(SCZ) is an austere mental issue with a generation danger of around 1percent, portrayed by visualizations, fancies and intellectualdeficiencies with heritability evaluated at up to about 80 percent.Research shows that in every 1000 people, one of them is likely to beSchizophrenic (ISC et al., 2009). This disorder affects individualswithin the age bracket of 16 and 30 where the symptoms of males showat a younger age than those of their female counterparts. In mostinstances, individuals with schizophrenia are distressed andwithdrawn because they are always hallucinating. For example, one mayhear voices and think that other people are controlling his /hermind. He/she may sometimes spend many hours in silence or by beingmotionless. Therefore, this paper will present a research on thecauses, symptoms, management, as well as treatment of schizophrenia.


Thesigns and manifestations of schizophrenia are characterized into fourclasses namely, positive, negative, intellectual, and passionate.The positive indications are those not felt or seen by the peoplearound the patient. These symptoms are usually within the patient anddo not affect other people. They include delusions andhallucinations. Delusions involve the patient`s thoughts beingdisorderly and having distorted beliefs evidenced in various forms.For example, a person may have a feeling of being persecuted.Hallucinations are evidenced when the patient hears voices or seesthings that are not real to a reasonable person. Hallucinations anddelusions are in most cases evidenced when a patient does not realizethat he or she is sick. He instead perceives the other ordinaryindividuals as sick (Gold et al., 2013).

Thenegative symptoms are the ones that deprive the patient his/hernormal body language or body expressions. As a result, the patientwill respond to emotions like happiness in the wrong way. The patientalso lacks the motivation and self-drive to do several things therebyaffecting his/her day-to-day activities such as taking a shower andcooking. He cannot undertake the activities on his own volition.

Thecognitive symptoms can be either positive or negative. They affectthe thinking of the patient. The cognitive dysfunction helps todetermine and predict how functional an individual will be. Cognitivesymptoms include poor concentration, deprived episodic memory,pitiable word processing, reduced verbal memory, and the inability toplan and organize plans. The emotional symptoms are mostly negativeand involve the distortion of one`s feelings (Gold et al., 2013).


Thecauses of schizophrenia have not clearly been established. However,experts believe that schizophrenia is brought about by genetic andenvironmental factors (Howes et al., 2016). According to research,there is a 10 percent risk that one will develop schizophrenia ifhe/she has a first-degree relative who has it. On the other hand,there is a 1 percent risk of developing schizophrenia if one has norelative with the condition (Howes et al., 2016). The imbalance ofdopamine and absence of serotonin in the body are also believed toonset schizophrenia. Unreasonable utilization of medications, such asliquor, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine and some physicianendorsed drugs increment the odds of creating psychotic ailments.This is regarded as the onset of schizophrenia. Although notscientifically proved, environmental factors, such as excessivestress and prenatal and postnatal infections are believed to be amongthe triggers of schizophrenia.


Thediagnosis of schizophrenia is made using the DSM (Diagnostic andStatistical Manual) of mental disorders (DSM) criteria. The DSMcriteria are mostly utilized in the U. S. Before diagnosing a patientwith schizophrenia, the health practitioner must ensure that thepatient`s conditions do not constitute other mental disorders.According to the DSM criteria, a patient must show schizophrenicmanifestations, such as daydreams, mind flights, disarrangeddiscourse, confused conduct, and adverse side effects that havepersisted for over a month. The patient needs to exhibit completeinability to carry out daily chores, such as work duties, cleaning,and attending school, and have symptoms that have persisted for thepast six or more months.


is classified based on the characteristic symptoms that a patientexhibits. The various kinds of schizophrenia include paranoid,hebephrenic, the catatonic, undifferentiated, and the residual, aswell as simple schizophrenia.

Paranoidschizophrenia:- This is the most widely recognized type. Particular visualizationsand daydreams portray it. The speech and emotions of patients withthis condition are not affected. It develops late in life as comparedto the other types.

Hebephrenicschizophrenia:- Commonly develops between the age of 15 and 25. The patient’sbehavior and thoughts are disorganized. The features of patients withparanoid schizophrenia include health complaints, giggling, pranks,and urinating on oneself.

Catatonicschizophrenia:- This is the rarest type of schizophrenia. Individuals exhibitextremely unusual movements such as being still for many hours orwalking around for long hours.

Undifferentiatedschizophrenia:- It combines the characteristics of paranoid, hebephrenic, andcatatonic types.

Residualschizophrenia:- This type affects people who have previously displayed psychoticsymptoms.

Simpleschizophrenia:- This type involves patients experiencing the symptoms very early intheir lives.


Itis hard to prevent schizophrenia since there are no early indicatorsof an individual suffering from the condition. However, people withrelatives who have been affected are highly advised to shun from drugand substance abuse because these are believed to be the causativeagents. Cognitive behavioral therapy may also help reduce the risk ofpsychotic patients developing schizophrenia. Early location andintercession in individuals at ultra-high danger of creatingpsychosis can be useful in averting or postponing the first psychosis(Van der Gaag et al., 2013).


is managed with medication, psychological counseling by psychiatristsand training on self-help or how to do things independently. However,many patients are resistant to taking medication because they do notaccept that they are sick. The nurses are usually advised to devise away to encourage patients to continue taking their medications.Family mediation aims at teaching relatives and helping them adaptbetter to the patient`s condition.


Antipsychoticsare the major drugs used in the psychiatric treatment ofschizophrenic patients. Other drugs, such as those that controldepression and anxiety are also used. However, it should be notedthat antipsychotics only reduce the effects. The drugs usually reducethe positive symptoms of schizophrenia between 8 to 16 days. However,antipsychotics are not efficient in the treatment of negative andcognitive symptoms. They are divided into typical and atypicalantipsychotics. Atypical are regarded as the new generationantipsychotics. They are the most potent drugs with significant sideeffects, such as weight gain and diabetes. They include Risperidone,Olanzapine, and clozapine.

Typicalantipsychotics are the old generation types and have a 50% response.In some cases, patients usually fail to respond to them. Forcountering the failures of the typical antipsychotics, drugs such asClozapine are used in patients who are resistant to the othermedicines. Patients with the bipolar issue have an expanded sicknessload from numerous psychiatric and general therapeutic conditions.Information of the most common comorbid conditions and techniques fortheir counteractive action, early detection, and treatment areessential in enhancing the anticipation of patients with thiscondition (Weberet al., 2009).In addition, research has found a speculative advantage in utilizingminocycline to treat schizophrenia (Inta et al., 2016)). Studies onNidotherapy or endeavors to change the environment of individualswith schizophrenia to enhance their capacity to function are underinvestigation.


Inconclusion, this paper presented a research on the causes, symptoms,management, as well as treatment of schizophrenia. The paperestablished that some individuals respond positively to medicationswhile the condition of others deteriorates. Negative symptoms havebeen a challenge to treat, as they are mostly not improved byprescription. Different factors have been investigated forconceivable advantages in this area.


Gold,J. M., Strauss, G. P., Waltz, J. A., Robinson, B. M., Brown, J. K., &ampFrank, M. J. (2013). Negative symptoms of schizophrenia areassociated with abnormal effort-cost computations. BiologicalPsychiatry,74(2),130-136.

Howes,O.D., McCutcheon, R., Owen, M.J., &amp Murray, R.M. (2016). Therole of genes, stress, and dopamine in the developmentof&nbspschizophrenia.BiologicalPsychiatry,S0006-3223(16)32663-4

International Consortium (ISC)., Purcell, M., Wray, N.R., Stone,J.L., Visscher, P.M., O’Dpnovan, M., Sullivaan, M., &amp Sklar, P.(2009). Common polygenic variation contributes to the risk ofschizophrenia that overlaps with bipolar disorder. Nature,460(7256), 748-52.

Inta,D., Lang, U.E., Borgwardt, S., Meyer-Lindenberg, A., &amp Gass, P.(2016). Microgliaactivation and&nbspschizophrenia: Lessons from the effectsof&nbspminocycline&nbspon postnatal neurogenesis, neuronal survivaland synaptic pruning.Retrieved from

Vander Gaag, M., Smit, F., Bechdolf, A., French, P., Linszen, D. H.,Yung, A. R., McGorry, P., &amp Cuijpers, P. (2013). Preventing afirst episode of psychosis: Meta-analysis of randomized controlledprevention trials of 12 month and longer-term follow-ups.Research,149(1),56-62.

Weber,N. S., Cowan, D. N., Millikan, A. M., &amp Niebuhr, D. W. (2009).Psychiatric and general medical conditions comorbid withschizophrenia in the National Hospital Discharge Survey. PsychiatricServices,60(8), 1059-67.


Thecenter for disease control and Prevention (CDC) defines schizophreniaas a long-term medical condition which involves the breakdown ofbehavior and emotions and thus resulting in faulty perceptions,withdrawals from reality and inappropriate actions and feelings(Olfson et al. 2015). It further states that individuals who arediagnosed with this condition tend to be delusional and have a senseof mental fragmentation. Currently, is the most commonpsychological condition in the world and every year, millions ofpeople are being diagnosed with the condition. Currently, there is nocure for . In terms of the causes, there are biologicaland environmental explanations that have often been used to justifythe origin of the disease. This essay outlines some of the nature ofthe illness, existing epidemiology on , causes anddiagnosis methods and also available management techniques.


Accordingto the National Institute of Mental Health (NIH), it is estimatedthat affects about 1.2% of the population. However, thedisorder often varies from one person to the other. Additionalresearch also indicates that three-quarters of those with usually develop the condition when they are between 16and 25 years of age (Van den Heuvel &amp Fornito, 2014). If detectedearly, the chances of recovery are at 25%. However, only a half ofthose suffering from the condition can receive the appropriatetreatment (Olfson et al. 2015). `s signs and symptomscan be classified as positive and negative. The positive once affectbehavior and make them loose touch with the reality. Examples includehallucinations, thought and movement disorders and delusions.Negative symptoms, on the other hand, tend to disrupt normal behaviorand emotions and include reduced speaking and feeling of pleasure andthe flat effect (Caqueo-Urízar, Fond, Urzúa, Boyer &amp Williams,2016).


Currently,researchers have not been able to state the direct cause of. However, as earlier stated, various biological andenvironmental factors are linked to . A lot of researchpoint out that the condition is highly heritable and as a result, itis linked with genetic defects. In one of the earliest studies thatwere done to affirm if there are links between genetic errors and, it was established that incidences of infamilies which had schizophrenic adoptees were relatively small (2%).The results were, however, different in families whose biologicalparents or siblings had schizophrenia, in such cases, the values wereat 13%. This experiment thus indicates that the disease is linked tohuman genetics. It is, therefore, evident from such an experimentthat even though there is no single gene which causes the disorderitself, several genetic factors tend to increase an individual’ssusceptibility to

Scientistsalso believe that certain environmental factors serve as risk factorsto . Research show that stress and social isolation canalso result in (Mitchell et al. 2013). This is becausestress tends to cause complex imbalances in neurotransmitters such asdopamine and glutamate in the brain. Consequently, during childdevelopment and birth, there may be significant brain damages whichcould result in . Research has also shown that braindevelopment and changes during puberty can also cause or triggerpsychotic symptoms in people who are vulnerable to the condition andthus causing (Mitchell et al. 2013). This theory isusually supported by the fact stating that is oftendiagnosed in persons aged 16 to 25 years old.


Currently,no exact physical laboratory test can be used to diagnose. Diagnosis of , therefore, involves rulingout other mental disorders and successful determination of whetherthe elicited signs and symptoms are caused by drug abuse or thedisease itself. Available diagnosis methods include physicalexamination whereby the health care officer look out for some ofdefinite signs and symptoms associated with . There arealso some tests and screening which can be done to diagnose thecondition. The doctor can request for an MRI or CT scan to evaluateproblems in the brain.

Indiagnosis , it is important to note that the mentalhealth professional or doctor should use the recommended criteriathat have been suggested in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual ofMental Disorders (DSM-5). Others also recommend psychiatricevaluation as a diagnosis method whereby doctors or mental healthprofessional checks the mental health status of the patient byobserving and asking him or her questions about thoughts, substanceabuse, moods among others. The doctor can also look at the patient’spersonal and family history.

Comparing’s diagnosis with other mental disorders

Otherdiseases that fall into the same category with includeDementia, anxiety and bipolar related disorders and trauma andpersonality disorders. Since they are mental conditions, there are noexact diagnosis methods that can be used to detect if an individualis suffering from any of them. Doctors and mental health professionalthus rely on similar techniques with such as physicalobservation, use of MRI or CT scan and psychiatric evaluation(Caqueo-Urízar, Fond, Urzúa, Boyer &amp Williams, 2016). However,the evaluation should be carried out over an extended period so as toeliminate other possibilities such as drug abuse. Consequently, itshould be based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of MentalDisorders (DSM-5) manual.


Physiciansusually prescribe antipsychotic medications to manage .The latest versions are the atypical antipsychotics such as Clozaril,aripiprazole, Risperdal, and Zyprexa. Although these drugs cannot beused to cure the condition, their primary goal is usually to managethe signs and symptoms of . Some doctors may alsorecommend the first generation medicines such as Chlorpromazine,Haloperidol, and Perphenazine (Offord et al. 2013).

Apartfrom the conventional treatment methods, other available methods ofmanaging is through psychosocial treatment wherebypeople are taught on ways of coping with the everyday challenges of. There is also another treatment option such ascoordinated specialty care which mainly incorporates psychosocialtherapies and medications as well as support education and familyinvolvement.

and culture

Researchstates that the perception of mental illness across differentcultures can impact the diagnosis, treatment, and reintegration of aperson who has . On the other hand, since causes mental disruptions, it is evident that the disease mayinterfere with a person`s ability to lead a meaningful life. is found across all cultures and sexes. In terms of itsculture-bound syndromes, it is evident that the cultural concept,values, and beliefs play a major role in the management of, especially in cases where one does not prefer usingwestern medicine. Some of the assessment methods also serve asdiagnosis techniques across different cultures.


Inconclusion, it is, therefore, evident that is a severemental condition and people suffering from the disease should begiven appropriate medical care. The condition is associated withsigns and symptoms such as hallucinations, thought and movementdisorders and delusions. Biological and environmental factors maycause schizophrenia. Available diagnosis strategies include the useof MRI and CT scan and psychiatric evaluation. When it comes to themanagement of , physicians recommend the atypicalantipsychotic drugs.


Caqueo-Urízar,A., Fond, G., Urzúa, A., Boyer, L., &amp Williams, D. R. (2016).Violent behavior and aggression in schizophrenia: Prevalence and riskfactors. A multicentric study from three Latin-Americacountries.&nbspResearch.

Mitchell,A. J., Vancampfort, D., Sweers, K., van Winkel, R., Yu, W., &amp DeHert, M. (2013). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and metabolicabnormalities in schizophrenia and related disorders—a systematicreview and meta-analysis.&nbspBulletin,&nbsp39(2),306-318.

Offord,S., Lin, J., Wong, B., Mirski, D., &amp Baker, R. A. (2013). Theimpact of oral antipsychotic medication adherence on health careresources utilization among schizophrenia patients with Medicarecoverage. Communitymental health journal,&nbsp49(6),625-629.

Olfson,M., Gerhard, T., Huang, C., Crystal, S., &amp Stroup, T. S. (2015).Premature mortality among adults with schizophrenia in the UnitedStates.&nbspJAMAPsychiatry,&nbsp72(12),1172-1181.

Vanden Heuvel, M. P., &amp Fornito, A. (2014). Brain networks inschizophrenia.&nbspNeuropsychologyreview,&nbsp24(1),32-48.