughts towards his childhoodcontributed to his inability to form relationships with other people.

Peter’swithdrawal mood was shaped by both the social world and psychology.The social world presented occasion when Peter was made anxious, histhoughts made him develop guilt hence withdrawal. The conflict herecould be solved by Peter rearranging the events as they happened andestablishing an objective thought over each event (Choudhury,Blakemore &amp Charman, 2006).

Peter’saverage performance in school was shaped by biology, psychology, andsocial world. The genes passed to Peter by his parents made himperform well in school. The social world equally presentedopportunities for Peter to learn. Peter’s thoughts, emotions, andbehavior also made him have an average performance in class.

Peter’sLanguage problem was developed when he was an infant. Hisstep-mother’s neglect played a huge role in Peter’s languageproblem. Peter’s ability to learn the language was affected when hewas locked up in a room by his step-mother. Peters’ thoughts andemotions towards his language problem and childhood experience had arole to play in his language problem. As such, both psychology, andsocial world played a role in shaping the language of Peter.

Peter’sheight is the exact height of his father. The two have a height of5.2 inches. The height of Peter was shaped by biology factors.Peter’s physical growth from infancy to adulthood was influenced bythe genes passed to him by his parents (Charlesworth, 2010). As hemoved to childhood, teenage hood, and adulthood, the genesresponsible for his height were still active. It is for that reasonthat he has a similar height to that of his father. In this case,biology influenced the physical development of peter.

Thecase of Peter is an example of how psychology, social world, andbiology can influence the development of a child. Children developeach and every day of their lifetime. Starting from infancy toadulthood, the children move through a steady milestone ofdevelopment, which includes all development areas. Some of theaspects of child development include cognitive development, physicalgrowth, gender development, sexual development, and psychosexualdevelopment. The child develops cognitively, emotionally, andlanguage wise. In this development, the psychology, the biology, andthe social world shape the development at each stage. The story ofPeter also demonstrates that the early experiences in one’s lifeshape behavior. However, there is some level of learning that islearned through observational learning just like in Peter’s story.


Albert,I. (2014). The role of culture in social development over the lifespan: An Interpersonal relations Approach. Retrieved on 6/11/2016from

Charlesworth,R. (2010) Understanding child development. Oxford: Oxford UniversityPress.

Choudhury,S., Blakemore, S. &amp Charman, T. (2006) Social cognitivedevelopment during adolescence. Soc cogn Affect neurosci, 1(3):165-174.

Salkind,N. (2002) Child Development. New York: McGraw-Hill

McDevitt,T. &amp Ormrod, J. (2002). Child development and education. Merrill:Prentice hall.