QualitativeMethod of Research
Isthe phenomenon of interest clearly identified and what is it?
Theidentified phenomenon of interest is the resilience of the Japaneseatomic bomb survivors. The main aim of the phenomenon is to explorethe experience of Nagasaki and Hiroshima bomb survivors, those whocame into the city 14-days after the incidents and those whoparticipated in helping the survivors or in burying those killed.Capturing the stories of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors wouldcontribute to preserving history as well as expanding the knowledgeof comprehensive, holistic care for victims exposed to radiation(Knowles, 2011).
Whattype of qualitative research design is in this article? Describe thedesign used in detail
Thequalitative research design employed in the article is a qualitativedescriptive approach. This method was employed to explore theexperiences of the atomic bomb survivors in order to offer arealistic view of the incident (Knowles, 2011). The study approachincluded three qualitative research methods: ethnography, oralhistory, and narrative analysis. The three methods normally allow theparticipants’ voice to be heard and consist of exploringexperiences, stories, and connotations to promote advocacy or gainperspective. The three methods collect data through a story,open-ended interviewing and first-person accounts. The oral historytechnique was used to collect and preserve data while the narrativeanalysis approach allowed for interviewing and analysis of data.Ethnography was used to carefully explore artefact as well as othercollected items (Knowles, 2011).
Whydoes the phenomenon require a qualitative format?
Qualitativeresearch method has been proven to make a notable contribution topeople understanding of the resilience construct (Knowles, 2011).More specifically, qualitative research approach addresses twoprecise inadequacies noted by researchers: uncertainty in the outcomevariables selection, and the difficulty in accounting for the socialcontext in which resilience takes place. Qualitative research helpsto solve the two dilemmas in several ways: Qualitative techniques arevery suited to discover unidentified protective processes pertinentto the lived experiences of the atomic bomb survivor participantsoffer in-depth description of the phenomenon in actual contextsprovoke as well as add power to the voices of minority which formdistinctive localized definitions of positive results promotetolerance for the localized constructions by eluding generalization,however, facilitating results transferability and, demandresearchers to explain their biased views. Besides the use of thequalitative descriptive approach to explore the experiences of theatomic bomb, would offer a real perspective of the event (Knowles,2011).
Whatmethods (s) of data collection were used and are they appropriate forthis study?
Semi-structuredinterview method was used to collect data from the participants. Inaddition, oral history approach was also employed to collect the liveaccounts of the participants’ experiences on the phenomenon(Knowles, 2011). Through the interviewing, the qualified participantswere asked to give their personal account with the atomic bombattack. The researcher also used additional articles and books fromthe participants to support the information they gave during theinterview to ascertain that what is collected is relevant and of theright theme (Knowles, 2011). Additional data were collected throughfield notes. It is appropriate since interviews are normally toexplore experiences of individuals as it allows the researcher to getfirsthand information about the actual life experience of theindividual. In addition, the participants provided writtennarratives, photographs, a diary, or other artifacts, which were auseful source of data. During the semi-structured interview process,the researcher asked a series of open-ended questions together withaccompanying questions that probed for more contextual and detaileddata. Therefore, the answers of the participants provided anin-depth, rich information that helped the researcher to understandthe unique and shared aspects of the experiences that the survivorsof the atomic bomb attack had to live with.
Describehow data saturation was achieved in this study and comment on whydata saturation is important in qualitative nursing research.
Datasaturation is attained when there is adequate data to replicate thestudy when the ability to obtain other new information has beenachieved, and when additional coding is no longer possible.Qualitative research does not have a specific number of participantsthat can be predetermined (Knowles, 2011). The collection of datagoes on until the current analysis reveals no new themes were addingto the description. The study saturation was achieved by interviewingeight participants. After the completion of the interview,transcripts analysis was done to identify themes. Very experiencedand qualified qualitative researchers reviewed the transcripts at aninterdisciplinary level. This was mainly to improve the validity ofthe analysis (Knowles, 2011). Saturation as a tool ensure thatquality and adequate data are gathered to support the study. Missingto reach data saturation would affect the research quality and itscontent validity. Data saturation is useful as it shows that theresearcher used the recommended samples hence improving its validity.Besides, data saturation is importance since the obtained datathrough interviews can be used without having to conduct otherresearch or surveys to get enough data for cohesive analysis.Non-useful or redundant data is eliminated, and the needed data isemployed to report results and make conclusions regarding the subjectof the study—resilience in Atomic Bomb Survivors (Knowles, 2011).
Howdoes the researcher describe the strategies used to analyze the data?Explain the data analysis
Theaudio-recorded interviews were analyzed and transcribed. It analyzedunstructured data to allow for improved insight, better decisions,and effective results. The artefacts were employed to add to thecontextual backgrounds knowledge during the analysis of thetranscripts (Knowles, 2011). The researcher read transcripts providedby the participants carefully, making notations in the margins.Normally, notations of initial transcript margin are short phrasesattempting to capture what the participant is discussing in part ofthe interview. This brief notation is known as “utterances” thatare not considered yet about other ideas or declarations in thetranscript text. The sorting out of the useful and unrequiredmaterial was then done by the researcher. The researcher mainlyfocused on information that relates to survivors experiences. Theresearcher then developed observations into preliminary interpretiveand descriptive categories based on the conceptual framework ortheory used to guide the study, literature review, and evidence thatthe transcripts present. The observations made initially wereextended until the possibilities and implications were played outmore fully. The examinations of the preliminary codes were thenexamined thoroughly by the researcher to identify connections as wellas develop pattern codes. The observations made in the first twophases were developed as per other observations (Knowles, 2011). Theresearcher then determined the basic themes by scrutinizingcollections of remarks that the respondents made and notes that theresearcher prepared. The theme is a meaning statement that runvirtually through the relevant data or one in the marginal withstrong factual or emotional effect. The researcher concluded byexamining themes from all interviews across the participants tooutline major themes within the data. The major themes served asripostes to research questions as well as formed the basis for thewriting up of data. The researcher kept field notes, codes,categorized and appraised alongside the narrative. In the study, theresearcher triangulated data from narrative analysis of interviews,observations, and artefacts observation to provide full pictureexperiences of the atomic bomb survivors. The two theme derived atthe end of analysis was the theme of surviving and thriving (Knowles,2011).
Howis trustworthiness achieved in this study? Discuss how credibility,audibility, and fittingness were met.
Trustworthinessinvolves elements such as credibility, confirmability, dependability,and transferability. Trustworthiness enables the researchers toexplain merits of qualitative terms outside the parameters thequantitative researcher generally employs. It supports the notionthat inquiry’s outcome are worth considering. The intention of theresearcher was to understand the experiences of the atomic bombsurvivors and their level of resilience. Hence, the study was notperformed to have a narrow approach or favor any party that couldhave influenced the outcome (Knowles, 2011). This is a fundamentalelement of trustworthiness. The fittingness, audibility, andcredibility were based on a detailed and accurate description ofevery section of the research process as well as the relationshipbetween descriptive categories and empirical data. The author usedtriangulation method to address credibility issue. The researcheraccomplished triangulation by asking similar research questions ofvarious study participants as well as gathering data from thedifferent source and employing various techniques to answer thoseresearch questions. The researcher used the quote to support thestudied theme. This ensured study audibility. The study fittingnesswas met since the experience reported were of the real survivors andwitnesses of an atomic bomb attack. It was achieved throughsemi-structured interviews that offered the opportunity to atomicbomb survivors to share their experiences (Knowles, 2011).
Howdoes this study add to nursing practice? Explain.
Thestudy adds to nursing practices since the study contributes someadditional knowledge on resilience (Knowles, 2011). Since no researchhad been conducted on the level of resilience on adults who wereexposed to traumatizing events in their early childhood. It allowsnurses to understand more the concept of resilience and note thepeople who can be more resilience following a disaster and those thatrequire constant counseling support. The study revealed that thelonger the person lives after a disaster may make him more resilientor as people grow old, they learn to be resilient to traumaassociated with the adverse event they experienced during their earlystages of life. Besides, the study contributes new knowledge to thenursing practice since it states area that requires more focus, tohelp the nurse to fully understand the concept of resilience to helpthe handle people who have failed to come out of a bitter experiencethey had in the past. The study finding precisely adds to thedisaster nursing literature as well as explains resilience role inthe life perspective of the atomic bomb survivors. The holistic care,as well as psychosocial issues in nursing aspects, have littleliterature. Capturing the narratives from the aging atomic bombsurvivors would offer a platform to preserving history as well asexpanding the knowledge of comprehensive, holistic care for victimsexposed to radiation (Knowles, 2011).
Howis the protection of human subjects addressed in this study? Explain
Thestudy addressed the protection of human subject. Before, thecommencement of the interview, the atomic bomb survivors werecontacted to seek their approval to participate in the study. Theywere contacted through FOH (Friends of Hibakusha). Human subjects inthe study were atomic bomb survivors and friends of Hibakusha(Knowles, 2011). The participants were guaranteed their anonymity andwere free to withdraw from the study at any time. While getting theinformed consent, every participant provided oral and writtenpermission to either disclose or not disclose his or her identity byusing a pseudony
Knowles,A. (2011). Resilience among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.InternationalNursing Review,58(1),54-60. doi:10.1111/j.1466-7657.2010.00855.