Warof 1812 was a conflict between the United States of America forcesand the British Empire. Because the British feared that trade withthe United States was harmful for the battle with France, they endedup restricting trade between them. Additionally, the British forcesfeared that the United States’ forces wanted to set up an IndianState in the West in order to maintain a strong influence in theregion. This explains why more than 10,000 Native American engaged infighting on the British side in the war. Additionally, since Canada,back then, was a colony of the British, Canadians were allies of theBritish army. The paper discusses the War of 1812, its causes, warbreakouts, mixed results for American forces and the impacts of thewar on human, economical and political environment.
Inthe 1812 war, it is believed that the United States of America tookon the Great Britain who were considered to as the world’s greatestpower, in a form of conflict that would seriously harm the country’sfuture. The British attempts to restrict the US trade are one of thecauses of the war. In this aspect, the United States encountered alot of sufferings in hands of the British, the American troops andthe Canadians. The United States capital, Washington D.C, was burntand destroyed in the year 18141.However, with an attempt to boost national confidence and fosterpatriotism, the American troops succeeded in repulsing the Invasionof the British in New York, New Orleans and Baltimore.
On17thFebruary, 1815, it is said that the Ghent treaty was ratified andthis brought to an end the war but it left a lot of crucial questionsunanswered. Many people in the United States celebrated the 1812 warbecause they viewed it as “the second independence war”,therefore marking the beginning of the era referred to as the periodof partisan conformity, which brought about national pride2.
Causeof the 1812 war
TheGreat Britain had been locked out in a rather long and bitterdisagreement with Napoleon Bonaparte’s of France, towards the endof the 19thCentury. In an attempt to try and hinder crucial supplies fromreaching and being in possession by the enemy, both sides tried asmuch as possible to prevent the United States from engaging in anyform of trade with the other. An order was passed by Britain in theyear 1807 in its council, instructing that other neutral nations geta license from its council authorities before engaging in any form oftrade with France and any other French colony. Royal navy, out of itspractice, enraged the Americans by removing the US sea men from theirvessels and forcing them to be the British servants3.However, the US repelled Thomas Jefferson’s Embargo act in the year1809 because they believed that the restriction of trade had hurt theAmericans more than any other country, more that France and Britainto be specific. However, there was a replacement of the embargo act,referred to as the Non-intercourse Bill, which outlawed and hinderedtrade with France and Britain. The bill established to be ineffectiveand it ended up being replaced in May 1810 with an Act that statedthat if either of the states revoked and dropped operationrestrictions with the USA, the congress would therefore resumenon-intercourse with the existing opposing control. Napoleon gave ahint that he was willing to stop the limitations, and thereforePresident James Madison made an attempt of blocking all operationwith the British in November 1810. New elected members into thecongress in the year 1810, led by Henry Clay and John Calhoun,agitated for war because of British violations over the rights of themarine and the fact that Britain encouraged native America’shostility against the United States’ expansion in the west4.
The1812 war break outs
WilliamHenry Harrison, theIndianaGovernor led the United States of America troops to victory in theTippecanoe battle in the year 1811. The defeat swayed Indians in theNorthwest and made them succeed in pushing the American settlers andpreventing them from taking them out of their land, they neededBritish support. The “War hawks” put a lot of pressure on Madisonin the year 1811, and in 18thJune 1812, the president had to sign a statement of war against theGreat Britain. However, the USA congress voted for the war, thesenate and the house were alienated regarding the whole issue. Mostcongress men from the western and southern part supported the war5.However, in as much as the congressmen from the west and the southsupported the war, the Federalists, especially people from Englandwho heavily relied on trade with Britain, made an accusation to theadvocates of war that they used the maritime rights excuse toadvocate for and promote their own agenda.
UnitedStates forces almost attacked Canada, which was a British colonythen, in order to strike back at Great Britain. The officials fromAmerica were optimistic that the invasion would turn out to be asuccess, especially owing to the fact that the United States’troops were underprepared as at that time. The US troops faced awell-managed and coordinated defense, managed by Sir Isaac Brock, whowas both an Administrator in charge of Upper Canada and Britishsoldier, which the modern Ontario. However, 16thAugust 1812, Brock and Tecumseh’s forces succeeded in casing theforces led by Michigan William Hull, making Hull surrender Detroitwithout firing any shots. Michigan William Hull forces being chasedby those of Brock was a humiliating kind of defeat.
1812war and the mixed results for American forces
Inthe year 1813, Oliver Hazard Perry succeeded in the Lake Erie battlethereby placing the Northwest region under the Americans control.This looked better for the US in the west. In the battle of Thames,Oliver Harrison succeeded in retaking Detroit. It is said that it isin same Battle of Thames that Tecumseh was killed. Meanwhile, it issaid that the United States’ army recorded a number of triumphsover the Royal army in the early period of the 1812 war. Britaineventually turned and directed its efforts and attention to the warin North America in April 1814, the same time Napoleon’s army wasdefeated. Because relatively large number rot troops arriving, theBritish army succeeded in raiding the Chesapeake Bay and consequentlywent into the USA capital, and ended up confining Washington D.C on24thAugust, 1814 and destroying and burning up state buildings, thatincludes the white house and the capital. McHenrywithstood a total of twenty-five hours of attack from the BritainNavy, on 13thSeptember, 1814. Baltimore’s fort soldiers, the following morningafter the bombardment, hoisted the American flag. The sight ofhoisting the America flag encouraged Francis Scott to write “Thestar-Spangled Banner” poem which was later adopted as the UnitedStates National Anthem. According to RCGS and Parks Canada, theBritish army or rather forces finally left the Chesapeake Bay andstarted collecting efforts to trigger a movement against the NewOrleans6The end of the 1812 war andthe impactsAfterthe failure of Baltimore’s assault, Britain moved and sought forand armistice, at the time that peace talks had already beeninitiated at Ghent, the present day Belgium. However, it is said thatin the negotiations that were later on initiated, the USA gave up itsown demands to bring to a conclusion of the impressments.Additionally, the British forces agreed to vacate Canada’s bordersand consequently gave up on efforts to form an Indian State in theNorth West part. The Ghent treaty was later signed by commissionerson 24thDecember, 1814 and was ratified on February 1815. The British army,unaware that peace conclusions had already been made, attacked NewOrleans on 8thJanuary, 1815, only to be defeated in the hands of the United States’army, which was led by President Andrew Jackson7.The victory in the battle boosted the United States confidence,despite the fact that the United States of America had not attainedits pre-war aims.Thoughthe war of 1812 is considered as one of the minor conflicts in boththe Britain and United States of America, it largely looms for allNative Americans and Canadians, who view it as a spinning point intheir effort to try in governing themselves. War of 1812 haddetrimental, far reaching impacts in the USA because the Ghent treatybrought to an end bitter partisan in fighting in the government andbrought in the new era commonly known as “The era of goodfeelings”. The impact of the 1812 war was that is brought to an endthe Federalist Party, that, for long, had been harshly blamed ofpracticing un-patriotism in it is anti-wars stances. The outcome ofthe war contributed a great deal in boosting national confidence andwent ahead and encouraged a spirit of American Expansionism thatwould later contribute in shaping the 19thcentury. ConclusionInconclusions, the 1812 war was military conflict between the UnitedStates troops and the Great Britain troops. However, Canada, Beingthe Great Britain colony then, found herself in the war and theyended up encountering a number of invasions from the Americansbecause they were British allies. The disagreements that lasted formore than two decades after Napoleon Bonaparte were the major causesof the 1812 war. The Napoleon war agitated the Great Britain todevelop and implement measures that later greatly caused aggravationto the United States. In an attempt to respond to Napoleon, GreatBritain in the year 1807 in its council, instructed that otherneutral nations acquire licenses from its council authorities beforeengaging in any form of trade with France and any other Frenchcolony.BibliographyBonura,Michael A. Underthe Shadow of Napoleon: French Influence on the American Way ofWarfare from the War of 1812 to the Outbreak of WWII.New York: New York University Press, 2012.Dudley,Wade. "War of 1812." 2016. Accessed November 4, 2016.http://www.historynet.com/war-of-1812#articles.Grodzinski,John R, Donald E Graves, and Major John R Grodzinski. Defenderof Canada: Sir George Prevost and the War of 1812.Norman, OK, United States: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013.Institution,Smithsonian. Math and measuring the Star – Spangled Banner. 2008.Skeen,C.E., 2015. CitizenSoldiers in the War of 1812.University Press of Kentucky.RCGSand Parks Canada 2011. "War of 1812." 2011. AccessedNovember 4, 2016. http://www.eighteentwelve.ca/?q=eng/Topic/2.
1 Michael A. Bonura, Under the Shadow of Napoleon: French Influence on the American Way of Warfare from the War of 1812 to the Outbreak of WWII (New York: New York University Press, 2012).
2 Wade Dudley, "War of 1812," 2016, accessed November 4, 2016, http://www.historynet.com/war-of-1812#articles.
3 John R Grodzinski, Donald E Graves, and Major John R Grodzinski, Defender of Canada: Sir George Prevost and the War of 1812 (Norman, OK, United States: University of Oklahoma Press, 2013).
4 Smithsonian Institution, Math and measuring the Star – Spangled Banner, 2008
65 RCGS and Parks Canada 2011, "War of 1812," 2011, accessed November 4, 2016, http://www.eighteentwelve.ca/?q=eng/Topic/2.
76 Skeen, C.E., 2015. Citizen Soldiers in the War of 1812. University Press of Kentucky.