(SCZ) is an austere mental issue with a generation danger of around 1percent, portrayed by visualizations, fancies and intellectualdeficiencies with heritability evaluated at up to about 80 percent.Research shows that in every 1000 people, one of them is likely to beSchizophrenic (ISC et al., 2009). This disorder affects individualswithin the age bracket of 16 and 30 where the symptoms of males showat a younger age than those of their female counterparts. In mostinstances, individuals with schizophrenia are distressed andwithdrawn because they are always hallucinating. For example, one mayhear voices and think that other people are controlling his /hermind. He/she may sometimes spend many hours in silence or by beingmotionless. Therefore, this paper will present a research on thecauses, symptoms, management, as well as treatment of schizophrenia.
Thesigns and manifestations of schizophrenia are characterized into fourclasses namely, positive, negative, intellectual, and passionate.The positive indications are those not felt or seen by the peoplearound the patient. These symptoms are usually within the patient anddo not affect other people. They include delusions andhallucinations. Delusions involve the patient`s thoughts beingdisorderly and having distorted beliefs evidenced in various forms.For example, a person may have a feeling of being persecuted.Hallucinations are evidenced when the patient hears voices or seesthings that are not real to a reasonable person. Hallucinations anddelusions are in most cases evidenced when a patient does not realizethat he or she is sick. He instead perceives the other ordinaryindividuals as sick (Gold et al., 2013).
Thenegative symptoms are the ones that deprive the patient his/hernormal body language or body expressions. As a result, the patientwill respond to emotions like happiness in the wrong way. The patientalso lacks the motivation and self-drive to do several things therebyaffecting his/her day-to-day activities such as taking a shower andcooking. He cannot undertake the activities on his own volition.
Thecognitive symptoms can be either positive or negative. They affectthe thinking of the patient. The cognitive dysfunction helps todetermine and predict how functional an individual will be. Cognitivesymptoms include poor concentration, deprived episodic memory,pitiable word processing, reduced verbal memory, and the inability toplan and organize plans. The emotional symptoms are mostly negativeand involve the distortion of one`s feelings (Gold et al., 2013).
Thecauses of schizophrenia have not clearly been established. However,experts believe that schizophrenia is brought about by genetic andenvironmental factors (Howes et al., 2016). According to research,there is a 10 percent risk that one will develop schizophrenia ifhe/she has a first-degree relative who has it. On the other hand,there is a 1 percent risk of developing schizophrenia if one has norelative with the condition (Howes et al., 2016). The imbalance ofdopamine and absence of serotonin in the body are also believed toonset schizophrenia. Unreasonable utilization of medications, such asliquor, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, nicotine and some physicianendorsed drugs increment the odds of creating psychotic ailments.This is regarded as the onset of schizophrenia. Although notscientifically proved, environmental factors, such as excessivestress and prenatal and postnatal infections are believed to be amongthe triggers of schizophrenia.
Thediagnosis of schizophrenia is made using the DSM (Diagnostic andStatistical Manual) of mental disorders (DSM) criteria. The DSMcriteria are mostly utilized in the U. S. Before diagnosing a patientwith schizophrenia, the health practitioner must ensure that thepatient`s conditions do not constitute other mental disorders.According to the DSM criteria, a patient must show schizophrenicmanifestations, such as daydreams, mind flights, disarrangeddiscourse, confused conduct, and adverse side effects that havepersisted for over a month. The patient needs to exhibit completeinability to carry out daily chores, such as work duties, cleaning,and attending school, and have symptoms that have persisted for thepast six or more months.
is classified based on the characteristic symptoms that a patientexhibits. The various kinds of schizophrenia include paranoid,hebephrenic, the catatonic, undifferentiated, and the residual, aswell as simple schizophrenia.
Paranoidschizophrenia:- This is the most widely recognized type. Particular visualizationsand daydreams portray it. The speech and emotions of patients withthis condition are not affected. It develops late in life as comparedto the other types.
Hebephrenicschizophrenia:- Commonly develops between the age of 15 and 25. The patient’sbehavior and thoughts are disorganized. The features of patients withparanoid schizophrenia include health complaints, giggling, pranks,and urinating on oneself.
Catatonicschizophrenia:- This is the rarest type of schizophrenia. Individuals exhibitextremely unusual movements such as being still for many hours orwalking around for long hours.
Undifferentiatedschizophrenia:- It combines the characteristics of paranoid, hebephrenic, andcatatonic types.
Residualschizophrenia:- This type affects people who have previously displayed psychoticsymptoms.
Simpleschizophrenia:- This type involves patients experiencing the symptoms very early intheir lives.
Itis hard to prevent schizophrenia since there are no early indicatorsof an individual suffering from the condition. However, people withrelatives who have been affected are highly advised to shun from drugand substance abuse because these are believed to be the causativeagents. Cognitive behavioral therapy may also help reduce the risk ofpsychotic patients developing schizophrenia. Early location andintercession in individuals at ultra-high danger of creatingpsychosis can be useful in averting or postponing the first psychosis(Van der Gaag et al., 2013).
is managed with medication, psychological counseling by psychiatristsand training on self-help or how to do things independently. However,many patients are resistant to taking medication because they do notaccept that they are sick. The nurses are usually advised to devise away to encourage patients to continue taking their medications.Family mediation aims at teaching relatives and helping them adaptbetter to the patient`s condition.
Antipsychoticsare the major drugs used in the psychiatric treatment ofschizophrenic patients. Other drugs, such as those that controldepression and anxiety are also used. However, it should be notedthat antipsychotics only reduce the effects. The drugs usually reducethe positive symptoms of schizophrenia between 8 to 16 days. However,antipsychotics are not efficient in the treatment of negative andcognitive symptoms. They are divided into typical and atypicalantipsychotics. Atypical are regarded as the new generationantipsychotics. They are the most potent drugs with significant sideeffects, such as weight gain and diabetes. They include Risperidone,Olanzapine, and clozapine.
Typicalantipsychotics are the old generation types and have a 50% response.In some cases, patients usually fail to respond to them. Forcountering the failures of the typical antipsychotics, drugs such asClozapine are used in patients who are resistant to the othermedicines. Patients with the bipolar issue have an expanded sicknessload from numerous psychiatric and general therapeutic conditions.Information of the most common comorbid conditions and techniques fortheir counteractive action, early detection, and treatment areessential in enhancing the anticipation of patients with thiscondition (Weberet al., 2009).In addition, research has found a speculative advantage in utilizingminocycline to treat schizophrenia (Inta et al., 2016)). Studies onNidotherapy or endeavors to change the environment of individualswith schizophrenia to enhance their capacity to function are underinvestigation.
Inconclusion, this paper presented a research on the causes, symptoms,management, as well as treatment of schizophrenia. The paperestablished that some individuals respond positively to medicationswhile the condition of others deteriorates. Negative symptoms havebeen a challenge to treat, as they are mostly not improved byprescription. Different factors have been investigated forconceivable advantages in this area.
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Howes,O.D., McCutcheon, R., Owen, M.J., & Murray, R.M. (2016). Therole of genes, stress, and dopamine in the developmentof schizophrenia.BiologicalPsychiatry,S0006-3223(16)32663-4
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