Seventeen Questions Q. 1




Asocial minority are groups of individuals that are subordinate in asociety without the consideration of numbers. These people do nothave full control over their personal lives and have minimalopportunities in terms of politics and the economy. They differ fromthe majority group by their language or color distinctions.

Thefour principle minority groups are religion, race, gender, andethnicity (Schaefer, 7). In the United States of America, thedominant religion are the Protestants, while the others including theRoman Catholics, Amish, Buddhists, Mormons, demonic Cults or Sects,and Muslims, are subordinates. In terms of race, social minority andmajority dissimilarities are attributed primarily to discerniblephysical differences with skin color being crucial. With this, theUnited States conventionally classifies its people as White or Black.However, the country’s dominant group is the White, while thesubordinate groups include the Chinese Americans, Blacks, JapaneseAmericans, Native Americans, Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Arab Americansalong with other Asian individuals (Schaefer, 8).

Further,the gender majority groups are males in spite of the numerous femalenumbers. As a social minority, women experience discrimination andprejudice due to their physical differentiations. Since being afemale member automatic, they have an established solidarity despitesuffering in a unique manner if affiliated to other ethnic or racialminorities. Lastly, ethnic majority and minority groups differ due toculture based on parenting and marriage attitudes, food habits, andlanguage or original nationality (Schaefer, 8). Upon migration intothe U.S, immigrants may uphold worship, associations, and clubs thatmaintain their individual cultural practices.


Arace social construction is a concept that explains an oppressor’sability to benefit from societal resources by defining privileged andunprivileged groups. Usually the oppressor is a social majority groupallowing hierarchical race constructs. Sociologists claim raceinvolves individuals who are physically different and havedistinguishing disabilities or mental and emotional capacities(Schaefer, 14). Despite this, race has no biological meaning becausebiology has no evidence of the various races. The humandeoxyribonucleic acid mapping using the human genome project confirmsonly genetic diversity (Schaefer, 12). Major contracts experiencedobservation within the conventionally classified racial groups likethe Black Africans when compared to two groups such as Europeans andBlack Africans. Further, racial formations are socio-historicalconstructs that allow the creation, transformation, distraction, andinhabitation of racial categories depending on the racist socialstructure. Q.3

Sociologistshave diverse perceptions of the society. These viewpoints includestability and enduring societies, as well as, clashing multiplesocietal groups in competition for rare resource that may result instigmatization or labeling. In a wider scale, present sociologistsdefine societies using the following perspectives: functionalist,conflict, and labeling (Schaefer, 20). The functionalist standpointalludes that the different societal parts are structured forstability maintenance otherwise collaboration failure will notassure the survival of future generations. The perspective providesadvantageous functions for racists. It relieves the dominant groupfrom responsibilities relating to addressing the subordinateseducational and economical issues. Therefore, the perspectivejustifies and supports the structure of the current society thatallows the deprivation of privileges and rights of the subordinategroup since any change may result to their assistance.

Onthe other hand, the conflict viewpoint believes that socialstructures undergo great understanding based on the competing group’stensions or conflicts (Schaefer, 21). The struggles are due tostructural and economic inequalities in housing, education, healthcare, and the labor marketplace between the exploited and fortunate.Under this theory, the subordinates experience criticisms regardingtheir low status even though the dominating group plays a role in it.They place no responsibility on the minority issues on the societydespite it being the sole contributor. Lastly, the labeling theoryrelates to the conflict perspective but identifies how negativestereotypes influence ethnicity and race. When the social majorityapply stereotypes, minority groups suffer even if they wronglyidentified. Owing to this, the labeled group is discriminated uponsince the dominant group is often responsible for defining society’svalues.


Althoughthe terms prejudice and discrimination relate, they differ. Prejudiceis generally the negative beliefs or attitudes directed on entireclassifications of individuals (Schaefer, 46). Conversely,discrimination are behaviors or actions, which deny people equalrights and opportunities because of prejudice or other reasons.However, both support categorical rejection but with uniqueexceptions related to discrimination. One practices discrimination ifthey act negatively on their beliefs associated with anotherindividual.


Whiteprivilege describes certain benefits that the white people enjoy justbecause of their race. In agreement with Peggy McIntosh theseprivileges include having an individual rather than a racialgeneralization of voice, deemed financially reliable as far as cash,checks, and credit cards are concerned (Schaefer, 49). Additionally,they acquire job positions without others assuming that it wasrace-based, openly participating in group discussions without beingassociated with their race, and making assumptions that their racewill work with them when matters health or legal aid arise. Despitethis, some White people languish in poverty due to these presumptionsand decide not to work thinking these benefits will be offered tothem all the time.


Thereare four prejudice theories, which include the scapegoating,authoritarian personality, exploitation, and normative approaches(PowerPoint ch2). Prejudiced individuals under the scapegoatingperspective believe themselves to be victims or transfer failureresponsibilities to vulnerable groups rather than accepting theirpart in them. For example, dominant Americans blame the minority fortheir inability to secure resources making them the scapegoats.Authoritarian personality influences prejudice through harsh lessonsand upbringing that affect personality traits more. Here, people tendto develop hostility to individuals who fail to adhere to traditionalnorms or authority regulations.

Additionally,the exploitation approach justifies the subordinate group’sposition as economically inadequate borrowing from Marxism (Schaefer,51). Therefore, the dominant groups use the social minority toachieve economic advantage. Lastly, the normative viewpoint entailssituations and society notions, which applaud or deter minoritytolerance depending on what they favor. If a society deems one raceprivileged or unprivileged then everyone within it developsprejudice.


Itis apparent that stereotypes affect people’s interactions due toeither positive or negative generalizations of a group. If one feelsanother individual believes in inaccurate stereotypes towards him orher, communication will suffer making effective collaboration towardspositive projects difficult. Racial profiling are police-institutedactions that are national origin, ethnicity, or race dependentinstead of personal behavior (PowerPoint, Ch2). The process involveslaw enforcement officer’s assumptions concerning individuals thatfit into particular descriptions with regard to their association inillegal activities.


Inagreement with PowerPoint (Ch2), color-bind racism utilizesrace-impartial principles in an effort to guard against the currentracial situation. It is also called post-racialism, aversive racism,or laissez-faire.


Therehave been several studies aimed at reducing racism in societies withsome focuses on education and mass media. Schaefer (64) claimseffective education programs have positive effects in prejudicereduction since they promote racial tolerance. The system allowsdiverse social groups to interact ensuring that they question thestiff categorizations or even reject them. Education may teach peopleproper responses to minimize racism. Additionally, therepresentations on mass media are likely to influence peoplenegatively or positively in terms of prejudice. If these mediaplatforms campaign against prejudice, then they will influence manypeople to reduce their prejudice notions. Further, individuals orcommunities may limit prejudice by uniting different races in socialevents, introducing cultural campaigns that celebrate diversity, andsupport prejudice victims by acting responsibly.


Relativedeprivation is a form of discrimination where despite oneexperiencing better opportunities in the U.S, they still feeldiscriminated upon when they compare their lives to the majoritypeople in the country. Conversely, absolute deprivation assumes afixed benchmark where even if individuals get to higher positions ina society, they face continual discrimination in accordance to theirhistory.

DevahPager’s research that involved four tester male subjects of twoWhite and two Black men proved that Black people undergodiscrimination in job markets despite being law abiding.Additionally, it confirmed white privileges since many organizationwould rather higher a White man holding a criminal record in place ofan honest Black citizen.


TheUnited States defines hate crimes where offenders get motivation toperform normal crimes on victims that have certain traits becausethey hate them (PowerPoint, Ch3). The most evident motivations informal reports include religion, ethnicity, disability, race, andsexual orientation. However, these reports just highlight minimalcases since the extent of hate crimes are vast in the country’sstreets. Bias crimes attract harsher penalties since they are inequal status as terrorism.


Institutionaldiscrimination entails depriving people equal opportunities andrights in the normal societal operations like employment, healthcare,education, and criminal justice among other (Schaefer, 85). Thediscriminations involve IQ tests that favor White middle classchildren owing to the included queries and the domination of Whitesin criminal justice systems with little understanding ofpoverty-stricken areas. Further, they include higher job experiencesfor job positions presently accessible to minority groups and asubordinate group difficulty in gaining credit-risk examinationstandards when aspiring to create a business because they have notraditional credit references. Multiple job positions inevitablydisqualify felony holders or previous drug offenders affecting peopleof color unsymmetrically. The voter ID laws are problematic sincethey deny individuals with felonies their right to vote despite beingaffected by the outcome of the voting process. Since the number islarge, democracy is not fully practiced since not all voices in thecountry are heard.


Institutionaldiscrimination is extensive in the United States and fueled byindividual prejudices. Despite it being difficult to measure thisconcept, income data or wealth data can undergo utilization tounderstand the extent of the matter. According to Schaefer (91),income data presents inequalities among the Whites and AfricanAmericans, as well as, males and females. The White men’s medianincome is $51,509 while that of the Black men and Hispanic women are$40,108 and $27,857 respectively. Due to this disparity, it isevident that the Whites have more wealth compared to Asians, Blacks,and Hispanics. Therefore, wealth dissimilarity is a discriminationlegacy since social majorities enjoy higher incomes and dictate theincomes awarded to social minorities even with the necessaryqualifications.


Environmentalracism entails the dumping of hazardous materials near minoritycommunities (PowerPoint, Ch3). For instance, African Americans livingnear Gulf Oil’s three oil pits complained of high lupus, cancer,and other diseases rates because poisonous chemicals polluted theirwater supply. However, environmental justice guarantees the controlof hazardous materials to protect every majority or minority citizen.


AffirmativeAction programs help deal with prior and present discriminations thatlock people out of education, job, and promotion opportunitiesthrough introducing equality policies. However, the concept attractscontroversies since some majority individuals were denied theirrights despite qualification due to fixed minority quota system as inthe Regents of the University of California v Bakke case (Schaefer,104).


Reverseracism carries the notion social minorities including women willeventually subject the Whites to similar discrimination treatmentsfaced over the previous three centuries.Harvard applicationpolicies 40% Harvard alumni children applicants are primarily Whiteand gain admission in contrast with the 11% non-alumni (Schaefer,108). However, the alumni children are prone to academic trouble thanminority students. On the other hand, CIT application policiesadvocate for minority inclusion in campus however, they includequalifies candidates affiliated with any social group. Such actionsensure that students perform well academically since they were notfavored.


Aracism free society would be peaceful with minimal conflictsresulting from resource competition. It will ensure that the peoplecollaborate to the success of the country because harmony results inhigh security, which enhances motivation to work. The US would enjoyeconomy prosperity since everyone will work to his or her fullcapacity.


Richard,T. Schaefer. Raceand Ethnicity in the US, 8thEdition. 1-210. Prentice Hall, 2015