Responseto Part 1: The effective and least effect elements of deterrence
Themost effective element of deterrence is punishment. To assuredesirable outcomes, the punishment meted should correspond with thegravity of the action taken and overshadow the incentives. Punishmentis the most efficient because it creates the allowance for people tolearn by examples and desist from engaging in wrongdoing. Wrongdoersare always rational individuals who weigh the costs and the benefitsof their action before making a decision. Research on the role ofpunishment is documented and essentially shows it is effective indeterring crimes. For instance, the study by DrugEnforcement Agency (DEA 2016)indicates that drug enforcement offenses have been reducing over timeas a result of stringent legal regulations and deterrent punishment.
Thenumber of drug seizure for all types has been reducing. For instance,the seizure of cocaine fell from 33,770 kilograms in 2011 to30,061kilograms in 2014. The same case was reflected for heroin,marijuana, methamphetamine and hallucinogens, which increased from1,020, 74,225, and 2,946 kilograms in 2011, to 1,077, 575,972, and2,561 kilograms in 2014, respectively. The numbers of arrests forviolations of drug laws have also reduced for the last five years.The drug violations starting from 2011 to 2015 was 1,531,251,1,510,432, 1,401,043, 1,261,231, and 1,288,707 people, respectively.The same situation is reflected for robbery crimes. The statistics onthe robbery from state and local enforcement agencies show that thecrime has been reducing significantly over time. For instance, Snyder(2015) notes that as of 2010, 115,300 arrests were made in therobbery. The number of arrests made for the same crime in 2015 was113,300.
Theleast effective element of deterrence is forgiveness. The practice offorgiveness entails letting the offenders scot-free for the actionscommitted. Forgiveness may only typically be accompanied by a warningthat such an action will not be taken lightly if committed again. The action of forgiveness premises on the notion that since the humanare inherently conscious beings, they are capable of learning fromtheir mistakes and reforming, and that wrongdoers deserve to be givena second chance to manage their courses of action, before subjectingthem to punishment. While its premises are valid, they may not applyto all situations. If only, they serve as an incentive for otherindividuals to engage in wrongdoing, reasoning they can be forgiven,after all.
Responseto part 2:
Thesanctions to use to deter the offender, and whether such sanctionswould deter other offenders
Themost recommendable sanction to use in deterring the offender will bepunishment. In particular, this is suitable because it acknowledgesthat wrongdoers are typical rational individuals who must alwaysconsider the negative and positive sides of action before making adecision. In this regard, punishment presents itself as adiscouragement to doing wrong. Thischoice of sanction will also deter others. Ideally, punishmentcreates the allowance for people to learn by examples and desist fromengaging in wrongdoing.The punishment approach is expected to be particularly effective whenit is measured against the available incentives, ensuring that itovershadows all the necessary incentives.
DrugEnforcement Agency. Statisticsand Facts about Crimes.2016. Web. October 28, 2016.https://www.google.com/?gws_rd=ssl#q=drug+Crimes+statistics+US+2015
Snyder.Hei. Patterns& Trends —Arrest in the United States, 1990-2015. U.S.Department of Justice, 2015. Print