Revolutions,Reforms, and Reaction of Tunisia and Syria
Thepolitical disruption in Arab countries during 2011 has brought asignificant transformation in the Middle East and parts of NorthAfrica. The Arab uprisings also known as Arab springs, refers to arevolutionary wave that comprised of both violent and non-violentprotests, and civil wars that started in December 2010. Thedemonstrations began in Tunisia through a Tunisian Revolution andlater spread to other nations of the Arab league. Consequently, theArabia springs resulted in civil wars in Yemen, Libya, Iraq and Syria(News World). Later, the spring led to massive street demonstrationsthat took place in Morocco, Algeria, Kuwait, and Oman among othercountries. Notably, the primary slogan for their demonstrations was“the people want to bring down the regime” (News World).After,the springs in different nations had different reactions andtherefore made particular reforms stop the ongoing demonstrations. In particular, Morocco and Syria are good examples of states thatmade major revolutions and developed improvements as a way of endingcivil wars.
InJanuary 2011, Syria started small peaceful demonstrations, whichlater escalated to internal conflict. The Arab uprisings that beganas Tunisian Revolution quickly spread to Syria in mid-March. Thepeaceful protests began to protest against the torture of studentswho had set up anti-government graffiti (News World). The chaosspread to other parts of the country, and they demanded reforms. Some of the reforms that were campaigned for included allowing ofpolitical parties in the country, the expulsion of President Basharal-Assad, and broad political freedoms such as freedom of speech,assembly, and the press. In an attempt to address the issuespresented by the protestors, the Syrian government declared therevocation of the emergency law that had been in operation sinceSyria attained independence in 1963 (News World). Moreover, thegovernment was given the mandated to suspend all the constitutionalrights. Additionally, the government established the first series ofcrackdowns by sending tanks into agitated cities. The securityofficers used tanks to force protestors off the streets. By October,the estimated number of deaths totaled to 2900 while many otherpeople were left with serious injuries (News World). Later, theSyrian rebels launched the Syrian National Council, which comprisedof representatives from Damascus Declaration Group, the LocalCoordination Committees, Syrian Muslim Brotherhood and otherautonomous and tribal figures.
Onthe other hand, Moroccan series demonstrations began in February 2011and ended in 2012. The protests were primarily caused by the Arabuprisings that were happening in the Middle East and North Africacountries (News World). The demonstrators moved down the streets toprotest against the social, economic and political issues thataffected them since the attainment of independence. Some of theprotesters’ grievances included lack of civil rights, the wide gapbetween the rich and the poor, the high level of illiteracy, poorhealth services, and corruption. The intensity of protest later camedown, following various reasons. First, on March 9, 2011, theMoroccan king made a speech which promised broad reforms in thecountry. Secondly, a new anti-corruption law was made a process thatfacilitated the development of a new constitution. Moreover, themovement that was formed in February 2011 rejected both theparticipation and dialogue in the constitutional referendum.Nonetheless, even after the reforms the Moroccan transition was notentirely attained and has not yet achieved political stability(Kalpakian 13). The demonstrations claimed the lives of 11 peoplewhile some were left with injuries.
Inconclusion, Arab uprisings are political revolts that started inTunisia through a Tunisian Revolution that was formed in 2010. Thedemonstrations later spread to other parts of North Africa and MiddleEast countries. Morocco and Syria are among the countries that wereaffected by the protests. The primary reasons for events includedcorruption, lack of liberty rights, poor economic and politicalpolicies among other issues. To stop the events, the governments inboth countries came with the reforms that helped in minimizing thedemonstrations. Therefore, it is plausible to conclude that the Arabsuprisings were political upheavals that brought a significanttransformation in the Middle East and North Africa states.
Kalpakian,Jack. "Between Reform and Reaction: The Syrian and MoroccanResponses to the Arab Spring." ThePublic Sector Innovation Journal(2013): 1-20.
NewsWorld. Arab uprising: Country by country. BBC. n.d <http://www.bbc.com/news/world-12482291>. Accessed. 5November 2016